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Scottish philosopher and economist (1723-1790). The he wrote on nearly every subject of moral and social philosophy, he is basically remembered as the other of An Inquiry into the nature and causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) and as the creator of the metaphor of the "invisible hand." This work more-or-less single-handedly founded the Classical school of economics
Adam Smith
American economist (1912-). Conservative thinker famous for his advocacy of monetarism (a revision of the quanitity theory of money) in works like A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960 (1963). He is strongly associated with the ideals of laissez-faire government policy.
Milton Friedman
German economist, historian, and social philosopher (1818-1883). His principal contribution to economic thought was extending the labor theory of value to its logical conclusion, his theory of surplus value. This theory, along with his defense of economic materialism, appeared in Das Kapital.
Karl Marx
English economist (1883-1946). He is most famous for The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1936), which judged most of classical economic analysis to be a special case (hence "General Theory") and argued that the best way to deal with prolonged recessions was deficit spending.
John Maynard Keynes
English economist (1772-1823). He is best known for Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, which introduced more-or-less modern notions of comparative advantage and its theoretical justification for unfettered international trade. He also put forth the so-called 'iron law of wages'.
David Ricardo
Canadian economist (1908-). Known for his liberal popular writings like The Affluent Society and The New Industrial State (with their emphasis on public service and the limitations of the marketplace).
John Kenneth Galbraith
French economist (1694-1774). Undisputed leader of the Physiocrats, the first systematic school of economic thought. Among its tenets were the economic and moral righteousness of laissez-faire policies and the notion that land was the ultimate source of all wealth
Francois Quesnay
English economist (1842-1924). His Magnum opus, 1890's Principles of Economics, introduced the notions of consumer surplus, quasi-rent, demand curves, and elasticity, all fundamental concepts in introductory macro- and microeconomics
Alfred Marshall
American economist (of Norwegian heritage) (1857-1929). Primarily remembered for his The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899), that indroduced phrases like "conspicuous consumption." He is remembered for likening the ostentation of the rich to the Darwinian proofs-of-virility found in the animal kingdom
Thorstein Veblen
British economist and social philosopher (1806-1873). Mainly known today for his work extending the ideas of Ricardo in Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy (1844), for example, the relationship between profits and wages. Also known for exhaustively examining the necessity of private property in his Principles of Political Economy (1848)
John Stuart Mill
House of Bourbon (1638-1715, r. 1643-1715). His reign is often cited as the best historical example of an absolute monarchy. Louis led France against most of the rest of Europe to win the throne of Spain for his grandson (the War of Spanish Succession). He championed classical art, religious orthodoxy, and instituted a great program of building throughout France. Know as the "Sun King," his 72-year reign is the second longest in recorded history.
Louis XIV
House of Bourbon (1601-1643, r. 1610-1643). Sometimes working with his chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu, and sometimes against, Louis XII turned France into the pre-eminent European power during his reign. This was largely achieved via French victories in the Thirty Years' War. The Three Musketeers is set in the early years of his reign.
Louis XIII
House of Valois (1494-1547, r. 1515-1547). His early military victories (like the Battle of Marignano), his lavish court, and his support of luminaries like Leonardo da Vinci augured a splendid reign. His rivalry with Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire spelled his doom, however. He was captured in battle in 1525 and held for a humiliating ransom. Wars continued after his release, but bankruptcy and religious strife laid France low.
Francis I
Founder of the house of Bourbon (1553-1610, r. 1589-1610). This king of Navarre became heir to the throne when Henry III's brother died in 1584. After fighting Catholic opposition in the War of the Three Henries, he renounced Protestantism and accepted Catholicism in order to enter Paris and become king. With the help of Maximilien Sully he erased the national debt and removed much religious strife with the Edict of Nantes (1598).
Henry IV
House of Capet (1165-1223, r. 1179-1223). He was the first of the great Capetian kings of France. Fighting and negotiating against Henry II, Richard I, and John of England, he won back Normandy, Brittany, Anjou, and other territories. He took part in the famous Third Crusade (with Richard I and Frederick Barbarossa) and made use of the Aligensian crusade to pave the way for the annexation of Languedoc by his successor.
Philip II
House of Valois (1470-1498, r. 1483-1498). His short reign is remarkable for the enormous cost in men and money of his Italian campaign but more so for the number of his successors that followed his catastrophic lead. He was motivated by a desire to govern Naples, which he had theoretically inherited. He died before he could surpass or absolve his disastrous first campaign with another.
Charles VIII
House of Capet (1214-1270, r. 1226-1270). He lead the Seventh Crusade that ended in military disaster, but after his ransoming he remained in the Holy Land to successfully negotiate for what he couldn't win. He returned to Europe with his reputation intact and negotiated a peace with England that saw Henry III become his vassal. He stabilized the French currency and is generally held to have reduced corruption in the kingdom. He died leading a crusade against Tunisia. He is the only canonized king of France.
Louis IX
House of Capet (1187-1226, r. 1223-1226). Though he reined for only three years, his contributions to the rise of French power were enormous. He annexed Languedoc and captured Poitou from England. Perhaps more importantly, he established the system of appanages (land grants) which replaced the older, local nobles with barons who owed their fiefs to the crown. This allowed for the subsequent rise in French royal power.
Louis VIII
House of Capet (1338-1380, r. 1364-1380). He had an inauspicious start (before his reign even began) with having to ransom his father, John II, from England for three million crowns and most of southwestern France. Later, with military advisor Bertrand du Guesclin, he recaptured almost all of that territory. He also concluded alliances with Portugal, Spain, and Flanders, reorganized the army, and restructured the collection of taxes while leading France's recovery from the devastation of the early period of the Hundred Years' War.
Charles V
House of Valois (1551-1589, r. 1574-1589). His reign was suffused with blood, at first because of the contintious Wars of Religion that pitted Catholics against Huguenots, but later because of the struggles that arose when it became clear that he was going to be the last of the Valois line. The War of the Three Henries broke out after his brother died and then-Protestant Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV) became heir, leading the Catholic Holy League to strike out of fear for its interests. He was assassinated by a crazed friar in 1589.
Henry III
(1940-) (Brazil-Forward) Also known as "the Black Pearl," he led the Brazilian national team to three World Cup victores in 1958, 1962, and 1970 (though he was injured for most of the '62 finals) and to permanent possession of the Jules Rimet Trophy. In his professional and international career, he played in 1,363 matches and scored 1,282 goals. He made his professional debut with Brazil's Santos in 1956 and played with them until 1974. In 1975, he came out of retirement to promote the game in the United States; He later became Brazil's Minister of Sport, and in 1999, the National Olympic Committees named him the IOC's Athelete of the Century, despite his never having partaken in an Olympic Games
Pele (Edson Arantes do Nascimento)
(1945-) (West Germany-Sweeper) Nicknamed "Der Kaiser," hes the only man ever to win the World Cup as both team captain and manager
Franz Beckenbauer
(1972-) (United States-Forward) The youngest American ever to play for a US national team; UNC Chapel Hill alum, two world cups (1991 and 1999) and one gold winning Olympic team. Holds the all-time international scoring record.
Mia Hamm
(1915-2000) (England-Winger) Known as "Wizard of Dribble", closed his international carrer in 1956 being named the first-ever European Footballer of the Year. Never had red card his entire career. First english footballer to be knighted.
Sir Stanley Matthews
(1960-) (Argentina-Forward) Perpetrator of the imfamous "Hand of God" goal, in which he directed the ball into the net with his hand illegally, undetected by officials.
Diego Maradona
(1947-) (Netherlands-Midfielder) Helped usher in the system of "total football," in which all positions should be equally willing and adept to play all portions of the game. In 1974 he helped the "Orange" to their first appearance in the World Cup final, where they lost to Wester Germany in Munich
Johann Cryuff
(1955-) (France-Midfielder) Arguably France's greatest footballer, won three stright European Footballer of the Year Awards beginning in 1983
Michel Platini
(1976-) (Brazil-Forward) Twice World Footballer of the Year, in 1997 and 1998. He was on the Brazil squad that won World Cup 94 in the US. Won a tournament MVP award in 1998 World Cup, but his poor showing, blamed by the media on an all-night session of Playstations "Tomb Raider", keep Brazil from its fifth title
Ronaldo (Ronaldo Luiz Nazario da Lima)
(1975-) (England-Midfielder) Known as much for his talent as his marriage to Victoria Adams, better known as "Posh Spice." Made an obscene gesture to English fans at the opening game of Euro 2000
David Beckham
(1972-) (France) The 1998 World and European Footballer of the Year is an all-around player in France's midfield. Critical player in the World Cup '98. Known the world over as Zizou
Zinedine Zidane
After the Battle of Lexington, he joined Ethan Allen in the attack on Fort Ticonderoga. Appointed by Washington to capture Quebec, he was severely wounded. Arming a flotilla on lake Champlain, he attacked the British fources at Valcour Island, earning accolades. Sent to command Philadelphia, he lived extravagantly among Loyalists. After marrying Peggy Shippen, he made overtures to the British, alerting them to a plan to invade Canada, and planning to betray is expected command of West Point. Later, as part of the British army, he raided New London, Connecticut, and led several raids on Virginia
Benedict Arnold
"Gentleman Johnny," as he was known (he was also a playwright), he began is Revolutionary War career under Gage, returning to England after ineffectiveness in 1774-5. Captured Fort Ticonderoga, but met resistance when he sent his Hessians to attack Bennington. His troops met trouble at Saratoga, beign repulsed at Freedman's Farm, and being forced to surrender after Bemis Heights. He returned to England, and was later appointed commander-in-chief of Ireland
John Burgoyne
An aristocrat and ensign, he fought in the battle of Minden and by the end of the Seven Years War, he was a captain. Promoted to Major General before being sent to America. Failed assault on Charleston; served under Henry Clinton in the battle of Long Island, but made his mark in fighting at Manhattan and Pursued Washington across the Hudson. He was outmaneuvered by washington at Princeton. He directed the main attack on Brandywine Creek as part of the plan to capture Philadelphia. Led the battle of Monmouth. Bested Horatio Gates at Camden (N.C.) and Nathaniel Greene at Guilford Courthouse, the latter a pyrrhic victory which likely led to his defeat in attempts to contain Lafayette in Virginia. He occupied Yorktown in August 1781, where he was surrounded and forced to surrender. Later appointed governor-general of India.
Charles Cornwallis, First Marquess of Cornwallis
Wounded in F&I War attack on Fort Duquesne, it was there he met George Washington. Under Washington, organized the Boston army into an effective force and was promote to major general in 1776. Directed the defense of New York against Burgoyne's invasion attempt, leading to victory at Saratoga. Became involved in the Conway cabal, an attempt to replace Washington. Lost the battle of Camden to Cornwallis and was replaced by Nathaniel Greene.
Horatio Gates
Irish-born, he led grenadiers across the Plains of Abraham in the 1759 siege of Quebec under General Wolfe. He entered the war as 2nd in command to Thomas Gage before taking command after Gages recall. He repulsed efforts by Montgomery and Benedict Arnold to capture Montreal and Quebec, routing a second attempt by Arnold by defeated an American naval buildup on Lake Champlain. Sat out all but the end of the war, returning in 1782 as commander-in-chief after Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown
Sir Guy Carleton
A Prominent Rhode Island politician; partially lame. Led forces to victory in the Battle of Trenton, and protected Washington in the Battle of Brandywine. Led the main force at Germantown. Led troops in the Battle of Monmouth. Replaced Benedict Arnold, and sent south following Gates loss at Camden. Retreated from Cornwallis until a crippling counterattack at Guilford Courthouse
Nathaniel Greene
A veteran of the siege of Louisbourg and the leader of the ascent to the Plains of Abraham (Quebec, 1759), he was dispatched in 1775 as second in command to Gage. Directed the attack on Bunker Hill and succeeded Gage as commander. After his attempts to secure peace in 1777 failed, he led the attack on Philadelphia, defeating Washington at Brandywine. Relinquished command to Sir Henry Clinton.
Sir William Howe
Polish-born and trained, he assisted the Americans, helping to fortify the Delaware River in 1776. Planned the building of Ft. Mercer and built fortifications which helped win the battle of Saratoga. Distinguished himself in the Race to the Dan River under Greene, but mishandled the siege of Ninety-Six. Back in Poland he resisted the partition, and attempted to liberate the nation afterward
Tadeusz Andrezj Bonawnetura Kosciusko
Approached by US Minister to France, he first saw action at Brandywine. He supported Washington during the winter at Valley Forge. Served on the board that sentenced Major Andre to death. Participated in the battles of Barren Hill, Monmouth, and Newport. Pursuing Cornwallis to Yorktown, Lafayette helped the siege there until Cornwallis' surrender
Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette
Previously an Indian fighter, he was given command of Fort Sullivan in 1776. He fought as Savannah and escaped when British captured Charleston. Cornwallis appointed Colonel Tarleton to eliminate him, and he was frusterated, leading to this man's nickname of "Swamp Fox". Fought the British at Eutaw Springs
Francis Marion
A Scotsman who had fled Britain after two deaths at his hands. Commissioned to outfith the Alfred, which he used to capture New Providence in the Bahamas. Led the Alfred against the HMS Glasgow, leading to his promotion and command of the Providence. Sank tons of British ships along the Atlantic coast. Commissioned captain of the Ranger, he sailed to France to acquire new ships, and he captured the HMS Drake. Fought the British in his ship Serapis
John Paul Jones
Formerly a part of Frederick the Great's staff, this Prussian was recommended by Ben Franklin to Washington. He joined Washington at Valley Forge and aided in the Battle of Monmouth. Spent two years writing Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States. Sent to Virginia in 1780 to oppose Benedict Arnold and aided in the siege of Yorktown
Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben
Selected by the Continental Congress to serve as general-in-chief, his first action was to blockage Boston by capturing Dorchester Heights, forcing the withdrawal of Howe. Failed to defend New York, he retreated to Trenton. Following victory at Princeton, retired to Morristown. Sent his best forces north to deal with Burgoyne's attack in spring 1777 and kept Howe engaged in the mid-Atlantic. Autumn setbacks in Brandywine and Germantown led to a demoralized winter camp at Valley forge, countered by the work of Lafayette and Steuben. After a costly draw with Sir Henry Clinton's forces at Monmouth, he sent Greene south to replace Gates and worked with French general Rochambeau to plan the Yorktown campaign, the success of which led to Cornwallis' surrender on October 19, 1781.
George Washington
(1961-) From Ontario, "The Great One" was named Canada's athlete of the century. Holds 61 NHL records, including career goals, assists, and points. His #99 was retired league-wide. Won 4 Stanley Cups with Edmonton, before being traded to LA, finished up his career with the New York Rangers
Wayne Gretzky
(1926-) From Saskatchewan, "Mr. Hockey" was known for fighting. Played 26 seasons with the Detroit Red Wings, retiring in 1971. Played his last NHL season at 52 in 1980 with the Hartfor Whalers. Was NHL career points leader until 1989.
Gordie Howe
(1965-) From Montreal, Quebec. Scored his first NHL goal on the first shift of his first game. Led the Pittsburgh Penguins to consecutive Stanley Cup victories in 91-92. After a bout with Hodgkin's disease, he returned to lead the NHL in scoring in 95-96 and 96-97. He became lead owner of the Penguins in 1999. "Super _____"
Mario Lemieux
(1948-) Born in Ontario, he revolutionized defense. Won Art Ross Trophy, Norris, Hart, Conn Smythe trophies in the same season. He led the Bruins to their first Stanley Cup victory in three decades with the now-famous "Goal". His bad knees forced him into early retirement in 1979.
Bobby Orr
(1921-2000) Born in Montreal, Quebec, "The Rocket" was the first NHL player to score 50 goals in one season, in 44-45. Also the first player to score 500 in a career. Winner of eight Stanley Cups. His suspension by league President Clarence Campbell led to an eponymous riot which many sociologists credit with starting Quebec's independence movement.
Maurice Richard
(1929-1970) Born in Winnipeg, Manitoba, "Ukey" played more games, won more games, and recorded more shutouts than any other goalie in NHL history. Deeply psychologically troubled, he died in 1970 while a member of the NY Rangers
Terry Sawchuk
(1947-) Born in Hamilton, Ontario, he had a standout career at Cornell University before joining the Montreal Canadiens. In 1970, he won the Conn Smythe (playoff MVP) and the Calder (Rookie of the Year) honors. Canada's goalie during the legendary 1972 Summit Series with the USSR. Obtained his law degree from McGill. Currently president of Toronto Maple Leafs.
Ken Dryden
(1952-) Born in Moscow, USSR. First Russian in Hockey Hall of Fame. Came to prominence in North American during 1972 Summit Series against Canada; a ten time World Champion, he also won three gold medals. Decision to pull him during the 1980 US/USSR Olympic game considered why US went on to win gold. Currently serves as goaltending coach for the Chicago Blackhawks
Vladislav Tretiak
(1939-) Born in Point Anne, Ontario; "The Golden Jet" was the star of the Chicago Blackhawks of the 60s, winning three Art Ross trophies. Defected to WHA's Winnipeg Jets in 1972 for a 10 year deal, where he would help make Winnipeg one of the four WHA teams to merge with the NHL in 78-79. Father of Brett, and the duo is the only father-son combo to score 500 each in NHL history.
Bobby Hull
(1902-1985) Born in Saskatchewan, "The Edmonton Express" is the epitome of "Old-Time Hockey." As a blue liner for the Boston Bruins, named a first team NHL all-star for 8/9 years during the 1930s and is the only defenseman to win 4 Hart trophies as NHL MVP. Went on to be owner/GM of the AHL's Springfield Indians, stingy.
Eddie Shore
(978-1015) Novelist, diarist, and courtesan. She was the author of the Tale of Genji (Genji monogatari), the first known novel; her diary; and a collection of tanka poems. She was the daughter of a court official (Fujiwara Tametoki), and received literature lessons, untraditional for women of the Heian period (784-1185).
Murasaki Shikibu
(1644-1694) (pseudonym of ____ Munefusa) General acknowledged as the master of the haiku form, the most notable influences on his work were Zen Buddhist ones. Noted for works like The Narrow Road to the Deep North (Oku no hosomichi) which includes descriptions of local sights in both prose and haiku. He took his pseudonym from the name of the simple hut where he retired, which means "Cottage of the Plantain Tree."
Matsuo Basho
(1899-1972) Recipient of the 1968 Nobel Prize for Literature, he was the first Japanese author to be so honored. His works combine Japanese values with modern trends and often center on sex. Works are often only a few pages long, a form given the name "palm of the hand". He is best known for three novels: Thousand Cranes, based on the tea ceremony and inspired by The Tale of Genji; The Sound of the Mountain, about the relationship of an old man and his daughter-in-law; and Snow Country, about an aging geisha. Friends with Mishima Yukio, he was associated with right-wing causes and openly protested the Cultural Revolution in China. He committed suicide two years after Mishima.
Kawabata Yasunari
(1925-1970) (pseudonym of Hiraoka Kimitake) He was a novelist whose central theme was the disparity between traditional Japanese values and the spiritual emptiness of modern life. First novel, Confessions of a Mask (Kamen no kokukaku), was successful. His four-volume epic, The Sea of Fertility (Hojo no umi, consisting of Spring Snow, Runaway Horses, The Temple of Dawn, and The Decay of the Angel), is about self-destructive personalities and the transformation of Japan into a modern, sterile society. Organized a right-wing society stressing physical fitness and martial arts, and committed ritual suicide after a public speech failed to galvanize the armed forces into overthrowing the government
Mishima Yukio
The Egyptian creation myth begins with the emergence of ___, the sun god, from the ocean in the form of an ___. He brought forth four children: Geb, Shu, Nut, and Tefnut. ___ and ___ became air and moisture. From ___, the god of the earth, and ---, goddess of the sky, were spawned four other gods: Osiris, Isis, Set (or Seth), and Nepthys. These nine gods were known as the ennead, who were worshipped at the Heliopolis. Two notable alternatives where the ennead of Memphis led by the god ---, and the ennead of Thebes, led by ---.
Ra, egg, Shu, Nut, Geb, Nut, Ptah, Amon
"Family quarrel," ___ took ___, his sister, for his wife, and ruled earth. ___ grew jealous and killed him, cutting his body into ___ pieces and hiding them around Egypt. Isis searched the land until she found the pieces, and with the help of ___, embalmed the body. She conceived a son, ___, by the dead Osiris and then resurrected him. The son regained the kingship.
Osiris, Isis, Set, Anubis, Horace
The Egyptians believed that the soul had three components. The ___ remained near or within the body (why mummifications were required). The ___ went to the underworld, merging with aspects of Osiris, but was allowed periodically to return (why tombs have narrow doors). The ___ could temporarily assume different physical forms and wander the world as a ghost. The heart of the deceased was weighed against Ma'at, commonly represented as an ___ ___.
Ka, Ba, Akh, ostrich feather
During the reign of Amenhotep III (1390-1353 BC), worship of the god ___ was resurrected. His successor Amenhotep IV declared him to be the only god, creating one of the earliest known monotheistic religions. It did not survive him, as his successor, Tutankhamen restored the traditional practices
Husband of Isis, father of Horus, brother of Set. Served as god of the underworld and judge of the dead. God of vegetation and renewal; represented as either a green mummy, or wearing the Atef, a plumed crown
He fought the demon Apopis each day, emerging victorious, symbolizing struggles that bring harmony. Later, he became the personification of violence and disorder, the cause of all disasters. Having killed his brother Osiris, he battled Osiris' son Horace, being emasculated in the fight.
Daughter of Geb and Nut, protected love, motherhood, and fate. Roles similar to Hathor, Demeter. Her powers were gained by tricking the god Ra; by placing a snake in his path, which poisoned him, she forced him to give her power before she would cure him
The god of the sky and light and the son of Isis and Osiris. Isis impregnated herself with the dead Osiris, and he was hidden by his mother. When he was grown, he avenged his father's death, driving away Set but losing his eye (which he regained thanks to the god Thoth); thus, he came to rule over the earth; known to have two faces, that of the falcon and that of a child.
Personification of the midday sun, he was also venerated as Atum (setting sun) and Khepri (rising sun). He traveled across the sky each day and then each night, the monster Apep would attempt to prevent his return. Portrayed with the head of a falcon, and crowned with the sun disk.
Began as a local god of Thebes; his wife was Mut, and his son Khon. Later, he became linked with Ra, and the two combined as ___-Ra. In this form, he became worshipped beyond Egypt and identified with Zeus and Jupiter. He appears in art as a man in a loincloth with a headdress topped by feathers, but sometimes has the head of a ram. The temple of ___-Ra at Karnak was the largest ever built.
Serving the gods as the supreme scribe, this ibis-headed god known as the tongue of Ptah for his knowledge of hieroglyphics and as the Heart of Ra for his creative powers. Creator of the calendar, he was symbolized by the moon. His magical knowledge led to his association with the Greek Hermes. He was consulted by Isis when attempting to reconstruct Osiris, and was again consulted when the young Horus was stung by a scorpion.
Principal god of Memphis, he was portrayed as a mummy, or wearing the beard of the gods on his chin. Patron of craftsmen, he was also a healer, in the form of a dwarf. In the death trilogy (Anubis, Osiris, ____), he was seen as the god of embalming. His wife was the cat-headed Sekhmet and his son the lotus god Nefertem.
Son of Osiris and Nepthys, typically pictured with the head of a jackal. Served as god of the desert and watcher of the tombs. Introduced the dead to the afterlife, weighed the heart of the dead against the feather of truth (Ma'at).
The daughter of Ra, she predated the universe and ensured balance during its creation. Keeper of order, responsible for seasons, day and night, star motion. Symbolized by an ostrich feather against which hearts were weighed.
Patron of women, daughter of Ra and wife of Horus. Fulfilled many functions as goddess of the sky, of fertility, marriage, love, and beauty. Equated with aphrodite. Has the head of a cow.
"Lady of the castle," she sided against her own husband, Set, in his battle against Osiris, but when set was destroyed, she collected bits of his body and brought him back to life, much as Isis had done for Osiris.
(Pluto) Named for the mythical boatman of the Greek underworld. It's pronunciation is in honor of Charlene Christy, wife of Jim Christy, its discoverer. The largest moon relative to the size of its orbiting planet. Pluto and ___ show the same face toward each other at all times.
(Mars) Named for two sons of Ares and Aprhodite, Greek for "fear" and "panic", they are the two moons of Mars and both were discovered in 1877 by Asaph Hall. "Panic" is the smallest moon in the solar system and was likely an asteroid brought into Mars' orbit after being disturbed by Jupiter. Both believed to have water
Deimos and Phobos
(Jupiter) One of the Galilean moons, discovered in 1610 by Galileo (the others are Callisto, Ganymede, and Io). It resembles Io, and to a degree, Earth, in its composition of silicate rocks. It is coated with a thin layer of ice, and has dark streaks across its surface
(Jupiter) The largest satellite in the solar system, this Galilean moon is larger than Mercury, but has only half its mass. Thought to have a three-layer structure of a molten iron core, silicate mantle, and ice exterior.
(Jupiter) Like Europa, this moon (named for a lover of Zeus) is primarily formed of silicate rock. Its surface is unlike any other satellite; rather than craters, it has volcanos, calderas, and other signs of geological activity.
(Neptune) Discovered by Gerard Kuiper (who also discovered Miranda, Titan's atmosphere, and an asteroid belt), this moon (named for the daughters of Nereus and Doris) has the most eccentric orbit of any known satellite, the oddity of which indicates it is a captured asteroid.
(Uranus) Named for the King of the Fairies in A Midsummer Night's Dream (all of Uranus' satellites are named for literary, rather than mythological, characters), it is the second largest of Uranus' satellites. Structure about half water, half rock.
(Saturn) The largest of Saturn's satellites, this moon might be the largest satellite in the solar system (very close to Ganymede). It is the only satellite to have substantial atmosphere, 80% N, 20% CH4, trace Ar.
(Uranus) Another of Herschel's discoveries, the moon is named for Oberon's wife, the Queen of the Fairies, and is the largest of the Uranian satellites.
(Neptune) By far the largest of Neptune's satellites, it is unusual for its retrograde orbit. Has ice volcanos!
Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson narrowly beat incumbent Federalist John Adams 73-65, marking the ascent of that party's power. Since one electoral vote each is cast for president and vice president, Democratic-Republican VP candidate Aaron Burr also had 73 votes but refused to step aside. In the House, neither man won the necessary 9 state delegations outright until the 36th ballot, when James Bayard of Delaware changed his vote to Jefferson. This debacle leads to the passage of the 12th amendment. The Federalists never recovered; Hamilton's opposition to Adams led to a permanent split between the two, and Hamilton's opposition to Burr was one cause of their 1804 duel, in which Burr (then vice president) killed Hamilton.
Election of 1800
The candidates were John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William Crawford, and Andrew Jackson, all D-Rs. After John C. Calhoun decided to seek the vice presidency and Crawford (from Georgia) had a stroke, Jackson took most of the South and won the popular vote. Jackson had 99 electoral votes, Adams 84, Crawford 41, and Clay 37, but since none had more than 50% of the vote, the House decided the election. Adams won in the House with support from Clay, and Jacksonians cried foul when Clay was made Secretary of State (the so-called "corrupt bargain"), giving fuel to Jackson's later campaign. Jackson is the only candidate to lose a presidential race despite having the most electoral votes, and he is one of four (with Tilden, Cleveland, and Gore) to lose despite winning the popular vote. The election also led to the founding of the Democratic Party
Election of 1824
Another four-candidate election, with Republican Abraham Lincoln, (norther) Democrat Stephen Douglas, (souther) Democrat John C. Breckinridge, and Constitutional Unionist John G. Bell. The Republican Part, founded in 1854, won in its second election (its first candidate being Fremont in 1856), aided by the fragmenting of the Democrats. Bell took Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia, Breckinridge swept the other slave states, and Lincoln nearly swept the free states. Though winning under 40% of the total popular vote, Lincoln dominated the electoral count with 180 to a combined 123 for his opponents (Breckinridge 72, Bell 39, Douglas 12). Seven southern states seceded before Lincoln even took office, and war soon followed.
Election of 1860
Republican Rutherford B. Hayes faced democrat Samuel Tilden, best known for battling Tammany Hall and the Tweed Ring in NY. Tilden won the popular vote and seemed to win the election, but results in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana were contested, as was one vote in Oregon; if Hayes swept these votes, he would win the electoral count 185 to 184. In Congress, an informal bargain was reached (often called the Compromise of ___) in which Hayes won the election in exchange for Reconstruction being brought to an end.
Election of 1876
In the election itself, republican William McKinley swept the North and Northeast to beat Democrat William Jennings Bryan, but the campaign was the interesting part. The most prominent issue, the gold standard versus free silver coinage, led to Bryan's famous "Cross of Gold" speech. Shunned by Eastern press, Bryan, a legendary orator, traveled 18,000 miles through 27 states and was heard by some 3 million people. McKinley would not accept Bryan's challenge to debate, comparing it to putting up a trapeze and competing with a professional athlete. McKinley instead had a "front porch" campaign, as railroads brought voters by the thousands to hear him speak in his hometown of Canton, Ohio. Mark Hanna, McKinley's campaign manager, is often considered the first modern campaign manager. The election represented the demise of the Populist Party and ushered in a 16-year period of Republican rule. The gold question would soon disappear, with gold strikes in Australia and Alaska.
Election of 1896
Three presidents--Teddy Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson--earned electoral votes. Roosevelt, displeased with his successor Taft, returned to lead the progressive Republican faction; after Taft got the Republican nomination, Roosevelt was nominated by the Progressive Party (nicknamed the Bull Moose party). Wilson won with 435 electoral votes to Roosevelt's 88 and Taft's 8, making taft the only incumbent to finish third in a re-election bid. Though WIlson did set forth his New Freedom program, his dominating win must be credited largely to the splitting of the Republican vote by Roosevelt and Taft
Election of 1912
In the most recent election with four significant candidates, Democrat Harry Truman beat Republican Thomas Dewey, contrary to the famous headline of the Chicago Tribune, printed before the results from the West came in. Dewey dominated the Northeast, but Truman nearly swept the West to pull out the victory. Former vice president Henry Wallace earned over a million votes as the Progressive candidate, and Strom Thurmond took over a million votes and 39 electoral votes as the States' Rights (or "Dixiecrat") candidate.
Election of 1948
John F Kennedy defeated VP Richard Nixon 303-219 in a tight election, winning the popular vote by just two-tenths of a percent. The first Kennedy-Nixon debate is a classic in political science; calm, handsome Kennedy and the tired, uncomfortable Nixon. (Theodore White's notable The Making of the President series began with this election). Voting irregularities in Texas and Illinois (especially in Richard Daley's Chicago) led to allegations of fraud but a recount would not have been feasible, and Nixon did not press the issue. Nixon would go on to lost the California gubernatorial race, occasioning his famous statement, "You won't have Dick Nixon to kick around anymore".
Election of 1960
After Lyndon Johnson declined to run for re-election, and after Robert F. Kennedy was killed in California, the Democratic nomination went to Hubert Humphrey. Richard Nixon, gradually returning from political obscurity over the past six years, gained the Republican nomination. Alabama governor George Wallace ran as the American Independent candidate, becoming the last third-party candidate to win multiple electoral votes. Nixon edged Humphrey by half a million popular votes and a 301-191 electoral count, while Wallace won nearly ten million votes. Wallace's presence may have tipped the election to the Republicans, who, after being out of power for 28 of the last 36 years, would hold the presidency for all but four years through 1992.
Election of 1968
The closest election in American history, it is sure to be a long-term staple of history questions. Al Gore won the popular vote but lost the electoral vote by a final count of 271-266 (one Gore elector abstained). Ralph Nader of the Green Party won an important 2.7% of the vote, while Pat Buchanan of the Reform Party placed fourth. New Mexico and Oregon were initially too close to call but went to Gore, and Florida became the center of attention. Ballot confusion in Palm Beach County, intimidation of vote recanters in Miami-Dade County, and absentee ballots throughout Florida became significant issues, as Americans had to hear about butterfly ballots, hanging chads, and Florida Secretary of State Katharine Harris for the next five weeks. Gore officially conceded the election on December 13.
Election of 2000
(Pablo Picasso) Basque town bombed by the Germans during the Spanish Civil War in April 1937. Picasso had already been commissioned to paint a mural for the Spanish Pavilion at the World's Fair, and he completed his massive, black, white, and grey anti-war mural by early June 1937. It was in MOMA until 1981, when it was returned to Museo Nacional Central de Arte Reina Sofia in Spain
(Marcel Duchamp) First painted in 1912, this painting created a sensation when shown at the 1913 Armory show in NY, where one critic referred to it as "an explosion in a shingle factory." Painted in various shades of brown, it portrays a nude woman in a series of broken planes, capturing motion down. Its portrait of motion echoes the work of the Futurists.
Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2
(Salvador Dali) First shown in 1931, this is probably the most famous of the surrealist paintings. The landscape echoes Port Lligat, Dali's home. The ants, flies, clocks, and the Port Lligat landscape are motifs in many other Dali paintings, and the tromp l'oeil depiction of figures is typical. It currently belongs to MOMA; its 1951 companion piece, The Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory, hangs at the Salvador Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, Florida
The Persistence of Memory
(Pablo Picasso) This painting depicts five women in a brothel. However, the images of the women are partly broken into angular, disjointed facets. The degree of broken-ness was rather mild compared to later Cubism, but was revolutionary in 1907. The rather phallic fruit arrangement in the foreground reflects the influence of Cezanne's "flattening of the canvas." Currently at MOMA
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
(Piet Mondrian) While Les Demoiselles d'Avignon and other Cubist paintings represent an extension of Paul Cezanne's division-of-space approach to the canvas, Mondrian's De Stijl works are still further abstraction, such as Composition in Red, Yellow, and Blue. The painting simultaneously echoes the bright lights of a marquee, resembles a pattern of streets as seen from above, and creates a feeling of vitality and vibrancy, not unlike the music itself. Currently at MOMA
(Andy Warhol) Pop art parodies a world in which celebrities, brand names, and media images have replaced the sacred; Warhol's series may be the best illustration of this. Like the object itself, the paintings were done by the mass-produceable form of serigraphy (silk screening).
Campbell's Soup Can
(Edward Hopper) As is often the case with his works, Hopper uses a realistic approach (including details as the fluorescent light of the diner, the coffee pots, and the Phillies cigar sign atop the diner) to convey a sense of loneliness and isolation, even going so far as to depict the corner store without a door connecting to the larger world. Hopper's wife Jo served as the model for the woman at the bar. At the Art Institute of Chicago.
(Marc Chagall) Painted in 1911, this is among Chagall's earliest surviving paintings. It is a dreamlike scene which includes many motifs common to Chagall, notably the lamb and peasant life. In addition to the two giant faces--a green face on the right and a lamb's head on the left--other images include a milkmaid, a reaper, an upside-down peasant woman, a church, and a series of houses, some of them upside down. Housed at MOMA
(Andrew Wyeth) Modeled after a woman, ___ Olson, who lived near the Wyeth's summer home in Cushing, Maine. In the 1948 painting, she lays in the cornfield wearing a pink dress, facing away from the viewer, her body partly twisted and hair blowing slightly in the wind. In the far distance is a three-story farmhouse with dual chimneys and two dormers, along with two sheds to its right. A distant barn is near the top middle of the painting. One notable aspect is the subtle pattern of sunlight, which strikes the farmhouse obliquely from the right, shines in the wheel tracks in the upper right, and casts very realistic looking shadows on her dress. The Olson house was the subject of many Andrew Wyeth paintings for 30 years, and it was named to the National Register of Historic Places for this painting
Christina's World
(Grant Wood) Wood painted his most famous work after a visit to Eldon, Iowa, when he saw a Carpenter Gothic style house with a distinctive Gothic window in its gable. Upon returning to his studio, he used his sister Nan and his dentist, Dr. Byron McKeeby, as the models for the two figures. The pitchfork and the clothing were more typical of 19th century farmers than contemporary ones. It is among the most familiar regionalist paintings, and is said to be the most parodies of all paintings. It hands in the Art Institute of Chicago. He won a bronze medal for it and $300.
American Gothic
(Austrian, 1856-1939) Founded the extremely influential discipline of psychoanalysis, which used the technique of "free association" to identify fears and repressed memories. He argued that many problems were caused by mental states rather than by biochemical dysfunction--a purely material viewpoint then in vogue. He separated the psyche into the id (illogical passion), ego (rational thought), and the superego (moral and social conscience). His best known works are The Interpretation of Dreams and The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
Sigmund Freud
(Austrian, 1875-1961) Close associate of Freud's who split with him over the degree to which neuroses had a sexual basis. He went on to create the movement of "analytic psychology" and introduced the controversial notion of the "collective unconscious"--a socially shared area of the mind. Anima, animus, introversion, extroversion, archetypes.
Carl Jung
(Austrian, 1870-1937) Another close associate of Freud who split with him over Freud's insistence that sexual issues were at the root of all neuroses. He argued in The Neurotic Constitution that neuroses resulted from people's inability to achieve self-realization; in failing to achieve this sense of completeness, they developed "inferiority complexes" that inhibited their relations with successful people and dominated their relations with unsuccessful people, a theory given the name of "individual psychology".
Alfred Adler
(Russian, 1849-1936) He was more a physiologist than a psychologist; he is largely remembered for his idea of the "conditioned reflex," for example, the salivation of a dog at the sound of the bell that presages dinner. He won the Nobel Prize in 1904 for Physiology or Medicine for unrelated work on digestive secretions
Ivan Pavlov
(American 1878-1958) He was the first prominent exponent of behaviorism; he codified its tenets in Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology, arguing that psychology could be completely grounded in objective measurements of events and physical human reactions. His most famous experiment involved conditioning and eleven-month-old boy to be afraid of all furry objects by striking a loud bell whenever a furry object was placed in his lap- Little Albert
John B. Watson
(American, 1904-1990) One of the leading proponents of behaviorism in works like Walden II and Beyond Freedom and Dignity. He argued that all human actions could be understood in terms of physical stimuli and learned responses and that there was no need to study--or even believe in--internal mental states or motivations; in fact, doing so could be harmful. Guided by his ideas, he trained animals to perform complicated tasks like teaching pigeons to play table tennis
Burrhus Frederic Skinner
(Swiss, 1896-1980) Generally considered the greatest figure of developmental psychology; he was the first to perform rigorous studies of the way in which children learn and come to understand and respond to the world around them. He is most famous for his theory of four stages of development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. His most famous works are The Language and Thought of a Child and The Origins of Intelligence in Children.
Jean Piaget
(German-born American, 1902-1994) Best known for his theories on how social institutions reflect the universal features of psychosocial development; in particular, how different societies create different traditions and ideas to accommodate the same biological needs. He created a notable eight-stage development process and wrote several "psychohistories" explaining how people like Martin Luther and Mahatma Gandhi were able to think and act the way they did.
Erik Erikson
(American, 1908-1970) Principally known for two works, Motivation and Personality and Toward a Psychology of Being, that introduced his theory of the "hierarchy of needs" (food, shelter, love, esteem, etc.) and its pinnacle, the need for "self-actualization." Self-actualized people are those who understand their individual needs and abilities and who have families, friends, and colleagues that support them and allow them to accomplish the things on which they place value. The lowest unmet need on the hierarchy tends to dominate conscious thought.
Abraham Maslow
(American, 1933-1984) Thought he did the work that created the idea of "six degrees of separation" and the "lost-letter" technique, he is mainly remembered for his experiments on "obedience to authority" that he performed at Yale in 1961-1962. Milgram found that 2/3 of his subjects were willing to administer terrible electric shocks to innocent, protesting human beings simply because a research told them that the protocol demanded it
Stanley Milgram
(1672-1725; ruled 1682-1725) Famous for his push for Westernization and for his personality. His Grand Embassy to Europe enabled him to learn about Western life (and even to work in a Dutch shipyard); he later invited Western artisans to come to Russia, required the boyars to shave their bears and wear Western clothing, and founded a new capital, St. Petersburg--his "window on the West". He led his country in the Great Norther War (in which Carles XII of Sweden was defeated at Poltava), created a table of Ranks for the nobility, and reformed bureaucracy and the army. Could also be violent and cruel; participated in the torture of the streltsy, or musketeers, who rebelled against him, and had his own son executed.
Peter I (the Great)
(1530-1584; ruled 1533-1584) His Russian nickname "Groznyi" can be translated "awe-inspiring" or "menacing". Scholars differ on whether he was literate. Early in his reign, he pushed through a series of well-recieved reforms and called a zemskii sobor (or "assembly of the land"). Had a cruel streak, temporarily abdicating in 1564, killed his own son, created a state-within-the-state called the oprichnina to wage war on the boyars, and participated in torture. Combined the absolutist tendencies of his predecessors with his own violent personality, plunging the country into its subsequent period of civil strife, the "Time of Troubles"
Ivan IV (the Terrible)
(1729-1796; ruled 1762-1796) Wasn't really Russian at all; she was born Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst (a minor German principality) and was chosen as the bride of the future Peter III. She thoroughly Russianized herself by the time Peter became tsar, and soon had him deposed; she then dispatched several claimants to the throne and crushed an peasant uprising led by Emilian Pugachev. She also corresponded with Enlightenment philosophes, granted charters for rights and obligations to the nobility and the towns, oversaw the partition of Poland, and expanded the empire. Well known for her extravagant love life; her acknowledge 21 lovers included Grigorii Potemkin (who constructed the famous Potemkin village on an imperial inspection tour).
Catherine II (the Great)
(1868-1918; ruled 1894-1917) The last of the Romanovs, he ruled until his overthrown in the February Revolution of 1917. He is usually seen as both a kind man who lived his family and an incapable monarch who helped bring about the end of the tsarist state; he led his country through two disastrous wars, the Russo-Japanese War (which helped spark the Revolution of 1905), and WWI (which helped cause the 1917 revolutions). He is best known for his loving marriage to Alexandra and for allowing the crazed monk Girgorii Rasputin to influence court politics while treated the hemophilia of Alexei, the heir to the throne. He abdicated in 1917 and was shot in 1918.
Nicholas II
(1818-1881; ruled 1855-1881) Embarked on a program of Great Reforms soon after taking the throne near the end of the Crimean War. The most famous part of his program was the serf emancipation of 1861--a reform which occurred almost simulatenously with the end of American slavery. He also introduced a system of local governing bodies called zemstvos, tried to increase the rule of law in the court system, eased censorship, and reorganized the army. Sold Alaska to the USA in 1867. He became more reactionary after an attempted 1866 assassination and was assassinated in 1881.
Alexander II
(1777-1825; ruled 1801-1825) Took the throne in 1801 when his repressive father Paul was assassinated and immediately set out on a more liberal course, but he left his strongest supporters disappointed. He is best known for his wars with Napoleon (first as an ally, then as an enemy), and for seeking to establish a Holy Alliance in the years that followed. He was eccentric and a religious mystic. Some contend he didn't actually die in 1825, but that he faked it, became a hermit, and died in a monastery in 1864.
Alexander I
(1796-1855; ruled 1825-1855) Ruled Russia from the failure of the Decembrist Uprising to the middle of the Crimean War, and is traditionally portrayed as the embodiment of Russian autocracy. His government pursued a policy of Official Nationality, depending on a holy trinity of "Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Nationality," and established a repressive secret police force known as the Third Section. Contemporaries referred to him as the "Gendarme of Europe" after he helped the Habsburgs squelch the Hungarian revolution of 1848.
Nicholas I
(1845-1894; ruled 1881-1894) Those who hoped that the assassination of Alexander II would lead to liberalization saw the error of their ways when this new tsar launched his program of counter-reforms. Under him, the state enacted a series of Temporary Regulations (giving it the power to crack down on terrorism), increased censorship, tightened controls on Russi's universities, created a position of "land captain" to exert state control in the countryside, and either encouraged or ignored the first anti-Jewish pogroms.
Alexander III
(1551-1605; ruled 1598-1605) Began his career as a boyard in Ivan IV's oprichnina, and eventually became tsar. He cemented his influence by marrying a daughter of one of Ivan's court favorites and arranging his sister Irinia's marriage to Ivan's son Fyodor; then he became regent under Fyodor, and was elected tsar when Fyodor died in 1598. Was rumored to have arranged the murder of Fyodor's brother Dmitrii, and the first several "False Dmitriis" launched a revolt against him. He died in the midst of this unrest and is now best known as the subject of a Pushkin play and a Mussorgsky opera.
Boris Godunov
(1597-1645; ruled 1613-1645) In 1613, near the end of the Time of Troubles, a zemskii sobor elected the 16-year-old as the new tsar. He was grandnephew of Ivan IV's "good" wife Anastasia and the son of a powerful churchman named Filaret (who soon became patriarch); as tsar, he has usually been seen as a nonentity dominated by Filaret and other relatives. Nevertheless, his election marked the return of relative stability and the succession of the Romanov dynasty.
Michael Romanov
(1975-present) Born to an African-American father and a Thai mother, he appeared on "The Mike Douglas Show" with a golf club at age two. Won three straight US Junior Amateurs, and then became the only golfer to win three straight US Amaters (1944-1996). In 1997, became youngest man ever to win a Masters, and by a whopping 12 strokes. At the 2000 US Open, when he won by 15 strokes, be began a remarkable run of four straight major championships: British Open (by eight strokes, making him youngest player to complete the career Grand Slam), PGA Championship, and the 2001 Masters.
Tiger Woods
(1940-present) Nicknamed "The Golden Bear," he won the US Amateur twice (1959 and 1961), and was the 1961 NCAA champion at Ohio State. He took his first major the following year at the US Open, beating Arnold Palmer on Palmer's home course. He became the youngest Masters champion at the time in '63, and 23 years later became the oldest champion. He has recorded 18 major pro championships overall, 6 Masters, 5, PGAs, 4 US Opens, 3 British Opens.
Jack Nicklaus
(1929-present) A native of Latrobe, Pennsylvania, he made golf popular with the masses, as his fans were known as "Arnie's Army." He won 7 Majors, including 4 Masters, and was the first golfer to earn one million dollars on the PGA Tour. Became a star on the Senior Tour. 1/2 iced tea and 1/2 lemonade
Arnold Palmer
(1912-1997) The PGA Tour's leading money winner from 1940-42 and in 1946 and 1948, two events interrupted his career: service in WWII and a near-fatal 1949 head-on car accident. After each, though, he rose to the top of his game; he won nine majors overall (six after the accident). In 1953 he accomplished a feat matched only by Tiger: winning three modern major championships in one season; the Masters, US Open, and British Open.
Ben Hogan
(1902-1971) An Atlanta native, and the greatest amateur golfer of all time, he never turned pro but won 13 major championships in eight years, including four US Amatuers. In 1930 he won what was then considered the Grand Slam, taking both the British and US Amateurs and Open Championships. After that, he retired from golf to practice law, but helped design the course in Augusta, GA that became the pernament site of the Masters in 1934.
(Robert Tyre) "Bobby" Jones
(1912-2002) No golfer has won more PGA Tournaments than his 81, and he amassed 135 victories worldwide. Nicknamed "Slammin' ___" he won 7 major championships between 1942-1954, but he is known more for the one he never one: the US Open. In 1939 he led the Open for 71 holes but lost on the last hole when he took an eight.
Sam Snead
(1912-present) He won five major championships overall, but he is best known for having the single-most dominant year in golf history. In 1945 he won a record 18 tournaments in 30 starts, including 11 consecutive tournaments, a feat no one has come close to matching. He was so even-tempered and mechanically sound that USGA named its mechanical club and ball-testing device, the "Iron ____," after him.
Byron Nelson
(1949-present) He became major rival to Jack Nicklaus in the second half of the Golden Bear's career. His greatest achievements were at the British Open, a tournament he won 5 times between 1975 and 1983. He took eight major championships overlal, and still competes occasdionally on the regular PGA tour.
Tom Watson
(1939-present) Nicknamed "Supermex" for his Mexican-American heritage, he came from a poor Dallas family and served in the Marines, coming out of nowhere to win the 1968 US Open. He won six majors: the US Open, British Open, and the PGA, twice each, his second PGA at 44 years old. That win was most impressive, because it came after the 1975 Western Open, where he was struck by lightning on the golf course.
Lee Trevino
(1935-present) The most successful non-American golfer in history, this South African has won nine majors. When he took his only US Open crown in 1965, he not only became the first non-american to win the tournament in 45 years, but he also became one of three (now five) golers (along with Nicklaus, Woods, Hogan, and Sarazen) to win all four modern Grand Slam events. Nicknames include "The Black Knight" for his dress and "Mr. Fitness" for his devotion to exercise.
Gary Player
(1902-1999) Came to prominence in the early 1920s, winning PGA championship 1922 and 1923, as well as the US Open in 1922. Bobby Jones and Walter Hagen then dominated golf until the early 30s, when he returned to form, winning four more majors. At the 1935 Masters, he carded and albatross (three under par) from the fairway of the Par-5 15th hole to force a playoff; when he won, he became the first golfer to complete the modern career Grand Slam.
Gene Sarazen
(1892-1969) He was the first great pro golfer, appearing in over 2,500 exhibitions. A five-time PGA Champion, including four straight from 1924-1927, he won eleven majors overall, and he was known most for his showmanship and his ability to recover from poor shots with spectacular ones. He captained the US Ryder Cup team six of the first seven times the event was held.
Walter Hagen
(Thornton Wilder, 1938) A sentimental story that takes place in the village of Grover's Corners, NH, just after the turn of the 20th century. It is divided into three acts: "Daily Life" (Professor Willard and Editor Webb gossip on the everyday lives of town residents); "Love and Marriage (Emily Webb and George Gibbs fall in love and marry); and "Death" (Emily dies while giving birth, and her spirit converses about the meaning of life with other dead people in the cemetery). A Stage Manager talks to the audience and serves as narrator throughout the drama, which is performed on a bare stage
Our Town
(Eugene O'Neill, 1956) He wrote it fifteen years earlier and presented the manuscript to his third wife with instructions that it not be produced until 25 years after his death. Actually produced 3 years after he died, it centers on Edmund and the rest of the Tyrone family but is really an autobiographical account of the dysfunction of O'Neill's own family, set on one day in August 1912. The fater is a miserly actor, while the mother is a morphine addict, and the brother is a drunk; they argue and cut eachother down throughout the play
Long Day's Journey Into Night
(Edward Albee, 1962). The author mentioned in title has very little to do with the story, except that Martha sings it to George when she is mad at him in Act I. In fact, Albee got the title from graffiti he saw on a men's room wall. In the drama, George is a professor who married Martha, the college president's daughter, but the two dislike eachother. Martha invites another couple, the instructor Nick and his wife Honey, for drinks after a party for her father. All four of them get drunk, and they end up bickering over their flawed marriages: besides George and Martha's problems, Honey is barren and Nick married her for her money.
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(Tennessee Williams, 1947) Blanche DuBois and Stanley Kowalski represent William's two visions of the South: declining "old romantic" vs. the harsh modern era. Blanche is a Southern belle who lost the family estate and is forced to move into her sister Stella's New Orleans apartment. Stella's husband Stanley is roungh around the edges, but sees through Blanche's artifice; he ruins Blanche's change to marry his friend Mitch by revealing to Mitch that Blanche was a prostitute. Then, after Blanche confronts Stanley, he rapes her, driving her into insanity. The drama was developed into a movie, marking the breakthrough performace of method actor Marlon Brando
A Streetcar Named Desire
(Lorraine Hansberry, 1959) Her father's 1940 court fight against racist housing laws provided the basis for Hansberry's play about the Younger family, who attempt to move into an all-white Chicago suburb but are confronted by discrimination. The first play by an African-American woman to be performed on Broadway, it also tore down the racial stereotyping found in other works of the time. The title comes from the Langston Hughes poem "Harlen" (often call "A Dream Deferred")
A Raisin in the Sun
(Arthur Miller, 1953) Miller chose the 1692 Salem witch trials as his setting, but the work is really an allegorical protest against the McCarthy anti-Communist "witch-hunts" of the early 1950s. In the story, Elizabeth Proctor fires servant Abigail Williams after she finds out the Abigail had an affair with her husband. In response, Abigail accuses Elizabeth of witchcraft. She stands trial is and acquitted, but then another girl accuses her husband, John, and as he refuses to turn in others, he is killed, along with the old comic figure Giles Corey. Also notable: Judge Hathorne is a direct ancestor of author Nathaniel Hawthorne.
The Crucible
(Arthur Miller, 1949) This play questions American values of success. Willy Loman is a failed salesman whose firm fires him after 34 years. Despite his own failures, he desperately wants his sons Biff and Happy to succeed. Told in a series of flashbacks, the story points to Biff's moment of hopelessness, when the former high school star catches his father Willy cheating on his mother Linda. Eventually Willy can no longer live with his perceived shortcomings and commits suicide in an attempt to leave Biff with insurance money.
Death of a Salesman
(Eugene O'Neill, 1931) This play is really a trilogy, consisting of "Homecoming," "The Hunted," and "The Haunted." Though it is set in post-Civil War New England, O'Neill used Aeschylus's tragedy the Oresteia as the basis for the plot. Lavinia Mannon desires revenge against her mother Christine, who with the help of her lover Adam Brant has poisoned Lavinia's father Ezra; Lavinia persuades her brother Orin to kill Brant. A distressed Christine commits suicide, and, after Orin and Lavinia flee to the South Seas, Orin cannot stand the guilt and kills himself as well, leaving Lavinia in the house alone.
Mourning Becomes Electra
(Tennessee Williams, 1944) Partly based on Williams' own family, the drama is narrated by Tom Wingfield, who supports his mother Amanda and his crippled sister Laura (who takes refuge from reality in her glass animals). At Amanda's insistence, Tom brings his friend Jim O'Connor to the house as a gentleman caller for Laura. While O'Connor is there, the horn of Laura's glass unicorn breaks, bringing her into reality, until O'Connor tells the family that he is already engaged. Laura returns to her fantasy world, while Tom abandons the family after fighting with his mother.
The Glass Menagerie
(Eugene O'Neill, 1939) A portrait of drunkenness and hopeless dreams. Regular patrons of the End of the Line Cafe anticipate the annual arrival of Theodore "Hickey" Hickman, but in 1912 he returns to them sober. After the patrons reveal their "pipe dreams," Hickey implores them to give up those dreams and lead productive lives. The "____" is supposed to represent the "death" found in reality.
The Iceman Cometh
(Tennessee Williams, 1955) Centers on a fight between two sons (Gooper and Brick) over the estate of father "Big Daddy" Pollitt, who is dying of cancer. After his friend Skipper dies, ex-football star Brick turns to alcohol and will not have sex with his wife Maggie ("the cat"). Yet Maggie announces to Big Daddy that she is pregnant in an attempt to force a reconciliation with--and win the inheritance for--Brick.
Cat on a Hot Tin Roof
(Lillian Hellman, 1939) Set on a plantation in 1900, Hellman attempts to show that by this time any notion of antebellum Southern gentility has been destroyed by modern capitalism and industrialism. Three Hubbard siblings (Regina and her two brothers) scheme to earn vast riches at the expense of other family members, such as Regina's husband Horace and their daughter Alexandra. The title is taken from the Old Testament Song of Solomon: "the ____ _____ that spoil the vines."
The Little Foxes
What's the difference between Mary Wollstonecraft and Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley?
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) is best known as an advocate of educational equality for women, particularly "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1972)". She is the mother of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797-1851) who married poet Percy Bysshe Shelley and is best known as the author of Frankenstein: or, the Modern Prometheus
What's the difference between "Bloody Mary" and Mary Queen of Scots?
"Bloody Mary" is a pejorative nickname of Mary I Tudor, the queen of England preceeding Elizabeth I, so named for her persecution of Protestants. Mary Queen of Scots was Mary Stuart, who was the queen of Scotland during the first part of Elizabeth's reign.
Who was the title character in The Merchant of Venice?
Not Shylock, who is the money-lender, but Antonio.
Two people, same name: the earlier (354-430 AD) served as the Bishop of Hippo and wrote Confessions and City of God; the later (?-605 AD) founded the Christian church in southern England and was the first archbishop of Canterbury
St. Augustine
What are the three "concerning" philosophical works?
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (David Hume), Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (George Berkeley), and An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (John Locke)
Who were the Russian Five, or "The Mighty Handful"?
The Nationalist composers were Cesar Cui, Aleksandr Borodin, Mily Balakirev, Modest Mussorgsky, and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov
Whats the difference between Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. and Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.?
The father (1809-1894) was a physician, poet, and humorist who wrote "Old Ironsides" and The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table. The son (1841-1935) was a justice of the Supreme Court known as "The Great Dissenter".
(5,000 species) The sponges are all water-dwellers (98% marine, 2% freshwater), and sometimes classified separately from other animals because of their asymmetric bodies and lack of distinct tissues. They are sessile except in early dispersing stages, and collect food particles via the sweeping motions of flagellated cells called choanocytes
(10,000 species) Also called Coelenterata, they develop from a diploblastic (two-layerered) embryo, and have two separate tissue layers and radial body symmetry. Many have two life stages, the mobile, usually bell-like medusa, and the sessile polyp. All have nematocysts, or stinging cells, for capturing prey. Examples include hydras, sea anemones, corals, jellyfishes, and Portuguese man-o-war
(15,000 species) The flatworms are the most primitive phylum to develop from a triploblastic (three-layered) embryo. They have bilateral symmetry, and are acoelomate (lacking a body cavity), so that the space between the digestive tract and the body wall is filled with tissue. As the name implies, they are generally flat-bodied. They have a true head and brain, but the digestive system has only one opening that functions as both mouth and anus. Most are hermaphroditic. This phylum includes parasites such as the tapeworms and flukes, as well as free-living (i.e., non-parasitic) organisms such as planarians
(15,000 species) The roundworms are unsegmented worms that live in a variety of habitats. They are pseudocoelomate; the three tissue layers are concentric, but the body cavity is not lined with tissue derived from the mesoderm (middle embryonic layer). They included both free-living and parasitic species; human parasites include hookworms and the causative agents of elephantitis, trichinosis, and river blindness. Soil nematodes may be crop pests, while others are beneficial predators on other plant pests. The nematode species Caenorhabditis elegans is a common subject in genetics labs.
(11,500 species) These are segmented worms, representing the first lineage of truly eucoelomate (having a body cavity lined with mesoderm-derived tissue) animals. Classes include the marine Polychaeta, as well as the mostly terrestrial Oligachaeta (including the earthworms, lumbricus) and the mostly-aquatic Hirudinea, or leeches. Characteristics include nephridia (kidney-like structures), blood vessels, and, in some cases, hermaphroditism
(800,000+ (millions) of species) The most diverse and successful animal phylum on earth (comprising about 75% of all described animal species), they are characterized by jointed legs and chitinous exoskeleton. Like annelids, they are segmented, but their segments are usually fused into larger body parts with specialized functions (such as the head, thorax, and abdomen). Often divided into four subphyla: Uniramia (insects, centipedes, millipedes); Chelicerata (arachnids, sea spiders, horseshoe crabs); Crustacea (shrimps, lobsters, crabs, crayfish, barnacles, pillbugs), and Trilobitomorpha (the trilobites, now extinct).
(1 species) The most recently named phylum; its only known member is Symbion pandora, a tiny invertebrate first identified in 1995 when a Danish biologist found specimens on the mouthparts of a Norwegian lobster. Believed to be closely related to the marine phyla Entoprocta and Ectoprocta (Bryozoa).
(50,000 species) Second in diversity to the arthropods. Body plans within this phylum are diverse, but generally include soft body covered by a thin mantle, with a muscular foot and an internal visceral mass. There are two fluid-filled body cavities derived from mesodermal tissue; a small coelom and a large hemocoel that functions as an open circulatory system. Many have a shell composed of calcium carbonate and proteins, secreted by the mantle. Familiar groups within the phylum include the classes Gastropoda (slugs, snails), Bivalvia (clams, oysters, scallops), and Cephalopoda (nautilus, squids, octopi)
(6,500 species) Characteristics of this phylum include an endoskeleton composed of many ossicles of calcium and magnesium carbonate, a water vascular system, a ring canal around the esophagus, and locomotion by tube feet connected to the WVS. Unique to this phylum is the five-fold radial symmetry obvious in sea stars, sea urchins, and sea lilies. Others, like sea cucumbers, have varying degrees of bilateral symmetry. In the bodyplan, a true head is absent; the anatomical terms oral and aboral are used to describe orientation of the body surfaces. Feeding adaptations include particle feeding through WVS, everting the stomach to engulf prey (sea stars), and a scraping device called Aristotle's lantern (sea urchins)
(44,000 species) Our home phylum is divided into three subphyla: Urochordata, the sea squirts; Cephalochordata, the lancelets, and Vertebrata, the true vertebrates. Defining traits of this phylum include pharyngeal gill slits, a notochord, a post-anal tail, and a dorsal hollow nerve cord. In vertebrates, some of these structures are found only in embryonic stages. The lancelet Amphioxus branchiostoma is often used as a demonstration organism in biology labs
This Islamic dynasty ruled as caliphs from Damascus from 661-750. They came to power in the civil war following the death of Uthman when Mu'awiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan defeated the forces of Ali Ibn Abi Talib after the latter's assassination. Denounced in traditional Islamic historiography for their secular rule, they introduced hereditary transmission of office into Islam and favored Arabs at the expense of other Muslims. Under 'Abd al-Malik, the ______ Mosque was constructed in Damascus. In the 10th century, an ______ scion re-established the dynasty in Cordoba, Spain.
This Islamic dynasty reigned as caliphs from Baghdad from 750-1258, and later from Cairo from 1261-1517. They rode to power on widespread disaffection with the Umayyads and the sense that a member of the Prophet's family was best qualified to lead the community. Their greatest rulers were al-Mansur, Harun ar-Rashid, and al-Mamun the Great. During the 9th century, power began to devolve onto increasingly autonomous local dynasties, and this caliphate fell under the control of outside forces such as the Buyids and the Seljuqs. When the Mongols destroyed Baghdad in 1258, the caliph as-Mustazim was wrapped in a carpet and trampled to death by horses
This Islamic dynasty was Isma'ili Shi'ite Imams who founded their state in North Africa in 909 under the caliph al-Mahdi. They conquered Egypt in 969 under al-Muizz and built Cairo, becoming the Abbasids' rivals. At its height their regime reached into Yemen and Syria, and they had a network of missionaires spreading Isma'ili doctrines into Abbasid territory and beyond. In the eleventh century, the caliph al-Hakim, considered insane, disappeared, giving rise to the Druze religion. A later succession dispute gave rise to the sec of the Assassins. The last caliph, al-Adil, died in 1171.
This Islamic dynasty was a family of Ghuzz Turks who invaded the Middle East in the eleventh century and came to control the Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad. Following their defeat of the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, they settled in Anatolia as well, where they founded the Sultanate of Rum. Following the Central Asian model of "collective sovereignty," they divided territory among the ruling family, which prevented strong political unity. Their rule saw the beginning of the Sunni revivla and the spread of religious schools called madrasas in the Islamic world, giving uniformity to elite beliefs and practices. By 1200 their power was all but extinct.
This Islamic dynasty was Kurdish, taking control of Egypt under the Zengids. In 1171, Salah ad-Din (Saladin) abolished the Fatimid caliphate, and later took Damascus as well. He retook Jerusalem from the Crusader kingdoms; however, subsequent Crusades undid some of these gains. It was in Ayyubid times that the Sunni revival came to Egypt. The sultan al-Kamil gave Jerusalem to Frederick II in a peace treaty and was visited by St. Francis of Assisi. The Ayyubids followed the practice of collective sovereignty, and were often politically divided. The woman Shajar ad-Durr was the last to rule Egypt
This Islamic dynasty consisted of slave soldiers of foreign origin who deposed the Ayyubids in Egypt in 1250. Baybars, who turned back the Mongols at the Battle of Ayn Jalut, is a poopular figure in Arabic heroic literature. In 1291, they drove the last Crusaders from Palestine. Their reign is divided into a "Bahri" period from 1250-1382 and a "Circassian" period from 1382-1517. They were defeated by the Ottomans, who conquered Egypt in 1517.
This Islamic dynasty consisted of Turks of uncertain origin who conquered the Balkans and the Middle East and brought the central Islamic lands into the European state system. Their key military victories were the defeat of the Serbs in the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, the capture of Constantinople in 1453, and the defeat of the Mamluks in 1517. During the 15th century their lands replaced Palestine as the major target of the Crusades. They reached their height under Suleyman the Magnificent, who beseiged Vienna in 1529. The empire's remnants became Turkey after WWI.
This Islamic dynasty ruled most of India from the early 16th until the mid-18th century, and claimed descent form both Genghis Khan and Tamerlane. Their empire was founded by Babur and expanded under his grandson Akbar. The Taj Mahal was built under Shah Jahan, who brought the empire to the brink of bankruptcy. Aurangzeb excluded Hindus from public office, and the empire began to break up soon after his death in 1707.
This Islamic dynasty was founded by a Sunni Sufi (mystic) order under Shah Ismail, and ruled Iran from 1502 until 1736. They forcibly converted Iran to Shi'ism, and later converted themselves. Together with the Ottomans and Mughals, they form the three "Gunpowder Empires" in what Islamicists consider the late medieval period. Under Abbas I, an European expert was hired to reform the military following defeates by both the Ottoman and Uzbek rivals. Abbas later captured Baghdad and expelled the Portugese from the Persian Gulf. Esfahan was their capital during their height.
A primordial giant who formed in the void of Ginnungagap from fire and ice. He gave birth to the frost giants and created the primordial cow Audhumla. He was killed by Odin and his brothers, who used his body construct most of the universe
The All-Father, he is the leader of the Aesir, the principal group of Norse gods. He is a god of war, death, wisdom, poetry, and knowledge, and rides an eight-legged horse Sleipnir. He hung himself for nine days on the world tree Yggsdrasil, pierced by his own spear, to gain knowledge, and traded one of his eyes for a drink from Mimir's well to gain wisdom
Odin (Wodin or Wotan)
The wife of Odin, and mother by him of Balder, Hoder, Hermod, and Tyr. She is the goddess of the sky, marriage, and motherhood, and often works at her loom spinning clouds.
Frigg (or Frigga)
The son of Njord, and twin brother of Freya. He is one of the Vanir, a second group of Norse gods, but lives with the Aesir as a hostage. The god of fertility, horses, sun, and rain, his possessions include the magic ship Skidbladnir. He travels in a chariot drawn by the golden boar Gullinbursti, and had to give away his magic sword to win the hand of the giantess Gerda
Frey (or Freyr)
The daughter of Njord, and twin sister of Frey, she is also a Vanir hostage living with the Aesir. The goddess of love, passion, and human fertility, her possessions include a cloak that allows her to turn into a falcon, and the necklace Brisingamen. She travels in a chariot drawn by two cats.
A son of Odin and the giantess Jord, he is the god of thunder, weather, and crops. One of the most popular of the Norse gods, he travels in a chariot pulled by two goats and wields the hammer Mjolnir. He is married to Sif, and his special nemesis is the Midgard Serpent
He's actually giant-kin, but lives with the Aesir and is Odin's blood-brother. They god of fire and trickery, his many pranks include duping Hoder into killing Balder. His children include the wolf Fenrir, the Midgard Serpent Jormungandr, Hel (the ruler of the underworld), and Sleipnir. After killing Balder he was chained to three boulders with snakes dripping poison onto him
The son of nine sisters, he is the god of light and guardians. He guards Bifrost, the rainbow bridge into Asgard. His senses are so sharp, he can see 100 miles by day or night and hear grass growing. He will call the Aesir into battle at Ragnarok with his horn Gjall (or Gjallerhorn)
The fairest of the Aesir, he is the god of light, joy, and beauty. He dreamed of his own death, so Frigga extracted promises from everything not to harm Balder, but she skipped mistletoe. Loki tricked his blind brother Hoder into killing him with a spear of mistletoe.
The goddesses of destiny, represented as the three sisters Urd (or Wyrd), Verdandi (or Verthandi) and Skuld. The counterparts of the Greek Fates, they tend the Well of Fate as the roots of Yggdrasil
(1491-1547; r. 1509-1547) House of Tudor. The son of Tudor founder Henry VII, he brought England into both the Renaissance and the Reformation. Henry patronized the philosopher Erasmus, the painted Hans Holbein the Younger, and the writer Thomas More. Originally a supporter of the Catholic Church--the Pope had named him "Defender of the Faith"--he named himself head of the Church of England in 1533 so that he could divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn. He executed top ministers who crossed him, including Thomas Cromwell and Thomas More. He married six times, but only his third wife, Jane Seymour, bore him a son, the sickly Edward VI.
Henry VIII
(1533-1603, r. 1558-1603) House of Tudor. Known as the "Virgin Queen" because she never married, as Henry VIII's daughter by Anne Boleyn, the Catholic Church considered her illegitimate. After the death of her Catholic sister Mary I, Elizabeth tried to resolve religious order by declaring England a Protestant state but naming herself only "Governor" of the Church. She foiled attempts at her throne by Spanish King Philip II and Mary, Queen of Scots; the latter Elizabeth reluctantly executed in 1587. Her reign saw great expansion of the English navy and the emergence of William Shakespeare, but when she died, the Crown went to Scottish king James VI, the son of Mary, Queen of Scots.
Elizabeth I
(1738-1820, r. 1760-1820) House of Hanover. Though he lost the American colonies in the Revolutionary War, Britain's economic empire expanded during his reign. While his ministers kept their lives, they fell from power frequently, including both William Pitts, Lord Bute, and Lord North. Popular at home, he suffered from porphyria, causing the "madness" that ultimately led to the Regency period (1811-1820) of his son George IV.
George III
(1819-1901, r. 1837-1901; Empress of India 1876-1901) House of Hanover. The longest-reigning monarch in British history, she relinquished much of the remaining royal power, both to her husband Albert and to her favored prime ministers, Lord Melbourne, Robert Peel, and Benjamin Disraeli. After Albert's death in 1861, she largely went into seclusion, though she influenced the passage of the Reform Act of 1867, which doubled the number of Britons who could vote.
(Alexandrina) Victoria
(1028-1087, r. 1066-1087) House of Normandy. Duke of Normandy from 1035, he was promised succession to the throne by Edward the Confessor, but when Edward gave the throne to Harold II in 1066, he invaded England, killing Harold and defeating the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings. An able administrator, he authorized a survey of his kingdom in the 1086 Domesday Book. By that time, he had replaced Anglo-Saxon nobles and clergy with Normans and other continentals
William I (the Conqueror)
(1600-1649, r. 1625-1649) House of Stuart. At age one he succeeded his mother Mary as King of Scotland. As the great-great-grandson of Henry VII, he claimed the English throne upon the death of Elizabeth I, uniting Scotland and England under the same crown (though not formally until the Act of Union 1707). He was the intended target of Catholic fanatic Guy Fawkes' failed Gunpowder Plot in 1605. A believer in absolutism, he dissolved Parliament from 1611-1621, favoring ministers Robert Cecil and the Duke of Buckingham instead. His rule saw English expansion into North America, through royal charter in Virginia and Puritan protest in Massachusetts.
James I
(1452-1485, r. 1483-1485) House of Plantagenet: York (white). He was made Duke of Gloucester in 1461 when his brother Edward IV deposed the Lancastrian king Henry VI, as part of the Wars of the Roses. Upon Edward's death in 1483, he served as regent to his nephew Edward V, but likely had the boy murdered in the Tower of London that year. Two years later, he died at the hands of Henry Tudor's Lancastrian forces at Bosworth Field, ending the Wars of the Roses and beginning the Reign of Henry VII
Richard III
(1926-present, r. 1952-present) House of Windsor. Representative of the modern ceremonial monarchy, she and her husband "Prince" Philip Mountbatten have traveled the globe representing British interests. Has four children with Prince Phillip: Charles, Anne, Andrew, and Edward. In 1992, her annus horribilis, Charles, Andrew, and Anne all divorced and a severe fire damaged part of the Windsor Castle. Charles's married Diana, Princess of Wales, and they divorced in 1996. The following year, Diana died in a Paris car crash.
Elizabeth II
(1167-1216, r. 1199-1216) House of Plantagenet. Though he tried to seize the crown from his brother Richard while the latter was in Germany, Richard forgave him and made him his successor. Excommunicated by the Pope for four years for refusing to accept Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury, he was also weak as a fight, as French King Philip II routed him at Bouvines at 1214. A year later, England's barons forced him to sign the Magna Carta at Runnymede, an event that marked the beginning of the development of the British constitution.
John Lackland
(1630-1685, r. 1660-1685) House of Stuart. While Cromwell ruled the Commonwealth, he was crowned King of Scotland in 1651. After Cromwell died, he used the Declaration of Breda to restore himself to the English throne. He fought two lackluster wars against the Dutch, and needed protection from Louis XIV through the Treaty of Dover. His wife Caterine of Braganza produced no legitimate heirs, but this "Merry Monarch" has as many as 14 illegitimate children. Tolerant of Catholics, he dissolved Parliament over the issue in 1681 and refused the prevent his brother James from succeeding him.
Charles II
(1633-1701, r. 1685-1688) House of Stuart. The 1678 Popish Plot against Charles II would have elevated this Roman Catholic King to the throne, had it been real and not fabricated by Titus Oates. His three year reign, however, did feature heavy favoritism toward Catholics, so much so that Protestants invited James's son-in-law William of Orange to rule England, deposing James in the bloodless Glorious Revolution. Exiled to Louis XIV's court, he made an attempt to regain his crown in 1690 but was routed at the Battle of Boyne.
James II
(1133-1189, r. 1154-1189) House of Plantagenet. The son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda, he married Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1152, and invaded England the following year, forcing Stephen of Blois to acknowledge him as his heir. While king he developed the common law and due process, but fought with Thomas Becket over submission to the Pope; He had Becket executed in 1170 but performed penance at Canterbury. Eleanor and his four sons conspired with French king Philip II against him on several occasions.
Henry II
(1157-1199, r. 1189-1199) House of Plantagenet. Third son of Henry II, he spent only five months of his reign in England. He went on the Third Crusade to Jerusalem, winning many victories in the Holy Land, but on his way back was captured and ransomed by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI. He also fought Philip II in Normandy, and died while defending his possessions in Aquitaine.
Richard I (the Lion-Hearted)
(849-899; r. 871-899) House of Saxon. Acutally just the King of Wessex in southwestern England, he expelled the rival Danes from the Mercian town of London in 886, eventually conquering most of the Danelaw territory. He also kept england from the worst of the Dark Ages by encouraging his bishops to foster literacy; in addition, he translated Boethius, Augustine, and the Venerable Bede's works into Anglo-Saxon
Alfred the Great
One of the "Four Books" used by the ancient Chines for civil service study, it contains the sayings (aphorisms) of Confucius. The philopher Confucius did not write or edit the words; his disciples compiled them in the 5th or 4th century BC. Confucianism in more of a philosophical system than a religion, and Conficius that of himself more as a teacher than a spiritual leader. It contains some of the basic ideas found in Confucianism, such as ren (benevolence) and li (proper conduct)
The Analects
Protestants and Jews assign lower authority to the Apocrypha because it was written between 300 and 100 BC, but Catholics and Orthodox Christians consider these books to be "deuterocanonical," meaning that they are just as important and divinely inspired as other parts of the Old Testament. In ancient Greek the word meant "hidden things." Scholars differ as to which books are included, but Tobit, Judith, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Wisdom, Sirach (or Ecclesiasticus), and Baruch are almost always included
Sacred scripture of Zoroastrianism. It contains five parts: Gathas (poems written by Zoroaster), Visparat (homages to spiritual leaders), Vendidad (legal and medical doctrine), Yashts (hymns to angels and heroes), and Khurda (lesser rituals and hymns). The Gathas may be as old as the 7th century BC, when Zoroaster is thought to has lived, but most of this work was put together by the Sassanid Persian dynasty, between 200 and 640. Zoroastrianism centers on eternal struggle between a good entity (Ahura Mazda, or Ormuzd) and its evil counterpart (Angra Mainyu, or Ahriman); the religion is still practiced by about 120,000 Parsees in Bombay and a few thousand adherents in Iran and Iraq
Avesta (or Zend-Avesta)
Sanskrit for "The Song of God," it is a poem found in Book Six of the Hindu epic Mahabharata, attributed to Vyasa. Likely formalized in the 1st or 2nd century, the Bhagavad-Gita begins on the eve of a battle, when the prince Arjuna asks his charioteer Krishna (an avatar of Vishnu) about responsibility in dealing with the suffering that the impending battle will cause. Krishna tells Arunja that humans possess a divine self within a material form, and that Arjuna's duty is to love God and do what is right without thinking of personal gain--some of the main tenets of Hinduism
Philosophical text behind Daoism, a religion-philosophy founded by the semi-legendary Laozi in the 6th century BC, though scholars now believe it was written about 200 years later, during the Warring States period of the late Zhou Dynasty. This work instructs adherents in restrain and passiveness, allowing the natural order of the universe to take precedent.
Dao de Jing (or Tao Te Ching or the Way and its Power)
This is a report of the words or actinos of a Muslim religious figure, most frequently the Prophet Muhammad. Each consists of a matn, or text of the original oral law itself, as well as an isnad, or chain of authorities through which it has been passed by word of mouth through the generations. Collectively, they point Muslims toward the Sunna, or practice of the Prophet, which together with the Qur'an forms the basis for shari'a, usually translated as Islamic law
Published in 1830 by the founder of the Mormon Church, Joseph Smith. Mormons believe that the prophet Moroni revealed the location of this book to Smith, and then Smith translated it from a "reformed Egyptian" language. The Book of Mormon is inscribed on thin gold plates, and documents the history of a group of Hebrews who migrated to America around 600 BC. This group divided into two tribes: the Lamanites (ancestors of American Indians), and the highly civilized Nephites, a chosen people instructed by Jesus but killed by the Lamanites around 421.
Book of Mormon
Arabic for "recitation," its the most sacred scripture of Islam. It is subdivided into 114 chapters, called suras, which, with the exception of the first one, are arranged in descending order of length. According to Muslim belief, the angel Jibril (Gabriel) visited the prophet Muhammad in 610 and revealed the work to him. Various suras discuss absolute submission to Allah (God), happiness in Heaven versus torture in Hell, and the mercy, compassion, and justice of Allah. The third caliph, Uthman (644-656), formalized the text after many of his oral reciters were killed in battle.
Qur-an (or Koran)
Hebrew for "instruction," it is a codification of Jewish oral and written law, based on the Torah. It consists of the Mishnah (the laws themselves), and the Gemara (scholarly commentary on the Mishnah). The Gemara developed into Judaic centers: Palestine and Babylonia, so there are two of these (Palestinian and Babylonian), the latter considered more authoritative by Orthodox Jews. Rabbis and lay scholars finished the Babylonian one around 600.
Also called Vedanta, or "last part of the Vedas," these were written in Sanskrit between 900 and 500 BC. Part poetry but mainly prose, the earlier laid the foundation for the development of several key Hindu ideas, such as connecting the individual soul (atman) with the universal soul (Brahman). Spiritual release, or moksha, could be achieved through meditation and asceticism. The name means "to sit down close," as pupils did when a teacher recited them.
These consist strictly of four hymnbooks: the Rig (prayers in verse), Sama (musical melodies), Yajur (prose prayers), and Atharva (spells and incantations). Each of these, though, also contains a Brahmana (interpretation), and they also incorporate treatises on meditation (Aranyakas) as well as the Upanishads. Written in an archaic form of Sanskrit by early Aryan invaders, possibly between 1500 and 1200 BC, they concentrate on sacrifices to deities, such as Indra (god of thunder), Varuna (cosmic order), and Agni (fire). The major gods Vishnu and Shiva appear as minor deities in these; their elevation, as well as the concept of karma, does not develop until the Upanishads.
The basis for ancient Chinese philosophy and religion, this was created between 1500 and 1000 BC, though legend has it that the dragon-emperor Fuxi derived its eight trigrams from a turtle shell. The trigrams consist of either broken (yin) or unbroken (yang) lines, and by reading pairs of these trigrams randomly, one could learn about humans, the universe, and the meaning of life. Qin emperor Shi Huandi burned most scholarly books, but this one escaped because it was not seen as threatening.
Yi Jing (or I Ching or Book of Changes)
What's the different between Tom Wolfe and Thomas Wolfe?
Tom Wolfe (1930-present, Thomas Kennerly Wolfe Jr.) is the modern author and journalist who wrote The Right Stuff, the Bonfire of the Vanities, and A Man in Full. Thomas Wolfe (1900-1938, Thomas Clayton Wolfe) was an earlier author of works like Look Homeward, Angel, and You Can't Go Home Again
Short story by Mark Twain: "The Man ___ ________ Hadleyburg"
That Corrupted
What does IWW stand for?
Industrial Workers of the World
This Arthur Conan Doyle novel is about the theft of the Agra treasure by four men including Johnathan Small.
The Sign of Four
This man was an officier in the Revolutionary War who went on to lead a 1786-1787 rebellion in western Massachusetts opposing its high taxes.
Daniel Shays
Better known as "Old Ironsides," this warship was one of the first six ships commissioned by the US Navy after the American Revolution. Launched from Boston in 1797, it first saw action as the squadron flagship in the Quasi-War with France from 1799-1801 and also fought in the Barbary War and the War of 1812. She later served many years as the nation's flagship in the Mediteranean. Retired from active duty in 1846, the words of Oliver Wendell Holmes saved her from the scrap yard--she became the training ship of the US Naval Academy until the mid 1880s. She became the symbolic flagship of the US Navy in 1940 and is now a floating museum in Boston.
USS Constitution
This warship was built at what is now the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, between 1798 and 1799. It was attacked by the British Leopard off Cape Henry in 1807 (which led to the duel between Commodores James Barron and Stephen Decatur), one of the causes of the War of 1812. She was captured off Boston in 1813 by the British frigate Shannon, on which occasion her commander, Capt. James Lawrence, uttered his celebrated words, "Don't give up the ship," which have become a US Navy tradition.
USS Chesapeake
Oliver Hazard Perry's decisive victory over the British fleet in the Battle of Lake Erie on September 10, 1813 ensured American control of the Great Lakes during the War of 1812. In the battle, Perry's flagship was severely damaged and four-fifths of her crew killed or wounded. Commodore Perry and a small contingent rowed half a mile through heavy gunfire to another American ship, boarded, and took command, brought her into battle and soundly defeated the British fleet. Perry summarized the fight in a now-famous message to General William Henry Harrison: "We have met the enemy and they are ours."
USS Lawrence/USS Niagara
After departing Union forces burned the Gosport Navy Yard in Norfolk in April 1861, yard workers salvaged the USS ______ and converted her into the ironclad CSS ______. On Marchy 8, 1862, the CSS ______ left the shipyard and sank two Union warships in Hampton Roads. The South's ironclad rammed and sank the USS Cumberland and set fire to and sank the USS Congress, one of the nation's first six frigates. The USS _______ was sent in to end its rampage and the two ironclads battled for 3.5 hours before the CSS ______ ran aground in its attempt to ram the USS Minnesota. Visibly damaged, the CSS _____ retreated and the USS ______ withdrew to protect the Minnesota. The confeterates destroyed the CSS _______ soon after to prevent her capture by Union forces. The USS _____, victorious in her first battle, sank in a storm off Cape Hatteras, NC. The shipwreck is a national underwater sanctuary under the purview of the NOAA.
USS Monitor/CSS Virginia [aka USS Merrimack]
The first USS ____, a second-class armored battleship was launched in 1889. A part of the "Great White Fleet," in 1897 she sailed for Havana to show the flag and protect American citizens. Shortly after 9:40 pm on February 15, 1898, the battleship was torn apart by a tremendous explosion. The court of inquiry convened in March was unable to obtain evidence associating the blast with anyone, but public opinion--inflamed by "yellow journalism"--was such that the disaster led to the declaration of war on Spain on April 21, 1898.
USS Maine (ACR-1)
A lead ship of the honor escort for President Wilson's trip to France in 1918, she was on Battleship Row at Pearl Harbor when Japanese aircraft appeared just before 8:00 am on Sunday, December 7, 1941. She came under attack almost immediately, and at about 8:10 was hit by an 800-kilogram bomb just forward of turret two on the starboard side. Within a few seconds the forward powerder magazines exploded, killing 1177 of the crew, and the ship sank to the bottom of the harbor. In 1962, the USS _______ memorial opened and is now administered by the National Park Service
USS Arizona (BB-39) [Pennsylvania class]
The fourth USS _____ was the last battleship completed by the United States; she was laid down January 6, 1941 by New York Naval Shipyard. She was launched January 29, 1944 and received her sponsorship from Miss Margaret Truman, daughter of then Missouri Senator, Harry S Truman. Commissioned on June 11, 1944, the "Mighty Mo," as she became known, sailed for the Pacific and quickly became the flagship of Admiral Halsey, which is why she was chosen as the site of the formal surrend of the Empire of Japan on the morning of September 1, 1945
USS Missouri (BB-63) [Iowa class]
In 1951, Congress authorized the construction of the world's first nuclear-powered submarine. On December 12 of that year, the Navy announced that she would be the sixth ship of the fleet to bear the name ______. She was launched on January 21, 1954. Eight months later, on September 30, 1954, she became the first commissioned nuclear-powered ship in the US Navy. On the morning of January 17, 1955, her commander Wilkinson signaled "Underway on Nuclear Power." In 1958 she departed Pearl Harbor under top secret orders to conduct "Operation Sunshine," the first crossing of the North Pole by a ship.
USS Nautilus (SSN-571) [Nautilus class]
It is a popular, compiled, high-level language developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1985 at Bell Labs. It's similar to C, but adds object-oriented features (classes), generic programming (templates), and exception handling to the language. It is a popular language for developing business applications and increasingly, games.
It is a popular, high-level language developed by Sun Microsystems in the early 1990s. The language was originally named OAK and unsuccessfully used for set-top devices, but hit it big after being renamed in 1995 and introduced to the WWW. It is a relatively pure object-oriented languge with syntax similar to C++. Instead of being compiled to object code, it is compiled to _____ bytecode, which is then interpreted or compiled on the fly. This use of machine-independent bytecode gives it its "write once, run everywhere" property. It is principally used for client-side web application ("applets") and server-side web application ("servlets") that make use of J2EE technology. The success of _____ inspired Microsoft to introduce C# language and .NET framework.
It is a high-level language developed by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz at Dartmouth College in the mid 1960s. It is easy to use by its relative lack of structure makes maintaining programs difficult. There have been many versions of it and some more modern ones (Turbo_____, Quick_____, Visual _____) have added advanced fetures. Stereotypical programs like 10 PRINT "HELLO" and 10 GOTO 10 are written in it
BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)
A compiled successor to the B programming language, was developed by Dennis Ritchie in 1972. It is a high-level and highly standardized language that remains very "close to the hardware" and allows the programmer to perform useful, fast, and dangerous tricks. It is widely used for business applications, games, operating systems (particularly UNIX and Linux), and device drivers.
It is an interpreted language designed principally to process text. It was written by Larry Wall and first release in 1988. It is intended to be practical and concise rather than theoretically elegant and is sometimes lampooned as "write one, read never" because of its heavy use of symbols and idiom. It is often used for web CGI scripts and parsing log files.
Perl (unofficial retronym for Practical Extraction Report Language)
This language was created in the late 1950s and was the first prodedural language intended for solving mathematical and scientific problems. Formalized in a report titled _____ 58, it progressed through ____ 60 and _____68 before waning in popularity. It was sufficiently advanced and respected that most modern procedural languaged reflect its overall structure and design; some, like Pascal, are very closely related.
ALGOL (ALGOrithmic Language)
It is a high-level, compiled language built upon ALGOL. It is named for a 17th century mathematician and was developed by Nicklaus Wirth during 1967-1971. It is known for its emphasis on structured programming techniques and strong typing; because of this, it was extremely popular as a teaching language in the 1980s and early 1990s, though it was never popular for business or scientific applications. The object-oriented language Delphi was based on _____.
It is the ancestor of the family of functional languages that emphasize evaluating expressions rather than executing imperative commands. It was developed in 1950-1960 by John McCarthy and is used primarily for symbolic manipulations of complicated structures rather than numberical calculation. It and its descendants (Scheme, CommonLisp, etc.) continue to be used in academic research, particularly for AI.
LISP (LISt Processing)
This is the oldest high-level language. Designed by John Backus for IBM during the late 1950s, it was once in use on virtually every computer in the world and is still used today for engineering and scientific applications because of the quality of its compilers and numerical libraries. The most popular versions are ______ IV, 77, and 90. The name was originally entirely capitalized, but the ANSI ____ Committe has since declared the "initial capital" spelling official.
Fortran (FORmula TRANslation)
This language was developed in 1959 by CODASYL (Conference on Data Systems Languages) under the direction of Rear Admiral Grace Hopper and is the second-oldest high-level language. It emphasized record-processing and database access and uses an English-like syntax, all attributes that led to widespread use in business, particularly the financial sector. It is characterized as especially wordy (just as C and Perl are characterized as terse). The vasy majority of Year 2000 problems involved programs written in this language.
COBOL (COmmon Business-Oriented Language)
What are the five parts of TS Eliot's 1922 masterpiece, "The Waste Land"?
"The Burial of the Dead," "A Game of Chess," "The Fire Sermon," "Death by Water," and "What the Thunder Said"
Who are the five original winners of Nobel Prizes (1901)?
Wilhelm Rontgen (physics, discovery of X-rays), Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff (chemistry, for laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure), Emil Adolf von Behring (physiology or medicine, for his serum therapy remedy for diptheria), Sully Prudhomme (literature, for his idealistic poetry), and Henri Dunant and Frederic Passy (peace, for founding the International Red Cross and the first French peace society, respectively).
Who are "the Five" nationalist Russian composers often referred to as the "Mighty Handful"?
Modest Mussorgksy (1839-1881), Mily Balakirev (1837-1910), Alexander Borodin (1833-1887), Cesar Cui (1835-1918) and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908).
What are the codenames for the five beaches attacked in Operation Overloard on D-Day?
Gold, Juno, Sword, Utah, and Omaha. The first three were attacked by British/Canadian forces, the latter two were assaulted by Americans
What are the five classical "orders of architecture"?
Doric (simple, used in the Parthenon), Ionic (fancier, fluted with scrolls on their capitals), Corinthian (baroque, fluted with acanthus leaves for capitals), Tuscan (plain, similar to Doric), and Composite (mixture of Ionic and Corinthian). The latter two are Roman developments.
Who were the first five members elected to te Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown NY?
Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson, and Walter Johnson
Hydrogen produces an infinite series of spectral lines. The first five are named after scientists who observed them before it was known that they were actually examples of the same phenomenon. From lowest to highest energy, name them.
Lyman, Balmer, Paschen, Bracket, and Pfund series. Only the Balmer series exists in the visible spectrum
There are only five regular polyhedra, three dimensional shapes with congruent regular polygons for sides. Name the Platonic solids:
Tetrahedron (4 triangular sides), cube (6 square sides), octahedron (8 triangular sides), dodecahedron (12 pentagonal sides), and icosahedron (20 triangular sides).
Name the five Pillars of Islam
Declaration of faith (Shahadah), prayer (Salat), giving charity to those in need (Zakat), fasting during the month of Ramadan (Sawm), and the pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) to be performed once in each adherent's lifetime.
(Athens, Greece) The first edition of the modern Olympics was the brainchild of Baron Pierre de Coubertin of France; winners were awarded silver medals. Some of the stranger events included one-handed weightlifting and 100-meter freestyle swimming for memebrs of the Greek navy, Appropriately, Greek shepherd Spiridon Louis became the hero of the Games by winning the marathon
1896 Summer Olympics
(Stockholm, Sweden) While the Swedes introduced electronic timers to the games, the athletic hero was US decathlete and Native American Jim Thorpe. He won the pentathalon, placed fourth in high jump, and seventh in the long jump. Finally, Thorpe went on to win the decathlon with a score so astounding that it would still have won him the silver medal in 1948. During the medal presentation, Swedish King Gustav V said, "Sir, you are the greatest athlete" to which Thorpe replied "Thanks, King."
1912 Summer Olympics
(Berlin, Germany) These games are best remembered for Alabama native Jesse Owens' amazing work on the track against a backdrop of Nazi propaganda emphasizing Aryan superiority. The American athlete won the 100-meter dash, 200-meter dash, long jump, and 4x100-meter sprint relay. Despite the growing strength of the Nazi state, the German people became enamored with Owens and named a Berlin street for him in 1980 after his death. On other fronts, the Olympics were broadcast on television for the first time (as seen in the film Contact) and also saw the introduction of the relay of the Olympic torch.
1936 Summer Olympics
(Mexico City, Mexico) In addition to being the first Olympics to be held at high altitude, these Games saw US long jumper Bob Beamon set a record of 8.9 meters that would remain untouched for 23 years. The Games ended on a controversial note: to protest the Mexican government's killing of at least 250 unarmed demonstrators on the eve of the Games, Tommie Smith and John Carlos staged a silent protest with a black gloved, raised fist "Black Power" salute during the award ceremony for the 200-meter race. This didn't sit well with the International Olympic Committee who promptly ordered them home.
1968 Summer Olympics
(Munich, West Germany) One of the most tragic Olympics ever, these Games saw the kidnapping and killing of 11 Israeli athletes by eight Palestinian terrorists five, five of whom were shot dead by West German police. Jim McKay of ABC Sports remained on the air for hours, bringing American viewers up to date on the situation. Though Olympics paused for 34, the IOC ordered the games to continue and memorable performances were turned in by American swimmer Mark Spitz, who won seven gold medals, and Russian dymnast Olga Korbut, who captivated audiences en route to winning three gold medals
1972 Summer Olympics
(Lake Placid, NY, US) In an Olympics where a single man, American speed skater Eric Heiden, would win five gold medals and not be the biggest story, something very special had to happen. In what would become known as "The Miracle on Ice," the US Olympic hockey team, led by head coach Herb Brooks and captain Mike Eruzione, defeated the powerful Soviet team 4-3 on February 22, 1980. Two days later, they defeated Finland to claim America's second Olympic hockey gold medal, the first being in 1960 at Squaw Valley.
1980 Winter Olympics
(Moscow, USSR) Despite the glow from the Lake Placid Games, these Games were marred by a US boycott ordered by President Jimmy Carter in response to the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. This lead was followed by Canada, West Germany, Japan, Kenya and China, while other Western nations left it up to their individual athletes, many of whom chose to partake. The result was an Eastern Bloc field day, with all 54 East German rowers earning earning a medal and the Soviet totaling 80 gold medals. British distance runner Sebastian Coe produced the West's best performance by winning the 1500-meter race.
1980 Summer Olympics
(Los Angeles, CA, USA) One good turn deserves another, or in this case, "The Russians aren't coming, the Russians aren't coming." Virtually every Communist nation skipped these games, leaving the door open for a "USA all the way" feeling, as the Americans took home 83 gold medals out of a total 174. Among the highlights were American sprinter Carl Lewis' repeart of Jesse Owen 1936 performance: winning the 100-meter dash, 200-meter dash, long jump, and 4x100 meter sprint relay. In gymnastics, West Virginia native Mary Lou Retton won the all-around gold medal.
1984 Summer Olympics
(Lillehammer, Norway) Massachusetts native Nancy Kerrigan and Oregonian Tonya Harding were among America's leading hopes for gold in women's figure skating. During the Olympic Trials in Detriot, Kerrigan was viciously attacked by an unknown assailant, who would later be traced back to Harding. In the ensuing media circus, both Kerrigan and Harding were sent to Norway, but their thunder was stolen by Ukrainian skater Oksana Baiul, who edged out silver medallist Kerrigan, while Harding placed eighth. Sweden won the ice hockey gold by defeating Canada in a shootout; future Colorado Avalanche forwad Peter Forsberg's game-winning effort against Canadian goalie Sean Burke was immortalized on a Swedish postage stamp. In speed skating, Bonnie Blair won her third straight gold in the 500-meters and second straight in the 1,000-meters, perennial hard luck kid Dan Jansen won Olympic gold in his last race, the 1,000 meters, and Norwegian Johann Olav Koss won three gold medals, all in world-record times
1994 Winter Olympics
(Atlanta, GA, USA) In what have been called the "Coke Games," due to their exceptional commercialization in the city of Coke's business headquarters, the sweltering Georgia heat and organizational problems made these games a veritable nightmare. But a still-unsolved bombing in Centennial Olympic Park that killed one person and injured one hundred that remains the Games' most memorable event. Irish swimmer Michelle Smith won three gold medals in the pool, only to be plagued by rumors of steroid use. Carl Lewis got his ninth gold by winning the long jump for the fourth consecutive Games, while American sprinter Michael Johnson became the first man to win the 200-meter and 400 meter races, the former in a world-record 19.32 seconds.
1996 Summer Olympics
The basic sets of integers that satisfy the Pythagorean Theorem and could be the side lengths of a right triangle. The simplest ones are 3-4-5, 5-12-13, 7-24-25, and 8-15-17. Any multiple of one is also one, so that 6-8-10, 15-20-25, and 300-400-500 are also ones by virtue of 3-4-5 being one
Pythagorean Triples
Celebrated on the first and second days of Tishrei, this holiday marks the beginning of the Jewish year. It is believed that on this day, people's souls are judged, and God "temporarily" decides their fate. Between this holiday and Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, are the Ten Days of Repentment, when people are given a chance to reflect and repent. On this holiday, it is customary to wear white clothes and eat apples, honey, and pomegranates. Other customs include the blowing of the shofar (an instrument made from a ram's horn) and the ceremony of Tashlich, in which Jews throw bread crumbs into running water to symbolize the cleansing of their sins, is also performed.
Rosh Hashanah
Celebrated on the tenth day of Tishrei, it is the Jewish Day of Atonement; at the end of this holiday, it is believed that one's fat is sealed. Jews are required to abstain from eating, drinking, washing, and sex. Forbidden fashions include jewlery, makeup, and leather. One traditionally wears white clothes to symbolize purity from sin. In the afternoon, the Book of Jonah is read. A full day of prayers begins with the Kol Nidre, an ancient incantation that forgives Jews from vows or promises unwittingly made during the past year. As on Rosh Hashanah, the shofar is blown.
Yom Kippur
Celebrated on the 15th of Tishrei, this holiday commemorates the booths that the Israelites lived in following the Exodus from Egypt; it also celebrates the harvest. Traditionally, Jews build booths, in which they live and eat for seven days. In synagogue, four symbolic species (the palm, the etrog [large yellow citrus], myrtle, and willow) are waved in seven directions. Each night, in the booth, it is traditional to invite a Biblical figure to be your guest for that night.
This festival lasts for eight days, starting on the 25th day of Kislev (the third month). It celebrates the victory of the small Maccabee army against the large Greek army of Antiochus, as wellas the recapture and purification of the Temple in Jerusalem (ca. 168 BC). It is traditional to light the eight-branched Menorah each night and spin the dreidel. Exchanging presents is only a recent tradition developed in the US.
celebrated onthe 14th of Adar (sixth month) and commemorating the victory of teh Jews, led by Esther and Mordechai, against Haman, who tried to destroy the Jews because of his anger at Mordechai. The story, recorded in the Book of Esther (read from a one-handed scroll called a megillah), takes place in Shushan, the captial city of the kingdom of the Persian King Ahasueras. On this holiday, it is traditional to dress up, get drunk, give charity, eat triangular pastries called hamentaschen, and exchange gifts (Mishloach Manot) with friends.
Celebrated for seven days beginning on the 15th day of Nissan (the seventh month), this holiday commemorates the Exodus from Egypt. It is also the ancient Hebrew New Year (superceded in that role by Rosh Hashanah). On the first two days, Jews have a festival dinner called a seder, where they retell the story of the Exodus, from a book called a hagaddah. Jews are required to abstain from eating or owning leavened bread for the duration of the festival; matzah (usually a square flat unleavened bread) is eaten instead. On this holiday, the Song of Songs is recited. It also begins a cycle of seven weeks, called the Omer, a period of semi-mourning
Passover (Pesach)
Celebrated on the sixth day of Sivan (the ninth month), the 50th day of the Omer, after Passover; the word means "weeks," hence the name Pentecost. It commemorates the giving of the Torah to the Israelites at Mt. Sinai, as well as the beginning of the harvest in ancient Israel. Sukkot, Passover, and _____ are the three pilgrimages, when Jews would all gather at the Temple each year; on _____, Jews would dedicate their first harvest of fruits to the Temple. The Book of Ruth is read in synagogue on this holiday, and it is traditional to study all night on this festival
This is a day of mourning for the destructions of both the First and Second Temples. It is traditional to fast and to keep oneself in a solemn mood. The Book of Lamentations and the Book of Job are read, traditionally while sitting on the floor and with candles as the only lights, as Jews are supposed to refrain from physicla comfort.
The Ninth of Av
(April 12, 1861) Built on an island in 1829, the fort was one of three that the United States maintained in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In order to claim true independence from the Union, Jefferson Davis decided that the forst needed to be taken; a Confederate force under PGT Beauregard ordered the small Union garrison, controlled by Major Robert Anderson, to surrender. Anderson refused, shots were fired, and the Union commander surrendered two days later, with only one soldier killed. The Union made two unsuccessful attempts to recapture the fort with ironclad ships in 1863, but Confederate forces finally abandoned the fort when they left Charleston in February 1865.
Fort Sumter
(July 21, 1861) Fought at a creek near Manassas, Virginia (30 miles west of Washington DC), this was the first major showdown of the war. Beauregard led an army against Union commander Irwin McDowell and received reinforcements from Joseph Johnston's troops (whom Union General Robert Patterson failed to detain). The Confederacy routed the Union when Thomas Jackson's brigade held the left line at Henry House Hill; this effort earned him the nickname "Stonewall." Congressmen and reporters, who had expected to watch a Union victory, fled in panic back to DC.
First Bull Run/ First Manassas
(March 9, 1862) A channel in southeastern Virginia was the site of the first major fight between two ironclad ships. The Confederates raised an old wooden boat, the Merrimack, and fit it with ten guns and iron armor plates. Renaming the Virginia, it was captained by Franklin Buchanan. The Union countered by constructing a large oval with a rotating gun, called the Monitor and piloted by John Worden. The Virginia tore through Union wooden ships (Cumberland, Congress, Minnesota) but when the Monitor arrived, the two ironclads fought to a stalemate--thus the Union maintained its blockade. The South deliberately destroyed the Virginia two months later, while the Monitor sank in a storm off Cape Hatteras in December 1862
Hampton Roads
(April 6-7, 1862) This was named after a church in Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee (100 miles southwest of Nashville). Confederate commander Albert Sidney Johnston led a force north from Corinth, Mississippi. Ulysses S Grant, who had just captured Fort Donelson, brought five Union divisions to face him. At first, the South led the attack, but Union troops held the "Hornets' Nest" for hours, killing Johnston Wallace in the process. Beauregard took over, but by the second day Norther Generals Don Carlos Buell and Lew Wallace (who wrote Ben-Hur) brought reinforcements, causing the Confederates to retreat. More than 13,000 Union and 10,000 Confederate soldiers lost their lives
Shiloh/ Pittsburg Landing
(March-July 1862) Union commander George McClellan devised this plan to capture the COnfederate capital at Richmond, Virginia by sending 110,000 men up the peninsula between the York and James rivers. Advised of Norther maneuvers, Southern commander Joseph Johnsston detached a force to defend the peninsula. He also sent a small unit (led by Stonewall Jackson) that crushed Union reinforcements in the West. After Johnston was wounded as Seven Pines (June 1), Davis replaced him with Robert E. Lee. Lee concentrated his force north of the Chickahominy River; in the Seven Days' Battles (June 25-July 1), the Confederates broke through Union defenses, leading to McClellan's retreat down the James toward Harrison's Landing, and failure of the campaign
Peninsular Campaign
(August 29-30, 1862) This resounding victory by Lee and Jackson pushed Union forces back to DC. President Lincoln had replaced McClellan with John Pope, who would supposedly be united with the Army of the Potomac, commanded by Henry Halleck. Lee maneuvered Jackson's troops behind those of Pope; Jackson detained Pope's men at Manasses while Lee sent James Longstreet to crush Pope's left flank. Halleck's army was supposed to land at Aquia, but instead retreated to defend Washington, ceding all of Virginia to the Confederacy and marking a low point in the Union effort.
Second Bull Run/ Second Manassas
(September 17, 1862) The bloodiest day of the Civil War: 12,000 Union men lost their lives, as did 10,000 Confederates. Lee planned a norther invasion into Maryland but a Union soldier discovered those battle plans wrapped around three cigars. Instead, Lee marched his army toward Sharpsburg Creek. Meanwhile, Jackson's forces captured Harper's Ferry, VA, and rushed to reunited with Lee. McClellan had a large enough force to capture the entire rebel army but did not use all of his troops nor coordinate one solid attack. This battle was actually a series of five skirmishes; in one of them, dubbed "The Bloody Lane," 2000 Union soldiers fell in a few minutes. As it was, Union forces drove the Confederates back across the Potomac
Antietam/ Sharpsburg
(December 13, 1862) At this site, about 50 miles south of Washington, Union commander Ambrose Burnside (who had replaced McClellan) tried to take the initiative and cross the Rappahannock River in a march toward Richmond. He me Lee's forces, which were well entrenched in the hills behind the town. With a superior position, Lee routed the Union army; 13,000 Northern troops fell there, while only 5,000 Confederates where killed. After the battle, Burnside's troops were forced to make "The Mud March" up the Rappahannock, made foul by weather and dead and wounded bodies.
Fredericksburg/ Marye's Heights
(April 29-July 4, 1863) This campaign was launched by Grant to take control of the Mississippi River and cut off the western Confederate states from the east. Grant ordered regiments led by James McPherson, John McClernand, and William Tecumseh Sherman through bayous west of the Mississippi to Hard Times. They were up against rebel forces under Joseph Johnston and John Pemberton. Sherman and McPherson drove Johnston from Jackson, MI, on May 14, and the Union scored a victory at Champion's Hill two days later, but could not drive the Southerners out of Vicksburg, so Grant laid siege to the town. Outnumbered 71,000 to 20,000 and on the brink of starvation, Pemberton finally surrendered his men; Johnston withdrew east
Vicksburg Campaign
(May 1-4, 1863) Victory for the South, but with great cost, as Stonewall Jackson lost his life. Lincoln called on "Fighting Joe" Hooker to command the Union army; Hooker took a force of 134,000 and provoked Lee and Jackson's 60,000 men into battle. Jackson moved around Hooker and counterattacked the Union flank on May 2. That night, while Jackson was on reconnaissance, his own men mistook him for a Northerner and shot him; he died of pneumonia eight days later. The following morning, a cannonball blast hit the Chancellor House, knocking Hooker unconscious; Union troops led by John Sedgwick then retreated. Casualties for the North outnumbered those of the South, 17,000 to 13,000
(July 1-3, 1863) This marked both the farthest northward advancement by the Confederacy and the turning point that led to its defeat. Lee, along with Longstreet, AP Hill, and Richard Ewell, led the southern Pennsylvania attack; JEB Stuart was supposed to monitor Union movement with his cavalry but strayed so far east of Gettysburg that his force did not return (exhausted) until the second day. George Meade replaced Hooker as the leader of the Union side; Southern forces drove Northerners through the town but could not secure key positions at Cemetery Ridge and Little and Big Round Tops. Low on supplies, on the final day Lee ordered an attack on the center; George Pickett led his famous "charge" through open fields, where the Union mowed down one-third of his 15,000 men. The Confederates lost 20,000 and Lee retreated to Virginia
(September-November 1863) It began when Union General William Rosecrans forced Confederate commander Braxton Bragg out of the city on September 9. Ten days later, at Chickamauga (Georgia), Bragg and Longstreet turned the tables by whipping Rosecrans, forcing him into a siege position at Chattanooga. Only George Thomas ("Rock of Chickamauga") saved Rosecrans from annihilation. Well-developed railroad networks, however, allowed Grant, Hooker, and Sherman to bring reinforcements. On November 24, Hooker took Lookout Mountain in the southwest, in the "Battle Above the Clouds." The next day, Thomas ran right over the Southern force at Missionary Ridge, securing Tennessee for the North
Chattanooga Campaign
(May 5-June 12 1864) The first clash between Grant and Lee, this series of conflicts started with the Battle of the Wilderness (50 miles northwest of Richmond), where Southern leaders A.P. Hill and Ewell held the line, and over 17,000 Northerners fell. At Spotsylvania Court House, Meade assaulted Lee's men, but they repelled Meade at the "Bloody Angle." The trenches in which much of the fighting took place were similar to those later seen in World War I. Advancing within ten miles of Richmond, Grant met Lee at Cold Harbor (June 3); he lost 7,000 men to Lee's 1,500 and withdrew across the James River, but with the entire campaign he severely reduced Confederate strength in a war of attrition.
Wilderness Campaign
(June 1864 - April 1865). After Cold Harbor, Grant moved south to lay siege to this railroad hub, 25 miles from Richmond. On July 30, Pennsylvania coal miners detonated four tons of powder in a tunnel underneath the Confederate line; this "Battle of the Crater" killed many defenders. Although the South maintained the city, its supplies ran thin in the winter of 1865. Grant finally destroyed the Confederate right flank at Five Forks (April 1-2), 14 miles southwest of Petersburg. This resounding defeat led to Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox Court House one week later, effectively ending the Civil War.
Petersburg Campaign
(1928-present, Colombia; Nobel Prize for Literature 1982). The master of magic realism, his birthplace of Aracataca was the model for the fictional town of Macondo. The town played a prominent role in many of his works, such as Leaf Storm and his seminal novel, One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967), which details the decline of the Buendia family over seven generations. A newspaper journalist in the 1950s, he exposed a naval scandal (chronicled in The Story of a Shipwrecked Sailor). Other prominent novels include In Evil Hour, Love in the Time of Cholera, and The General in His Labyrinth, a depiction of Simon Bolivar's final years.
Gabriel Garcia Marquez
(1904-1973, Chile; Nobel 1971) Born Neftali Reyes, he adopted the surname of the 19th century Czech poet Jan ______. Gabriela Mistral was the head of his school in the small city of Temuco. 1923 saw the publication of his best-known work, Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Dispair, which led to diplomatic appointments. As a penniless consul in Burma in the 1930s, he wrote the surrealist collection Residence on Earth. He served in the Chilean senate in the 1940s, though government opponents forced him into exile over his Communist views. Crossing the Andes on horseback inspired his epic Canto general (1950). He died of cancer days after his friend Salvador Allende was executed.
Pablo Neruda
(1899-1986, Argentina) One-quarter English, he learned that language before he learned Spanish. Educated in Europe during WWI, he met a circle of avant-garde poets in Spain, which inspired him to found the ultraismo movement and publish the collection Fervor of Buenos Aires (1923) when he returned to Argentina. While working in a library, Borges developed his greatest short stories, collected in A Universal History of Infamy (1935), Ficciones (1944), and The Aleph (1949). By his fifties, a disorder inherited from his father had taken his eyesight, but in 1962 he completed the influential story collection Labyrinths.
Jorge Luis Borges
(1942-present, Chile) Actually born in Peru, at age three she moved to her mother's native Chile. A successful news reporter in her twenties, she and her family fled to Venezuela after General Augusto Pinochet deposed and executed her uncle Salvador Allende, setting up a dictatorship. Her formal literary career began at age 40, when she published The House of the Spirits, a magic realist work that chronicles several generations of the Trueba family. Other works of fiction include the short-story collection Eva Luna (1989) and Paula (1995), which detailed her care for her terminally ill daughter.
Isabel Allende
(1889-1957, Chile; Nobel 1945) The first Latin American to win the Nobel Literature Prize, he was actually named Lucila Godoy Alcayaga, but took her pen name from the Italian and French poets ____ D'Annunzio and Frederic _____. At first a prominent educator, she wrote "Sonnets of Death" (1914) after the suicide of her fiance. Those sonnets later appeared in her most famous collection, Desolation (1922). A native Chilean, she served as a diplomat both in the US and in Europe. Langston Hughes translated a portion of her poetry into English just after she died.
Gabriela Mistral
(1914-1998, Mexico; Nobel 1990) A prominent poet and essayist, he supported leftist causes in Mexico; he fought briefly for the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War. He published the poetry collection Luna silvestre at age 19, and his 584-line poem The Sun Stone deals with the planet Venus, an important symbol to the Aztecs. While studying in Los Angeles, he observed flamboyantly dressed Mexican-American pachucos ("zoot suiters"), who inspired him to write about Mexico and its Native American/mestizo heritage in his pivotal essay collection, The Labyrinth of Solitude (1950). Another prose work, In the Light of India (1997), reflected on his part East-Indian heritage.
Octavio Paz
(1853-1895, Cuba) Best known as a poet and revolutionary, he fought tirelessly for Cuban independence. Imprisoned at age sixteen and exiled from the island several times, he settled in New York for the last fifteen years of his life, where he wrote essays on Walt Whitman, Jesse James, and the threat of Latin American economic dependence on the US. His Ill-Omened Friendship (1885) is considered the first Spanish modernist novel, and his poetry collections include Our America and Simple Verses; the poem "Guatanamera" was the inspiration for several songs. He was killed in a skirmish at Dos Rios while participating in an invasion with other Cuban exiles
Jose Marti
(1936-present, Peru) While attending military school in Lima, he wrote the play The Escape of the Inca (1952), but the harsh treatment he received there was the basis for his best-known novel, The Time of the Hero. Conversation in the Cathedral (1969) was his serious take on living under the dictatorship of Manuel Odria, while in 1977 he published the lighter, autobiographical Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter, about soap operas. Other important works include The War of the End of the World and A Fish in the Water, which discusses his political career; he ran for president of Peru in 1990 but was defeat by Alberto Fujimori.
Mario Vargas Llosa
(1899-1974, Guatemala; Nobel 1967) He left his native Guatemala in 1923 to study in Paris. There he discovered Mayan mythology, and translated the Popol Vuh into Spanish; the theme would pervade his work, such as 1963's Mulata de tal. His most famous novel, El Senor Presidente (1946), was a satire against the oppressive Guatemalan dictatorship. He also completed a trilogy that blasted exploitation by the American-led United Fruit Company, and the short-story collection Weekend in Guatemala (1956), based on the CIA-led overthrow of president Jacobo Arbenz's liberal government
Miguel Asturias
(1928-present, Mexico) Though born into a well-to-do family, he has often dealt with the betrayed ideals of the Mexican Revolution of 1910, the subject of both his first novel, Where the Air is Clear (1958), and his most successful book, The Death of Artemio Cruz (1962). Other notable novels include Terra nostra, set during the reign of King Philip II of Spain, and The Old Gringo, which portrays Ambrose Bierce's last days in Mexico. He has also penned absurdist plays and essay collections on Mexican and American art and literature.
Carlos Fuentes
(1938-present) Australia produced many talented players (Emerson, Rosewall, Newcombe, Stolle, Hoad) but he was the best of all. He weighed just 145 pounds in his playing days but his massive left arm generated incredible topspin shots. The only player to win the Grand Slam twice- in 1962 as an amateur, and in 1969 as a professional - he took 11 major single titles overall. Turning pro in 1963, he won five US Pro Championships; had he been allowed to play the majors from '63 to '67, he likely would hold the record instead of Pete Sampras. Martina Navratilova and Sampras both idolized him, the first to earn $1 million in a career.
Ron Laver
(1971-present)"Pistol Pete" burst onto the scene in 1990, when he became the youngest man ever to win the U.S. Open. He would take five U.S. Opens and two Australian Opens, but his greatest accomplishments came on the Wimbledon grass. Starting in 1993 he won the tournament seven times in eight years, losing only to Richard Krajicek in the quarterfinals in 1996. The last Wimbledon win (2000) gave him the all-time men's major record, passing Roy Emerson's 12. Married to actress Bridgette Wilson, he silenced his critics (who thought he was washed up) by defeating Andre Agassi for the 2002 U.S. Open title -- then he retired.
Pete Sampras
(1956-present) On both grass and clay in the late 1970s, resistance to him was futile; he won Wimbledon five straight years (1976-80) and the French Open six times, for a total of 11 majors. He got started at age nine, after his father won a tennis racket in a ping-pong tournament and gave it to him. He took his first French in 1974 and dominated through 1981, when John McEnroe finally knocked him off at Wimbledon. He then inexplicably retired at 26; he tried an unsuccessful comeback in the early 1990s. Despite his great success, he never won the U.S. Open (reaching the final four times). He never played at the Australian Open, preferring to take the winter months off.
Bjorn Borg
(1893-1953) Between 1920 and 1925, he was almost unstoppable: He won six straight U.S. championships and took Wimbledon both times he played. He was nicknamed "Big Bill" for two reasons: He stood 6-foot-2 with his trademark "cannonball" serve and he faced "Little Bill" Johnston in six out of seven U.S. finals. In all, he won ten majors (seven U.S., three Wimbledon) and turned professional in 1930 - winning a pro title at age 42 and competing in barnstorming tours until he was 50. He also loved the theater; he performed in several Broadway shows (including the lead in "Dracula"), but lost a lot of money backing failed ventures.
Bill Tilden
(1970-present) His father boxed for Iran in the 1948 and 1952 Olympics; his own Olympic exploits included the 1996 tennis gold. Born in Las Vegas, he reached the world's #3 ranking at age 18 but was better known for his image than for his play. Perhaps the greatest returner and baseline player ever, he won his first major on Wimbledon grass in 1992. Briefly married to Brooke Shields, he fell to #141 in the world in 1997, but after they divorced, he rededicated himself to the game. In 1999 he won the French Open, becoming just the fifth man to complete the career Grand Slam. In all, he has won eight major singles titles (five since 1999), and is now married to women's great Steffi Graf.
Andre Agassi
(1959-present). Though perhaps best known for his fiery temper and abuse of referees (with taunts like "You can't be serious!"), he was the dominant player of the early 1980s. As a 17-year old amateur qualifier, he made the semifinals of Wimbledon, and in 1979 he won the first of three straight U.S. Opens. He almost ended Borg's run of Wimbledons in a five-set thriller in 1980, but succeeded the following year. In 1984, he compiled an 82-3 record, winning Wimbledon and his fourth U.S. Open, for a total of seven majors. An outstanding doubles player as well, he won 77 titles, many with partner Peter Fleming. He also played in the Davis Cup 12 times, captaining the U.S. team in 2000.
John McEnroe
(1943-1993). He once claimed that he would consider himself a failure if he were remembered only for tennis. The first black man to win either the U.S. Championship (1968) or Wimbledon (1975), he was also the first American tennis player to earn over $100,000 in one year (1970). The author of Hard Road to Glory, a history of black athletes, he announced in 1992 that tainted blood from a 1983 heart surgery had given him the AIDS virus. ____ ____ Stadium, the current home of the U.S. Open, was named for him in 1997.
Arthur Ashe
(1956-present). Born in Prague, she defected to the United States in 1975 because the Czech Tennis Federation had taken most of her earnings. A bit heavy early in her career, she won the first two of her nine Wimbledons in 1978-79 but subsequent losses led her to pursue a grueling fitness regimen. This paid off: She won 18 singles Grand Slams (58 overall), 167 total singles titles, and even more doubles crowns, many with partner Pam Shriver. A Wimbledon finalist at 37, she retired from singles in 1994, but returned to play doubles in 2000. In 2003 tied Billie Jean King with 20 overall Wimbledons, taking the mixed doubles... at age 46!
Martina Navratilova
(1969-present). Her most devastating shot earned her the moniker "Fraulein Forehand." She turned pro at age 13 and steadily rose through the rankings, garnering the #1 ranking and her first major (French) in 1987. The following year, she made history by winning the Grand Slam and the gold medal at the Seoul Olympics, the only player ever to go 5-for-5 in one year. Seven Wimbledons, six French, five U.S., and four Australians add up to 22 major career singles crowns - the last coming at the French in 1999 after two years of major back injuries. She retired that fall, and is now raising her son Jaden with her husband Andre Agassi.
Steffi Graf
(1954-present). Queen of the Clay Courts, she won the French Open a record seven times and rolled off a 125-match win streak on the surface. As a 15-year old, she upset Margaret Court, who had just won the Grand Slam. 1974 was the first of a record 13 straight years in which she won a major - several of them hard fought against her rival, Martina Navratilova. In all, she took 18 Grand Slam singles titles, and was the first female player to win $1 million in her career. She was married to British tennis player John Lloyd for eight years, but they divorced in 1987, and she then wed Olympic skier Andy Mill.
Chris Evert
(1943-present). Her records themselves are impressive: 12 Grand Slam singles wins (including six Wimbledons) and 20 overall Wimbledon titles. She, however, is best known for advancing women's athletics. Her brother, Randy Moffitt, pitched for the San Francisco Giants; she herself reached a #4 world ranking in 1960 and turned pro eight years later. At the time, prize money for women was paltry, so she co-founded the Virginia Slims Tour, and in 1971 became the first female athlete to earn $100,000 in a year. Two years later, in front of over 30,000 at the Astrodome, she whipped Bobby Riggs in the "Battle of the Sexes." She retired in 1983, but not before winning a singles tournament at age 39.
Billie Jean King
(1942-present). The most prolific winner, male or female, she amassed 62 Grand Slam titles, 24 of them in singles (3 Wimbledon, 5 French, 5 U.S., and 11 in her native Australia). Billie Jean King called her "The Arm" because of her long reach, aided by her height of nearly six feet. In 1970 she became the second woman (after Maureen Connolly) to win the Grand Slam, taking 21 singles championships overall that year; less impressive was her 1973 loss to 55-year old Bobby Riggs. She did defeat King, Riggs's nemesis, 22 of 32 times. She retired in 1977 and became a lay minister.
Margaret Smith Court
(1980-present and 1981-present). Althea Gibson and Arthur Ashe may have preceded them as trailblazing African-American players, but the sisters have taken the game to new levels and to more people. Born in Compton, California and coached from an early age by father Richard, Venus broke through first, reaching the final of the U.S. Open in 1997. Serena won a Grand Slam before Venus did (1999 U.S. Open), but Venus hit #1 by sweeping Wimbledon and the U.S. Opens in both 2000 and 2001. For a long time Serena could not beat her older sister, but that changed in 2002, when she took four straight major finals against Venus. With her 2003 win at Wimbledon, Serena now has six majors to Venus's four. On the side, both are fashion designers, while Venus also designs interiors.
Venus and Serena Williams
(1905-1998). A California native nicknamed "Little Miss Poker Face" because her expression rarely changed on the court, her play contrasted with that of the other great woman of the era, the emotional Suzanne Lenglen of France, though they met only once (as Lenglen turned pro). Nonetheless, she dominated her competition; between 1927 and 1932 she did not even drop a set! She won 19 major singles crowns - out of 22 entered - including eight Wimbledons, six U.S., and four French championships, in 1928 becoming the first player to win three Grand Slams in one season. She also swept the singles and doubles gold medals at the 1924 Paris Olympics.
Helen Wills Moody
The king of Mycenae, he shares supreme command of the Greek troops with his brother, Menelaus. An epithet of his, "king of heroes," reflects this status. As a commander, however, he often lacks good public relations skills, as shown by his feud with Achilles (book 1) and by his ill-considered strategy of suggesting that all the troops go home (book 2). Upon his return home, he is murdered by his wife, Clytemnestra, and her lover, Aegisthus.
The king of Sparta, he is the husband of Helen, the cause celebre of the war. He tries to win Helen back by fighting Paris in single combat but Aphrodite carried Paris off when it seems that he will win. Despite his notionally equal say in commanding the troops with his brother Agamemnon, in practice Agamemnon often dominates.
This "swift-footed" warrior is the greatest on the Greek side. His father is Peleus, a great warrior in his own right, and his mother is Thetis, a sea nymph. The consequences of his rage at Agamemnon for confiscating his geras (prize of honor) are the subject of the Iliad. He kills Hector, but is killed by a poisoned arrow in the heel, the only vulnerable place on his body.
Achilles' foster brother and closest friend. Although he is a formidable hero, he is valued for his kind and gentle nature. He is killed by Hector while wearing the armor of Achilles.
This prince of Salamis is the son of Telamon. He once fights all afternoon in single combat with Hector; since neither one can decisively wound the other, they part as friends. His most glorious achievement is fighting the Trojans back from the ships almost singlehandedly. He commits suicide after the armor of Achilles is awarded to Odysseus rather than to himself.
In his day of glory, he kills Pandarus and wounds Aeneas before taking on the gods. He stabs Aphrodite in the wrist and, with Athena as his charioteer, wounds Ares in the stomach. Along with Odysseus, he also conducts a successful night raid against King Rhesus.
This son of Laertes is known for his cleverness and glib tongue. His accomplishments include a successful night raid against King Rhesus, winning the armor of Achilles, and engineering the famous Trojan Horse. His ten-year trip home to Ithaca (where his wife, Penelope, awaits) is the subject of the Odyssey.
This king of Pylos is too old to participate in the fighting of the Trojan War, but serves as an advisor. He tells tales of "the good old days" to the other heroes.
The son of Priam and Hecuba, he is probably the noblest character on either side. A favorite of Apollo, this captain of the Trojan forces exchanges gifts with Ajax after neither can conquer the other in single combat. He kills Patroclus when that Greek goes into battle wearing the armor of his friend, Achilles. Killed by Achilles to avenge the death of Patroclus, he is greatly mourned by all of Troy. Funeral games take place in his honor.
(sometimes called Alexander) Also the son of Priam and Hecuba, he is destined to be the ruin of his country. He fulfills this destiny by accepting a bribe when asked to judge which of three goddesses is the fairest. When he awards Aphrodite the golden apple, Aphrodite repays him by granting him the most beautiful woman in the world; unfortunately, Helen is already married to Menelaus. Known less for hand-to-hand fighting than for mastery of his bow, he kills Achilles with an arrow but dies by the poisoned arrows of Philoctetes.
The king of Troy and son of Laomedon, he has 50 sons and 12 daughters with his wife Hecuba (presumably she does not bear them all), plus at least 42 more children with various concubines. Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, kills him in front of his wife and daughters during the siege of Troy.
The wife of Priam, she suffers the loss of most of her children but survives the fall of Troy. She is later turned into a dog.
Hecuba (or Hecabe)
The wife of Hector and mother of Astyanax, she futilely warns Hector about the war, then sees both her husband and son killed by the Greeks. After the war she is made concubine to Neoptolemus and later marries the Trojan prophet Helenus.
This daughter of Priam and Hecuba has an affair with the god Apollo, who grants her the gift of prophecy. Unable to revoke the gift after they quarrel, Apollo curses her by preventing anyone from believing her predictions. Among her warnings is that the Trojan horse contains Greeks. After Troy falls she is given to Agamemnon, who tactlessly brings her home to his wife Clytemnestra. Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus then kill Agamemnon and _________, leaving Agamemnon's son Orestes (egged on by sister Electra) to avenge the deaths and kill Clytemnestra and Aegisthus.
Yet another son of Priam and Hecuba, this priest of Apollo shares Cassandra's doubt about the merits of bringing the Trojan horse into the city. "Timeo danaos et dona ferentes," he says (according to Vergil), "I fear the Greeks, even bearing gifts." Later, while sacrificing a bull, two serpents from the sea crush both him and his two young sons. The death of Laocoon is often blamed on Athena (into whose temple the serpent disappeared) but more likely the act of Poseidon, a fierce Greek partisan.
This son of Aphrodite and Anchises often takes a beating but always gets up to rejoin the battle. Knocked unconscious by a large rock thrown by Diomedes, he is evacuated by Aphrodite and Apollo. He succeeds the late Hector as Trojan troop commander and survives the fall of Troy, ultimately settling in Italy. His son Iulus founds Alba Longa, near the site of Rome. That bloodline is the basis of Julius Caesar's claim to have descended from Venus.
One of the Trimurti (the holy trinity of Hindu gods), he is the Preserver, protecting the world. When needed, he descends to Earth as an avatar, or incarnation. Nine have appeared so far: Matsya, Kurma (tortoise), Varah (boar), Narasimha (man-lion), Vamana (dwarf), Parashurama, Rama, Krishna, and Buddha. A tenth, Kalki, will appear with a flaming sword to save humans from the darkness. Some cult followers worship him as Narayana, the primal being. He has dark blue skin, rides with the eagle Garuna, and sits on the snake Shesha. His symbols are the conch, disc, club, and lotus; his chief wives are Lakshmi and Bhu (the Earth). Kama, the god of love, may be his son.
Also known as Lord Mahesh, he is the Destroyer in the Trimurti. Developed from Rudra, the Vedic god of death, he is often shown sitting on a tiger skin and riding the bull Nandi. He is also associated with a lingam (phallus). He has three eyes, of which the third (in the middle of his head) is all-knowing; when it opens, the world is destroyed and regenerated. Lord of all underworld beings, he wears a necklace of skulls and another made of a snake. He carries a trident as a weapon and has a blue throat, the result of drinking poison while the ocean churns. Parvati, one of his several consorts, bears him two sons: Kartikeya (the god of war) and Ganesha.
The third of the Trimurti, he is the Creator. By dropping an egg into the cosmic waters, he hatches a younger form of himself that creates other beings. Also the chief priest, he has four heads that each point in a cardinal direction, representing the Four Vedas. He has a fifth head until Shiva plucked it off; as punishment for that act, Shiva is forced to wander as a beggar and carry his severed skull as a bowl. His wife is Savitri, who curses him after he lets a cow-maiden stand in for her at an important ritual. Few people worship him, either because of the curse or because he lost a power struggle to Vishnu.
This eighth avatar of Vishnu is born when Vishnu plucks two of his own hairs - one light, one dark - and used the dark hair to impregnate Devaki. Her husband Vasudeva saves him from evil King Kansa by carrying him across the river Yamuna to safety in Gokula. He can be depicted as a child, adolescent, or adult. As an infant, he plays pranks such as stealing butter. As a youthful lover, he plays the flute and dances with the gopis (cow-maidens) in the Vrindavana forest. As an adult, he is a dark-skinned warrior with a light, angelic face, charioteer to Arjuna (in the Mahabharata). In the Bhagavad-Gita it is he who reveals the importance of dharma and bhakti. His consort is the cowherd girl Radha.
This elephant-headed god of wisdom and learning is often shown riding a rat. Parvati "gives birth" to him by creating him from the saffron paste she scrubbed off of herself after bathing. When Parvati instructs him not to let anyone in as she took another bath, he prevents Shiva from entering, prompting Shiva to cut off his head. To calm Parvati, Shiva tells servants to take the head of the first baby found whose mother had her back turned; the servants bring back the head of a baby elephant. He has two wives (Riddhi and Siddhi), two sons, and a daughter. People pray to this remover of obstacles and bringer of good fortune before they commence business.
The seventh avatar of Vishnu is hero of the Ramayana. Born as a prince to King Dasharatha and Queen Kaushalya, he wins the hand of his wife Sita in a competition held by Sita's father, King Janaka; only he can string Shiva's bow. When his aunt Kaikeyi schemes to deprive him of Dasharatha's throne by putting her son Bharata there, he and Sita are banished to a forest for 14 years. During that time, the ten-headed demon Ravana kidnaps Sita but he rescues her and killed Ravana. Bharata abdicates; he makes Sita walk through fire to prove that Ravana had not corrupted her.
The god of rain, thunder, and war, he wields the thunderbolt (vajra) and rides Airavat, the four-tusked white elephant. In early Vedic times he was king of the gods who ruled swarga; many Rig Veda hymns are devoted to him. With the aid of both the Marut storm gods and his favorite drink, soma, he leads the Aryan conquest of India. He also defeats the dragon Vritra, who had stolen the world's water.
The last and greatest treasure born from the "churning of the ocean," she is the goddess of prosperity and patron to moneylenders. The epitome of feminine beauty, she sits or stands on a lotus flower and appears in her own avatars alongside Vishnu: Sita to his Rama; Padma the lotus to Vamana the dwarf; Radha (or Rukmini) to Krishna. A form of the mother goddess (Shakti, or Devi), she also represents virtue and honesty.
Lakshmi (or Sri)
Several incarnations of the "mother goddess" take this moniker. Parvati, the most benevolent form, is the reincarnation of Sati, who threw herself into the fire. Durga is a demon-slayer who rides a lion into battle and carries a weapon in each of her many arms. Kali is a black-skinned goddess of destruction, who defeats the demon leader Raktavija by drinking all of his blood. Although Kali's dance can destroy the world, Shiva throws himself at her feet to calm her, turning her into Parvati.
Shiva's consort
The chief hero of the Mahabharata, he is the son of Indra and one of five Pandava brothers, who fight a bitter war against their one hundred cousins, Kauravas, culminating at the battle on "Kuru's Field." Before the battle, he asks his charioteer (Krishman) why he must fight. Krishna responds that he must follow a devotion to god (bhakti) and that even as he slays his brethren, it is for a just cause. Along with the rest of the Pandavas, he is married to Draupadi.
Son of the wind god Vaayu and Queen Anjana, he has a human body with a monkey's head. As a boy he swallows the sun (mistaking it for a piece of fruit); the angry Indra whips him with a thunderbolt. In response the wind god Vaayu refuses to breathe air into the world, prompting Indra to apologize and the other gods to bestow immortality and shapeshifting ability on him. He figures prominently in the Ramayana, where he flies to Lanka to tell Sita that Rama will rescue her from Ravana.
Part of a trinity with Surya (the sun) and Vaayu (the wind), he can be brought to life by rubbing two sticks together. Since he is responsible for sacrificial fires, he is the patron of priests. He has a red body, two heads, three legs, four arms, and seven tongues; he often carries a flaming javelin. In the Mahabharata, his grandfather is one of seven great sages; with the help of Krishna, he devours the Khandav forest.
(1882-1971). He studied under Rimsky-Korsakov and completed two grand ballets for Diaghilev, The Firebird and Petrushka. His Paris premiere of The Rite of Spring (1913), however, is what inaugurated music's Modern era. A pagan story featuring polytonal music, The Rite of Spring shocked the audience so much that riots ensued, leading him to pursue rational, "neoclassical" music, such as his Symphony of Psalms. In 1940 he moved to Hollywood, where he composed his one full-length opera, The Rake's Progress, with libretto by W.H. Auden. Late in life, he adopted the serialist, twelve-tone style of Webern, producing the abstract ballet Agon (1957).
Igor Stravinsky
(1874-1951). This Austrian pioneered dodecaphony, or the twelve-tone system, which treated all parts of the chromatic scale equally. His early influences were Wagner and R. Strauss, as evident in his Transfigured Night (1900) for strings. Yet by 1912, with the "Sprechstimme" (halfway between singing and speaking) piece Pierrot lunaire, he broke from Romanticism and developed expressionist pieces free from key or tone. His students, especially Alban Berg and Anton Webern, further elaborated on his theories. Fleeing Nazi persecution in 1933, he moved from Berlin to Los Angeles, where he completed A Survivor from Warsaw. The first two acts of his unfinished opera, Moses und Aron, are still frequently performed.
Arnold Schoenberg
(1913-1976). Reviver of the opera in the U.K., most notably with Peter Grimes (1945), the story of a fisherman who kills two of his apprentices. He broke through with Variations on a Theme of Frank Bridge (1937), a tribute to his composition teacher, and wrote incidental music for works by his friend W.H. Auden. With his companion, the tenor Peter Pears, he founded the Aldeburgh Festival of Music and wrote operas such as Billy Budd, The Turn of the Screw, and Death in Venice. His non-operatic works include The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra (1946) and War Requiem (1961), based on the antiwar poems of Wilfred Owen, who was killed during World War I.
Benjamin Britten
(1900-1990). At first a modernist, he was the first American student of Nadia Boulanger in Paris in the 1920s; there he finished his Organ Symphony and Music for the Theater. By the 1930s, he turned to simple themes, especially the American West: El Salón Mexico was followed by the ballets Billy the Kid, Rodeo, and Appalachian Spring (1944), the last containing the Shaker hymn "Simple Gifts." His Third Symphony contained his Fanfare for the Common Man, while Lincoln Portrait featured spoken portions of the President's writings. He wrote several educational books, beginning with 1939's What to Listen For in Music.
Aaron Copland
(1891-1953). He wrote seven symphonies, of which the First (Classical, 1917) is the most notable. While in Chicago, he premiered the opera The Love for Three Oranges, based on Italian commedia dell'arte. He moved to Paris in 1922, where he composed works for Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes, including The Prodigal Son. In 1936 he returned to the USSR, where he completed the popular children's work Peter and the Wolf and the score for the film Alexander Nevsky. When Stalin denounced him as "decadent," the composer was forced to write obsequious tributes to the premier. He survived Stalin, but only by a few hours (both died on March 5).
Sergei Prokofiev
(1906-1975). His work was emblematic of both the Soviet regime and his attempts to survive under its oppression. his operas, such as The Nose (1928) and Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District, were well received at first--until Stalin severely criticized his work in Pravda in 1936. Fearful for his security, he wrote several conciliatory pieces (Fifth, Seventh/Leningrad, and Twelfth Symphonies) in order to get out of trouble. He made enemies, however, with his Thirteenth Symphony (Babi Yar). Based on the Yevtushenko poem, Babi Yar condemned anti-Semitism in both Nazi Germany and the USSR.
Dmitri Shostakovich
(1881-1945). A young girl singing a folk tune to her son in 1904 inspired him to roam the Hungarian countryside with Zoltan Kodály, collecting peasant tunes. This influence permeated his music, including the opera Duke Bluebeard's Castle (1911) and the ballets The Wooden Prince (1916) and The Miraculous Mandarin (1919). A virtuoso pianist and an innovative composer, he refused to teach composition, contributing to financial problems, especially after he fled Nazi-held Hungary for the U.S. in 1940. He wrote many prominent instrumental pieces; best known are six string quartets, the educational piano piece Mikrokosmos, and Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta (1936).
Bela Bartok
(1874-1954). He learned experimentation from his father George, a local Connecticut businessman and bandleader. He studied music at Yale but found insurance sales more lucrative; his firm of ____ and Myrick was the largest in New York during the 1910s. Privately, he composed great modern works, including the Second Piano (Concord) Sonata (with movements named after Emerson, Hawthorne, Alcott, and Thoreau); and Three Places in New England (1914). His Third Symphony won him a Pulitzer Prize in 1947, while his song "General William Booth Enters Into Heaven" was based on a Vachel Lindsay poem. Poor health ended both his insurance and music careers by 1930.
Charles Ives
(1875-1937). His Basque mother gave him an affinity for Spanish themes, as evident in Rapsodie espagnole and his most popular piece, Bolero (1928). He produced Pavane for a Dead Princess while a student of Gabriel Fauré, but was frustrated when the French Conservatory overlooked him for the Prix de Rome four times. He completed the ballet Daphnis et Chloe (1912) for Diaghilev, which was followed by Mother Goose and La Valse, and also re-orchestrated Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition. His health declined after a 1932 taxi accident; unsuccessful brain surgery ended his life.
Maurice Ravel
(1898-1937). Known at first for producing popular songs and musicals with his older brother Ira, he successfully melded jazz and popular music with classical forms, most famously the Rhapsody in Blue (1924), the Concerto in F for Piano and Orchestra (1925), and the folk opera Porgy and Bess (1935), based on a story by DuBose Heyward. His first major hit was 1919's "Swanee," sung by Al Jolson, and his 1931 musical Of Thee I Sing was the first to win the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. He died of a brain tumor at age 38.
George Gershwin
(1912-1992). An American student of Arnold Schoenberg, he took avant-garde to a new level, and may be considered a Dada composer because he believed in aleatory, or "chance" music. His Imaginary Landscape No. 4 (1951) used twelve radios tuned to different stations; the composition depended on what was on the radio at that time. The following year's 4'33" required a pianist to sit at the piano for that length of time and then close it; audience noise and silence created the "music." He also invented the "prepared piano," where he attached screws, wood, rubber bands, and other items to piano strings in order to create a percussion sound.
John Cage
(1872-1958). Best known for reviving the Tudor style and folk traditions in English music, as exemplified in his Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis (1909). He completed nine symphonies, the foremost his Second (London) in 1914; other principal symphonies included the First (Sea), Third (Pastoral) and Seventh (sinfonia antarctica). His orchestral work The Lark Ascending was based on a George Meredith poem, while Sir John in Love (1924) was a Shakespearean opera that featured the "Fantasia on Greensleeves." Hugh the Drover and The Pilgrim's Progress are other major operas.
Ralph Vaughan Williams
(1873-1943). A highly skilled pianist and conductor, he twice turned down conductorship of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. He failed to reap the monetary benefits of his early pieces (notably the C-Sharp Minor Prelude of 1892), because he sold them cheaply to a publisher. Treated by hypnosis in 1901, he began a productive period with his Second Piano Concerto (known affectionately by Julliard students as "Rocky II") and the symphonic poem The Isle of the Dead (1909). He moved to the U.S. in 1917, after the Bolshevik Revolution. There his output decreased, though he did complete the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini in 1934.
Sergei Rachmaninoff
(1867 - 1959) Born in Wisconsin, he worked under Louis Sullivan before founding a Chicago practice. His early homes, like the Robie House at the University of Chicago, are in the "Prairie" style: horizontal orientation and low roofs. His "organic architecture" tries to harmonize with its inhabitants and site: Examples include the Kaufmann House (also known as Fallingwater) in Pennsylvania; the Johnson Wax Museum in Racine, Wisconsin; and Taliesin West, his Arizona home and studio. (The original Taliesin, in Wisconsin, burned down in 1914). Other notable works are the Guggenheim Museum in New York City, the Larkin Building in Buffalo, the Unity Temple in Oak Park, and the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo, one of few buildings to survive a 1923 earthquake.
Frank Lloyd Wright
(1883 - 1969) Though he also designed the Fagus Factory (Alfeld, Germany) and the Pan American Building (New York City), he is better known for founding the Bauhaus. Beginning in Weimer in 1919 and moving to a facility he designed in Dessau in 1925, the Bauhaus school emphasized functionalism, the application of modern methods and materials, and the synthesis of technology and art. Its faculty included artists Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, and Josef Albers. He would later head Harvard's architecture department from 1938-52, shifting its focus to incorporate modern design and construction techniques.
Walter Gropius
(1886 - 1969) The leading architect of the International Style of skyscraper design, he (like Gropius) worked in the office of Peter Behrens. He directed the Bauhaus from 1930-33, shutting it down before the Nazis could do so. His works include the Barcelona Pavilion for the 1929 International Exposition; the Lake Shore Drive Apartments in Chicago; the New National Gallery in Berlin; and the Seagram Building in New York, which he co-designed with Philip Johnson. The phrase "less is more" is associated with him, whose glass-covered steel structures influenced the design of office buildings in nearly every major city in the U.S.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
(1917 - Present) He is among the most famous living architects. Born in China, he emigrated to the U.S. in 1935. Though he has also designed moderate-income housing, he is best known for large-scale projects. His works include the Mile High Center in Denver, the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, the John Hancock Building in Boston, the East Wing of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the Fragrant Hill Hotel in Beijing, and the recent Miho Museum of Art in Shiga, Japan. He may be best known for two fairly recent works: the glass pyramid erected outside the Louvre in 1989, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland, Ohio, completed in 1995.
I(eoh) M(ing) Pei
(1632 - 1723) When fire destroyed much of London in 1666, he was an Oxford astronomy professor who had designed his first building just four years earlier. Charles II named him the King's Surveyor of Works in 1669, and he was involved in rebuilding more than 50 London churches in the next half-century, including Saint Paul's Cathedral. An inscription near his tomb in Saint Paul's declares, "Reader, if you seek a monument, look around you."
Sir Christopher Wren
(1887 - 1965) Possibly more influential even than Wright, he wrote the 1923 book Towards a New Architecture, standard reading in architectural theory courses. One famous quote is: "A house is a machine for living in." His floor plans were influenced by Cubist principles of division of space, and the Villa Savoye (Poissy, France) is his best-known early work. He wrote of the "Radiant City" begun anew, a completely planned city with skyscrapers for residents. Applications of his approach to government buildings (such as in Brasilia or in Chandigarh, India), however, largely failed, as did many urban renewal projects produced on the same ideological foundation. Nonetheless, he influenced every other 20th-century figure on this list.
Le Corbusier (born Charles-Eduoard Jeanneret)
(1856 - 1924) He did not design the first skyscraper but did become a vocal champion of skyscrapers as reflections of the modern age. Though most associated with Chicago, his best-known work is the 1891 Wainwright Building in St. Louis. His partnership with Dankmar Adler produced over 100 buildings. Later works, such as the Babson, Bennett, and Bradley Houses, reflect an organic architecture distinct from that of Wright. His dictum that "form should follow function" strongly influenced modern architecture; his writings helped break the profession from classical restraints.
Louis Sullivan
(1377 - 1446) A friend of Donatello, he was a skilled sculptor and goldsmith whose 1401 competition with Lorenzo Ghiberti for the commission of the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery is a frequent question topic (Ghiberti got the chief commission). As an architect, he is mainly known for the extraordinary octagonally-based dome of the Santa Maria del Fiore (also known as the Florence Cathedral), which dominates the Florentine skyline. The task required an innovative supporting framework and occupied much of his career (as described in detail in Vasari's Lives of the Artists). Other projects include the Spedale degli Innocenti (a hospital), the Old Sacristy at San Lorenzo, and the Pazzi Chapel in the Cloisters of Santa Croce, all from 1421 to 1430.
Filippo Brunelleschi
(1929 - Present) Winner of the 1989 Pritzker Prize, he is best-known today for large-scale compositions like the Experience Music Project in Seattle, the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles, and the recent, controversial Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain. (Bilbao natives describe the latter as "the artichoke," given its layers of abstract titanium structures.) He often uses uncommon materials such as plywood and limestone; his designs range from Kobe's Fishdance Restaurant, shaped like a giant fish, to the soft-sculpture look of the so-called "Fred and Ginger" buildings in Prague. He also designs furniture: The Easy Edges line is made of laminated cardboard; the _____ Collection consists of chairs named for hockey terms (e.g. Cross Check and Power Play). As of 2002, active projects included a new wing for the Corcoran Gallery and the SoHo Branch of the Guggenheim.
Frank Gehry
(1508 - 1580) Born Andrea di Pietro della Gondola, he designed villas in or near Venice, including the Villa Rotonda and Villa Barbaro. He integrated Greco-Roman ideas of hierarchy, proportion, and order with contemporary Renaissance styles. His Four Books on Architecture from 1570 relates his theoretical principles. Among architects heavily influenced by him were Inigo Jones and Thomas Jefferson.
Andrea Palladio
(1910 - 1961) The son of architect Eliel ______, he was born in Finland but spent most of his life in the U.S. and died in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He designed many buildings on the campuses of MIT and Yale, as well as Dulles International Airport and the TWA terminal at Kennedy Airport. He may be best known for designing the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, though he died before it was completed. Many of his works are characterized by elegant, sweeping forms, such as the Kresge Auditorium at MIT.
Eero Saarinen
(1852 - 1926) He created many extraordinary buildings in Barcelona in the early 20th century. His Art Nouveau-inspired works include the Casa Mila and Casa Batllo apartments, known from their undulating facades, and several works for patron Eusebi Guell. He spent 40 years working on the Expiatory Church of the Holy Family (also known as La Sagrada Familia); although its spindle-like towers are in place, the building remains unfinished, and his models for it were destroyed in the Spanish Civil War. He was also fond of using hyperbolic paraboloids in his work.
Antonio Gaudi y Cornet
(1895-1948) the rough son of a saloon keeper, grew up on the Baltimore waterfront and in the St. Mary's Industrial School for Boys. Released after signing a baseball contract with the minor league Baltimore Orioles, he was bought by the Boston Red Sox and played with them for six seasons, winning 87 games and 3 World Series, and, in 1919, setting a new single-season home record of 29. Already famous as a player, eater, and carouser, Boston sold him to New York for the 1920 season, where his fame became legend. Moved from the pitchers mound to the outfield, he won 9 homer titles and 4 World Series from 1920 to 1934. In 1927 he hit 60 homeruns and lead the Yankee lineup known as Murderers Row to a sweep of the Pittsburgh Pirates in the World Series. He hit his controversial "Called Shot" homer against the Cubs during the third game of the 1932 World Series after allegedly gesturing towards the centerfield stands. Since his retirement from baseball in 1935, many of his most famous pitching and batting records have been surpassed, but power hitting as a legitimate approach towards playing baseball continues. Before him, the homer was a freak occurrence.
George Herman "Babe" Ruth
(1903-1941) was born in Manhattan to German immigrants. A football and baseball player at Columbia University, he signed with the Yankees in 1923. He became a regular in 1925, replacing Wally Pipp at first base and beginning his streak of 2130 consecutive games played (since broken by Cal Ripen, Jr. in 1995) that earned him the nickname "The Iron Horse." His batting feats include 184 RBI in 1931 (the AL record), 23 career grand slams (the ML record), a triple crown in 1934, and a .340 career batting average. When it was discovered that he was suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis--ALS is commonly referred to as ______'s disease--he delivered his famous "Today, I consider myself the luckiest man on the face of the Earth" speech at Yankee Stadium on July 4, 1939. In deference to him, no Yankee was appointed captain until Thurman Munson in 1976.
Lou Gehrig
(1914-99) left the San Francisco Seals of the Pacific Coast League and joined New York for the 1936 season, where he helped Lou Gehrig drive the Yankees to their fifth championship and the first of nine that he would win with the Bombers. "The Yankee Clipper" won 3 Most Valuable Player awards ('39, '41, '47), 2 batting titles ('39, '40), and 2 homer titles ('37, '48). In 1941 "Joltin' ____" hit safely in 56 consecutive games, a record that has never been challenged (he once hit in 61 straight for the Seals in 1933). His career totals are abbreviated because of his military service ('43-'45) and because of the distance to Yankee Stadium's left field power alley, in those days known as Death Valley. He wedded Marilyn Monroe in 1954, but they divorced after nine months.
Joe DiMaggio
(1931-1995) was born to play baseball--his father named him for Hall of Fame catcher ______ Cochrane--but his left leg wasn't. In high school it was nearly amputated because of osteomyelitis, the first of his many leg problems. Known as the "Commerce Comet" because of his speed and because he grew up in Commerce, Oklahoma, he became the Yankee center fielder following DiMaggio's retirement in 1951. He played on 12 pennant winners and seven World Championship clubs. He holds Series records for home runs (18), RBI (40), runs (42), walks (43), extra-base hits (26), and total bases (123). During the regular season, his switch hitting powered 536 homeruns and won him 4 homer titles ('55, '56, '58, '60), 3 MVP awards ('56, '57, '62), and in 1956 a triple crown. In 1961 he and teammate Roger Maris both had a chance of passing Ruth's 1927 mark of 60, but injuries forced him out of the race (Maris hit 61). He was elected to the Hall of Fame alongside Whitey Ford in 1974.
Mickey Mantle
(1925- ) was notorious for swinging at bad pitches, but his bat collided with them often enough to hit a catcher's record 306 homeruns that lasted for more than thirty years. His hitting, fielding, and ability to lead the Yankee pitching staff earned him 3 MVP awards ('51, '54, '55). He also stared in the World Series, collecting 71 hits while playing on 10 championship teams, both records. Hired as Yankee manager in 1964, he lead the Yanks to the pennant but was fired following their Series loss to the Cardinals. His 1973 pennant with the Mets made him the only manager besides Joe McCarthy to take home the flag in both leagues. Like Casey Stengel, he was famous for his quotes, including "It aint' over 'til it's over," "It's deja vu all over again," and "Little League baseball is a very good thing because it keeps the parents off the streets."
Yogi Berra
(1926- ) was called "The Chairman of the Board" because of the cool, corporate-like efficiency of his pitching style. His 236 wins against 106 defeats yields a .690 winning percentage, third best, first for a pitcher with 200 or more victories. In the 1960, '61, and '62 Series, he pitched 33 consecutive scoreless innings, breaking Babe Ruth's World Series record of 29-2/3 innings of shutout ball. His other World Series records include wins (10), losses (8), innings pitched (146), hits (132), bases on balls (34), and strikeouts (94). Under Casey Stengel he was commonly rested against poor teams so that he could be used against contenders (or in relief), making his 2.75 career ERA even more impressive. Cy Young award in 1961.
Whitey Ford
(1889-1975) He managed the Yankees to 10 pennants and 7 championships, including a record five in a row from '49-'53. The "Old Perfessor" did not use a set lineup or pitching rotation, instead using a bewildering number of platoon arrangements. Somehow this did not undermine his defense, as his Yankees lead the league in double plays six times. Remembered as a player for his two game-winning homeruns, one an inside-the-parker, against the Yankees in the 1923 World Series, off the field his vaudevillian personality involved him in many famous incidents. When in 1958 he was called in front of the Senate Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly to testify on why baseball should be exempt from antitrust regulation, he testified with an hour's worth of classic "_____ese." When the baffled politicians let him go and called on Mickey Mantle to answer their questions, he replied, "My views are about the same as _____'s."
Casey Stengel
(1928-1989). The alert, combative second baseman for the Yankees from 1950-1957, he made a famous catch in the seventh game of the 1952 World Series when Jackie Robinson lifted a bases loaded pop-up near the pitcher's mound. In 1953 he was named World Series MVP after batting .500 and winning the final game with a single in the bottom of the ninth. As Yankee manager, he won two pennants and one World Series (1977). Strung extremely tight--he almost came to blows with Reggie Jackson during a nationally televised game--his barroom brawls and arguments with the Yankee front office cost him many jobs. His five terms managing one club is tied for the major league record.
Billy Martin
(1946- ) Known as "Mr. October" because of his World Series slugging, in the sixth game of the 1977 World Series he hit three homeruns off three different pitchers on three consecutive swings of his bat. Besides Babe Ruth, who did it twice, he is the only player to homer three times in one World Series game. His .755 slugging average is the highest in World Series history. Soon after joining the Yankees in 1977 he created a sensation by proclaiming himself "the straw that stirs the drink." The wild atmosphere surrounding him and the Yankees was captured by a teammate in a book called The Bronx Zoo. He won four homer titles ('73, '75, '80, '83), hit 563 homeruns, and set a major league record for strikeouts (2,597).
Reggie Jackson
(1961- ) was the best first baseman in baseball for most of the 1980's. He holds the major league record for most grand slams in a season (6 in 1987). He twice led the league in hits ('84 and '85), won the league batting crown by edging out teammate Dave Winfield on the final day of the 1984 season, and drove in the most runs in 1985 to win the MVP award. "______ Baseball" also won nine gold gloves--his career fielding percentage (.99599) is the best--but World Series glory eluded "the Hitman." His Yankees never played in the Fall Classic.
Don Mattingly
(1974-) became the starting shortstop for the Yanks in 1996, winning the Rookie of the Year Award and helping New York capture its first championship since 1978. More post-season highlights followed, including three more titles ('98, '99, '00), the 2000 Series MVP, and a controversial homer against the Baltimore Orioles in Game One of the 1996 ALCS when twelve year old Jeffrey Maier turned his fly ball into a homerun by reaching over the right field wall to catch it. His junior-high yearbook dubbed him "most likely to play shortstop for the New York Yankees."
Derek Jeter
(1887-1978) began managing the Yankees in 1931. They finished second, beginning a nine-year run of second or better. From 1936 to 1939 his Yankees won four World Series in a row; from 1936 to 1943, seven pennants and six World Series. His .615 winning percentage (2125-1333) is tops for a big league skipper, and he is tied with Casey Stengel for most world championship teams managed (7). Besides winning--McCarthy never had a losing season in the majors--his teams are best remembered for their offense. The 1931 Yankees scored 1067 runs, the most of any team since 1900, while his 1936 club scored the second most, with 1065. In 1905 he played in one game for the eventual Yankees, the New York Highlanders.
Joe McCarthy
He was the first of the patriarchs, whose lives are told in the book of Genesis. He proved his military prowess during the War of the Kings, rescuing his captured nephew Lot. He also tried, unsuccessfully, to persuade God to spare the evil cities of Sodom (where Lot lived) and Gomorrah. His wife Sarah gave birth to Isaac when she was ninety years old; Sarah evicted his concubine, Hagar, and her son Ishmael (said to be ancestor of the Arabs). He also bought the Cave of Machpela (near Hebron) as a burial ground for him and his descendants (Adam and Eve, _____ and Sarah, Isaac and Rebeccah, and Jacob and Leah are supposedly buried there).
He was, as a child, almost sacrificed by his father Abraham on Mt. Moriah, when God tried to test Abraham's faith. He married Rebeccah, and she gave birth to the twins Jacob and Esau, of whom Esau (the older one) was entitled to a birthright. However, Jacob tricked Isaac with Rebeccah's help. This incident caused Esau and his father to be mortal enemies. Denied his birthright, Esau went to live in Mt. Seir and became the father of the Edomites.
He was Esau's twin brother, but had to flee Esau's rage after stealing Esau's blessing and birthright. He loved his uncle Laban's daughter Rachel, but Laban tricked him into marrying her sister Leah first. Leah bore him Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun; Leah's maidservant Zilpah, bore him Gad and Asher; Rachel gave birth to Joseph and Benjamin, and Rachel's maidservant Bilhah bore Dan and Naphtali. The Twelve Tribes of Israel descend from his twelve sons, with the exception of Joseph; Ephraim and Menasseh, sons of Joseph, each head "half-tribes." He was later renamed "Israel," meaning "he who fights with God."
He was the charismatic attendant to Moses during the Exodus from Egypt. He was one of the twelve spies sent to scout Canaan. Ten of the other spies gave negative reports of the land and were killed in the plague as punishment; he and another spy, Caleb, gave positive reports and were rewarded. Appointed Moses' successor, he led the Israelites in conquering and dividing Canaan. One of his most famous victories was against the city of Jericho, which he destroyed by circling the city seven times while blowing on rams' horns (shofarim).
She was one of the Judges, leaders who governed the Hebrews in Canaan during the period between Joshua's death and the establishment of the monarchy in Israel; she used to judge while sitting under a palm tree. In battle, she and Barak (son of Abinoam) led the Hebrews to a stunning victory against Jabin, the Canaanite king. She won when the chariots of Sisera, Jabin's general, got stuck in the mud of the river Kishon, and he and his soldiers all fled or were killed. The victory ended an era of persecution of the Hebrews by Jabin.
He was the nephew of Abraham and later left him to settle around the evil cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. When God prepared to destroy the two cities, two messengers were sent to him to evacuate him from the area; as he and his family were fleeing, his wife accidentally glanced back, and she was transformed into a pillar of salt. Afterwards, fearing that they were the only people left alive on Earth, his two daughters got him drunk and became pregnant from him, beginning the future nations of Moab and the Ammonites.
Being a "righteous man and blameless in his generation," (Genesis 6:9) was chosen by God to continue the human race, while the rest of mankind was destroyed by a flood because of their wickedness. Afterwards, he and his family populated the Earth. His son Shem is considered the father of the Semitic people (e.g., Arabs and Hebrews), Ham, the ancestor of the Africans, and Japheth, the ancestor of various other races, including Indo-Europeans.
They were the sons of Adam and Eve. (Adam begat other sons and daughters but the Bible mentions none by name.) ____ killed ____ out of rage because God had preferred _____'s offering from his flock, rather than ____'s. When asked about ____'s fate, _____ answered, "Am I my brother's keeper?" _____ was punished for the murder by becoming a vagabond, and he was given a special mark on his forehead to protect him from anyone who might kill him (God promised that anyone who killed _____ would suffer punishment for seven generations). Later, Eve gave birth to ____.
Cain, Abel, and Seth
She was a Moabite woman who converted to Judaism. Her lineage includes David, King of Israel. She stayed with her mother-in-law, Naomi, after Naomi's husband and two sons died of illness. She later married Boaz, one of the family's relatives, as the custom was that a family member must continue his relative's lineage if he dies by marrying his widow. The Book of ____ is read on the holiday of Shavuot.
He was a Jewish scribe who led a group of Jews back to Israel from their exile in Babylonia. He was also instrumental in working to rebuild the Temple (with permission from Cyrus) after the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar had destroyed it. When Israel's neighbors tried to convince King Artaxerxes that the Jews shouldn't be able to rebuild the Temple because of their reputation as a rebellious province, he intervened and appealed later to King Darius, who allowed them to resume construction. Additionally, he helped to reestablish Jewish religious practice in Israel after the exile.
They were the first three kings of Israel. The young _____, popular after killing the giant Goliath, succeeded _____ at the behest of the prophet Samuel and with the blessing of his close friend, ____'s own son Jonathan. For this, ____ greatly resented _____ and made more than one attempt to kill him. _____, like _____, spent much of his reign at war; because of the blood on his hands, God decreed that ______ (not _____) would build the Temple. _____ captured the city of Jerusalem and made it his capital. He fell in love with his future wife Bathsheba after he spotted her bathing; he had her husband killed so that he could marry her. He also exhausted himself supressing a rebellion by his son Absalom, who was captured when his long hair caught on a tree branch. Bathsheba's son ______, in addition to building the Temple, was credited with writing Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs.
Saul, David, and Solomon
He was a young Jew who, together with his three friends (Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah), was taken captive by Nebuchadnezzar when he conquered the Kingdom of Judah. He was given a Babylonian name, and he gained favor with Nebuchadnezzar when he correctly interpreted one of his dreams. Nebuchadnezzar was later replaced by King Belshazzar. During a royal feast, a mysterious hand inscribed strange words on the wall. He was summoned and interpreted the famous message, the writing on the wall (it read "Mene, Mene, Tekel, Ufarsin"), as predicting Belshazzar's downfall. Later that night, the King was killed, and King Darius the Mede took over. Servants of Darius convinced him to lock _____ in the lion's den, where he magically survived with God's help.
It is the longest river in China and Asia and the third longest in the world. It rises in the Kunlun Mountains, flows across the Tibetan Plateau, passes the cities of Chongqing, Wuhan, Nanjing, and Shanghai, and empties into the South China Sea. Its basin is China's granary and is home to nearly one in every three Chinese citizens. The river has been in the news for the construction of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest, which will reduce flooding but displace 1.5 million people and bury more than 1,300 known archaeological sites.
The Yangtze (or Chang Jiang or Ch'ang Chiang)
It runs 1,800 miles from its source in the Tibetan Himalayas; it starts eastward across the plateau, then turns south into the Indian state of Assam, and then enters Bangladesh where it merges with the Ganges to form the world's largest delta. While serving as a historical route to Tibet, the river is also prone to disastrous flooding.
The Brahmaputra (or Tsangpo or Jamuna)
It is, at 3,400 miles, China's second-longest; it is also the most important to the northern half of the country. It rises in Qinghai province and flows into the Bohai Gulf of the Yellow Sea. The river's name comes from the extraordinary amount of loess silt that it carries, an average of 57 pounds for every cubic yard of water. Among its notable features is the Grand Canal, built during the Ming Dynasty, that links it to the Yangtze.
The Yellow River (or Huang He or Huang Ho)
It is the holiest river of Hinduism. It rises in the Himalayas and flows a comparatively short 1,560 miles to the world's largest delta on the Bay of Bengal. Among that delta's distributaries are the Hooghly (on whose banks Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) may be found) and the Padma (which enters Bangladesh). Approximately one in every twelve human beings lives in the ______ Basin, a population density that is rapidly polluting the river; a significant source of that pollution is cremated remains.
The Ganges (or Ganga)
It is the chief river of Southeast Asia. It originates in eastern Tibet, forms much of the Laos-Thailand border, flows south through Cambodia, and enters the South China Sea in southern Vietnam just south of Ho Chi Minh City. The capital cities of Vientiane and Phnom Penh are on it. The building of dams and clearing of rapids are a source of diplomatic conflict between China, Laos, and Cambodia.
The Mekong
It is the eastern of the two rivers that define the historic region of Mesopotamia (meaning, "The Land Between Two Rivers") that was home to the ancient civilizations of Sumer and Akkad. It rises in Turkey, then flows southeast by Mosul, Tikrit, and Baghdad before joining the Euphrates to make the Shatt-al-Arab, which subsequently empties into the Persian Gulf.
The Tigris
This river defines the western border of Mesopotamia; it also rises in the Zagros Mountains of Turkey and its shores are home to Fallujah and Babylon. It is the longer of the two rivers with a course of 1,740 miles (compared to the Tigris' 1,180). Both the Tigris and the ______ have changed courses several times leaving ruins in the desert where cities have been abandoned.
The Euphrates
It is the chief river of Myanmar (also known as Burma). It flows 1,350 miles past Yangon (formerly Rangoon) and Mandalay to the Gulf of Martaban, an arm of the Bay of Bengal. Its delta is one of the world's most important rice-growing regions, and its name is thought to come from the Sanskrit word for "elephant."
The Irrawaddy (or Ayeyarwaddy)
It is the chief river of Pakistan as well as being the ultimate source of the name of India. It rises in Tibet and flows 1,800 miles to a delta on the Arabian Sea southeast of Karachi. The five major tributaries of it, the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej Rivers, are the source of the name of the Punjab region, which is Persian for "Land of the Five Rivers". The _____ is the cradle of the _____ Valley Civilization, one of the world's earliest urban areas, whose main cities were Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa.
The Indus
This river rises in Syria from springs near Mount Hermon. It flows south to Lake Merom, through the Sea of Galilee, and into the Dead Sea, which lies 1,300 feet below sea level. The river forms the nation of Jordan's boundary with the West Bank and northern Israel. In the New Testament, the river was the site of the baptism of John the Baptist. In modern times, about 80% of its water is diverted for human use, a figure that has led to the shrinking of the Dead Sea and serious contention among bordering nations.
The Jordan River
One of the classes of "fundamental particles" (meaning that they cannot be broken down into smaller particles). There are six "flavors" of them: the electron, the muon, the tauon, the electron neutrino (usually just called "the" neutrino), the muon neutrino, and the tauon neutrino. The three neutrinos are neutral (and were once thought to be massless), while the other three have a charge of -1. All neutrinos are fermions and the total number of ______ is conserved (counting regular ______ as +1 particle and anti-______ as -1 particle). The word comes from the Greek for "light" (as in "not heavy"), even though the muon and tauon are fairly massive.
Another class of fundamental particle. They also come in six flavors: up, down, charm, strange, top (sometimes, "truth"), and bottom (sometimes, "beauty"). The up, charm, and top ____s have a charge of +2/3, while the down, strange, and bottom have a charge of -1/3. All are fermions and they combine in pairs to form mesons and in triples to form baryons. The enormous mass of the top _____ (178 GeV) made it difficult to create in particle accelerators, but its discovery in 1995 confirmed an essential element of the "Standard Model" of particle physics. The name comes from the line "Three _____s for Muster Mark" in Finnegans Wake that appealed to Murray Gell-Mann. The study of them (and the strong nuclear force) is quantum chromodynamics.
They are composite (i.e., non-fundamental) particles made from three quarks. The most common examples are the proton (two up quarks and one down quark) and the neutron (two down quarks and one up). All are fermions. Quarks possess a characteristic called "color" (which has nothing to do with visual color) which can be either red, green, or blue (which are arbitrary names). A _____ must have one quark of each color so that the "total color" (analogous to mixing red, green, and blue light) is colorless (i.e., "white"). The word comes from the Greek for "heavy." The total number is conserved (again, counting anti-_____ as -1).
They are composite particles generally made from a quark and an anti-quark. There are dozens of examples including the pion, kaon, J/Psi, Rho, and D. All are bosons. The quark and anti-quark must have the same color (such as red and anti-red) so that the resulting _____ is colorless (or "white"). It is also possible to make them out of two (or more) quarks and the same number of anti-quarks, but this kind of particle (a "tetraquark") is rare.
These are particles with half-integral spin. Spin is a form of "intrinsic angular momentum" which is possessed by particles as if they were spinning around their axis (but, in fact, they aren't). The values cited for spin are not (usually) the real magnitude of that angular momentum, but the component of the angular momentum along one axis. Quantum mechanics restricts that component to being n/2 times Planck's constant divided by 2 pi for some integer n. If n is even, this results in "integral" spin, if it is odd, it results in "half-integral" spin. Note that the exact value of the spin itself is a real number; it's the multiplier of h/2pi that determines whether it is "integral" or not. The most significant thing about these is that they are subject to the Pauli Exclusion Principle: No two can have the same quantum numbers (i.e., same state). The name comes from that of the Italian-American physicist Enrico Fermi.
These are particles with integral spin. All particles are either _____ or fermions. The spin of a composite particle is determined by the total spin (i.e., the component of its intrinsic angular momentum along one axis) of its particles. For instance, an alpha particle (two protons and two neutrons) has four half-integral spin values. No matter how they are added up, the result will be an integral spin value (try it!), so an alpha particle is a (composite) ______. The Pauli Exclusion Principle does not apply to these (in fact, they prefer to be in the same quantum state). The name comes from that of the Indian-American physicist Satyendra Nath Bose.
These are any particles made out of quarks (alternatively, any particle affected by the strong nuclear force). Generally, this means the baryons and the mesons. All of them are colorless (in the sense of the combined color of their constituent quarks). The name comes from the Greek for "thick."
These (sometimes called "vector ______s") are fundamental ______s that carry the forces of nature. That is, forces result from particles emitting and absorbing them. The strong nuclear force is carried by gluons, the weak nuclear force is carried by the W, Z-, and Z+ particles, the electromagnetic force is carried by the photon, and gravity is carried by the (as yet unobserved) graviton. The name comes from the role of "_____ theories" in describing the forces.
Gauge bosons
These are the gauge bosons that carry the strong nuclear force and bind hadrons together. They have no charge and no mass, but do have color (in the sense of quarks). This color cannot be observed directly because they are part of the larger hadron. The name comes from their role in "gluing" quarks together.
This are an older name that was used for the "internal parts" of hadrons before the discovery and widespread acceptance of the quark model. Models based on them are still used but, for the most part, it was determined that they were quarks and the term is rarely used at the high school level except in historical contexts.
(Giuseppe Verdi, Antonio Ghislanzoni, 1871) She is an Ethiopian princess who is held captive in Egypt. She falls in love with the Egyptian general Radames and convinces him to run away with her; unfortunately, he is caught by the high priest Ramphis and a jealous Egyptian princess Amneris. Radames is buried alive, but finds that she has snuck into the tomb to join him. The opera was commissioned by the khedive of Egypt and intended to commemorate the opening of the Suez Canal, but it was finished late and instead premiered at the opening of the Cairo Opera House.
(Georges Bizet, Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, 1875) She is a young gypsy who works in a cigarette factory in Seville. She is arrested by the corporal Don José for fighting, but cajoles him into letting her escape. They meet again at an inn where she tempts him into challenging his captain; that treason forces him to join a group of smugglers. In the final act, the ragtag former soldier encounters her at a bullfight where her lover Escamillo is competing (the source of the "Toreador Song") and stabs her. The libretto was based on a novel of Prosper Merimée.
(Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Lorenzo Da Ponte, 1786) The title character and Susanna are servants of Count Almaviva who plan to marry, but this plan is complicated by the older Marcellina who wants to wed him, the Count who has made unwanted advances to Susanna, and Don Bartolo who has a loan that he has sworn he will repay before he marries. The issues are resolved with a series complicated schemes that involve impersonating other characters including the page Cherubino. The opera is based on a comedy by Pierre de Beaumarchais. Be careful: Many of the same characters also appear in The Barber of Seville!
The Marriage of Figaro
(Gioacchino Rossini, Cesare Sterbini, 1816) Count Almaviva loves Rosina, the ward of Dr. Bartolo. Figaro (who brags about his wit in Largo al factotum) promises to help him win the girl. He tries the guise of the poor student Lindoro, a drunken soldier, and then a replacement music teacher, all of which are penetrated by Dr. Bartolo. Eventually they succeed by climbing in with a ladder and bribing the notary who was to marry Rosina to Dr. Bartolo himself. This opera is also based on a work of Pierre de Beaumarchais and is a prequel to The Marriage of Figaro.
The Barber of Seville
(Gioacchino Rossini, unimportant librettists, 1829) The title character is a 14th-century Swiss patriot who wishes to end Austria's domination of his country. In the first act he helps Leuthold, a fugitive, escape the Austrian governor, Gessler. In the third act, Gessler has placed his hat on a poll and ordered the men to bow to it. When the title character refuses, Gessler takes his son, Jemmy, and forces him to shoot an apple off his son's head. He succeeds, but is arrested anyway. In the fourth act, he escapes from the Austrians and his son sets their house on fire as a signal for the Swiss to rise in revolt. The opera was based on a play by Friedrich von Schiller.
William Tell
(Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Lorenzo Da Ponte, 1787) The title character (the Italian form of "___ ____") attempts to seduce Donna Anna, but is discovered by her father, the Commendatore, whom he kills in a swordfight. Later in the act, his servant Leporello recounts his master's 2,000-odd conquests in the "Catalogue Aria." Further swordfights and assignations occur prior to the final scene in which a statue of the Commendatore comes to life, knocks on the door to the room in which Don Giovanni is feasting, and then opens a chasm that takes him down to hell.
Don Giovanni
(Richard Strauss, Hugo Oscar Wilde, 1905) Jokanaan (a.k.a. John the Baptist) is imprisoned in the dungeons of King Herod. Herod's 15-year-old step-daughter ______ becomes obsessed with the prisoner's religious passion and is incensed when he ignores her advances. Later in the evening Herod orders her to dance for him (the "Dance of the Seven Veils"), but she refuses until he promises her "anything she wants." She asks for the head of Jokanaan and eventually receives it, after which a horrified Herod orders her to be killed; his soldiers crush her with their shields.
(Modest Mussorgsky (composer and librettist), 1874) The opera's prologue shows the title character, the chief adviser of Ivan the Terrible, being pressured to assume the throne after Ivan's two children die. In the first act the religious novice Grigori decides that he will impersonate that younger son, Dmitri (the (first) "false Dmitri"), whom, it turns out, the title character had killed. Grigori raises a general revolt and _____'s health falls apart as he is taunted by military defeats and dreams of the murdered tsarevich. The opera ends with _____ dying in front of the assembled boyars (noblemen).
Boris Godunov
(Giacomo Puccini, unimportant librettists, 1896) This opera tells the story of four extremely poor friends who live in the French (i.e., Students') Quarter of Paris: Marcello the artist, Rodolfo the poet, Colline the philosopher, and Schaunard the musician. Rodolfo meets the seamstress Mimi who lives next door when her single candle is blown out and needs to be relit. Marcello is still attached to Musetta, who had left him for the rich man Alcindoro. In the final act, Marcello and Rodolfo have separated from their lovers, but cannot stop thinking about them. Musetta bursts into their garret apartment and tells them that Mimi is dying of consumption (tuberculosis); when they reach her, she is already dead. The opera was based on a novel by Henry Murger and, in turn, formed the basis of the hit 1996 musical Rent by Jonathan Larson.
La Boheme
(Giacomo Puccini, unimportant librettists, 1904) The American naval lieutenant Benjamin Franklin Pinkerton is stationed in Nagasaki where, with the help of the broker Goro, he weds the young girl Cio-Cio-San (____ _______) with a marriage contract with a cancellation clause. He later returns to America leaving Cio-Cio-San to raise their son "Trouble" (whom she will rename "Joy" upon his return). When Pinkerton and his new American wife Kate do return, Cio-Cio-San gives them her son and stabs herself with her father's dagger. The opera is based on a play by David Belasco.
Madama Butterfly
(Melville Fuller, 7-1, 1896) Homer _____ (an octoroon) bought a first-class ticket on the East Louisiana Railway. He sat in the whites-only car in violation of an 1890 Louisiana law mandating separate accommodations. He was convicted, but appealed to the Supreme Court against John ______, a Louisiana judge. The court upheld the law provided that "separate but equal" facilities were provided. John Marshall Harlan issued a famous dissent claiming "Our constitution is color-blind." It was overturned by Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas.
Plessy v. Ferguson
(John Marshall, 4-0, 1803) On his final day in office in 1801, John Adams signed commissions for 42 federal judges (the so-called "midnight judges"). His successor, Thomas Jefferson, opted to not deliver most of the commissions. One appointee, William ________, sued the new secretary of state, James _________, to force the delivery of his commission. The Judiciary Act of 1789 had granted the court original jurisdiction in such cases, but the Constitution did not. The court ruled that the Judiciary Act conflicted with the Constitution and was therefore void. Therefore his request was denied for lack of jurisdiction. This case established the principle of judicial review, the power of the court to nullify unconstitutional laws.
Marbury v. Madison
(Warren Burger, 7-2, 1973) Norma McCorvey (under the alias Jane ___), a rape victim, sued Dallas County attorney Henry ____ for the right to an abortion. When the case reached the Supreme Court, the plaintiff depended on the growing recognition of a "right to privacy" which began with the 1965 case of Griswold v. Connecticut. The court struck down state anti-abortion laws as "unconstitutionally vague," held that the word "person" in the Constitution "does not include the unborn," and legalized abortion in the first trimester. McCorvey later joined the pro-life movement and claimed that she was not actually raped and that she was pressured into filing the case by her ambitious attorney Sarah Weddington.
Roe v. Wade
(Earl Warren, 9-0, 1954) The suit was filed on behalf of Linda _____, a third grader, who had to walk a mile to a blacks-only school when a whites-only school was much closer. Future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall argued the case for the plaintiff. The court overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were not constitutional. A second case in 1955 required that desegregation proceed "with all deliberate speed" but Southern schools were notoriously slow in complying; it was not until 1970 that a majority had complied with the ruling.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
(John Marshall, 9-0, 1819) After the Second Bank of the United States began calling in loans owned by the states, This state passed a law taxing out-of-state banks. The federal bank refused to pay, so the state sued its cashier, James ______. The court ruled that the federal government had the right to establish the bank even though it was not expressly enumerated in the Constitution and also noted that since "the power to tax was the power to destroy," the state could not tax the bank without destroying federal sovereignty.
McColloch v. Maryland
(Earl Warren, 6-2, 1962) Charles W. _____, a Tennessee citizen, sued the Tennessee secretary state, Joe ____, claiming that the state's electoral districts had been drawn to grossly favor one political party. The defendant argued that reapportionment issues were political, not judicial, matters, but the court disagreed and declared the issue justiciable before remanding the case to a lower court. Two years later, in Reynolds v. Sims, the court mandated the principle of "one man, one vote."
Baker v. Carr
(Earl Warren, 9-0, 1963) Clarence Earl ______ was accused of breaking into a pool hall in Florida. Because his crime was not capital, the court declined to provide him with an attorney. He was convicted, sued Louie _________, the director of the corrections office, and took his case to the Supreme Court. The court overruled Betts v. Brady and held that the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments required appointed counsel in all trials. ______ was retried and found innocent. The case is the subject of the book ______'s Trumpet.
Gideon v. Wainwright
(Edward Douglass White, 5-4, 1918) The Keating-Own Act prohibited the interstate sale of goods produced by child labor leading Roland __________ to sue U.S. attorney ______ in Charlotte since his two sons would be put out of work. The court ruled that the federal government did not have the right to regulate child labor; Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote a notable dissent focusing on the lack of proper state regulation. The case was overturned by the 1941 U.S. v. Darby Lumber Company case upholding the Fair Labor Standards Act.
Hammer v. Dagenhart
(John Marshall, 6-0, 1810) In 1795 the Georgia legislature corruptly sold land along the Yazoo River (now in Mississippi) to private citizens in exchange for bribes. The legislators were mostly defeated in the next elections and the incoming politicians voided the sales. In the meantime, John ____ sold some of the land in question to Robert _______, who then sued him, claiming that he did not have clear title. The Supreme Court held that the state legislature did not have the power to repeal the sale. This was one of the earliest cases in which the Supreme Court struck down a state law.
Fletcher v. Peck
(Roger Taney, 1861) This was not actually a Supreme Court case, but a federal court case heard by Chief Justice Roger Taney while "circuit-riding" when the court was not in session. Lieutenant John ________ of the Maryland cavalry took an active role in evicting Union soldiers from Maryland following the attack on Fort Sumter. Abraham Lincoln declared a secret suspension of the writ of habeas corpus and had a number of opposition leaders, including ________, arrested. Taney found the president had acted unconstitutionally (only Congress can suspend the writ), but Lincoln simply ignored his ruling.
Ex Parte Merryman
(1919) This treaty officially ended World War I and was signed at its namesake French palace after the Paris Peace Conference. It is noted for the "Big Four" (Woodrow Wilson, David Lloyd-George, Georges Clemenceau, and Vittorio Orlando) who headed the Allies' delegations, discussions of Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points (particularly the League of Nations), and its controversial disarmament, war guilt, and reparations clauses. The conference was also notable for up-and-coming world figures who attended (John Maynard Keynes, Ho Chi Minh, Jan Smuts, etc.)
The Treaty of Versailles (1919)
(1713) This was a series of treaties signed in the Dutch city of ________ that (mostly) ended the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714). They were signed by France and Spain for one side and by Britain, Savoy, and the United Provinces (The Netherlands) for the other. The treaty confirmed a Bourbon prince (Philip, Duke of Anjou) on the Spanish throne (ending Habsburg control), but took steps to prevent the French and Spanish thrones from being merged. Some Spanish possessions, including Sicily, the Spanish Netherlands, Naples, and Gibraltar, were given to the victors.
Treaty of Utrecht (1713)
(1814) This treaty ended the War of 1812 between the U.S. and Britain. It was signed in the Belgian city of _____ but, due to the distances involved, could not prevent the Battle of New Orleans two weeks later. The treaty made no boundary changes and had minimal effect; both sides were ready for peace and considered the war a futile and fruitless endeavor.
Treaty of Ghent (1814)
(1905) This treaty ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). It was signed in __________, New Hampshire, after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize). Japan had dominated the war and received an indemnity, the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, and half of Sakhalin Island, but the treaty was widely condemned in Japan because the public had expected more.
Treaty of Porsmouth (1905)
(1819) This treaty settled a boundary dispute between the U.S. and Spain that arose following the Louisiana Purchase. It was negotiated by then-Secretary of State and most notably sold Florida to the U.S. in exchange for the payment of its citizens' claims against Spain. It also delineated the U.S.-Spain border to the Pacific Ocean leading to its alternate name, the Transcontinental Treaty.
Adams-Onís Treaty (1819)
These treaties (1978) were negotiated at the presidential retreat of ____ ______ by Egypt's Anwar Sadat and Israel Menachem Begin; they were brokered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter. They led to a peace treaty the next year that returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt, guaranteed Israeli access to the Red Sea and Suez Canal, and more-or-less normalized diplomatic and economic relations between the two countries. This isolated Egypt from the other Arab countries and led to Sadat's assassination in 1981.
Camp David Accords (1978)
(1848) This treaty ended the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) and was signed in its namesake neighborhood of Mexico City. Its most significant result was the "Mexican Cession" transferring California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of four other states to the U.S. It also made the Rio Grande the boundary between Texas and Mexico.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
(1918) This treaty was a "separate peace" signed by the Bolshevik government of the new USSR and Germany. The USSR needed to make peace to focus on defeating the "Whites" (royalists) in the Russian Civil War, and it gave up Ukraine, Belarus, and the three Baltic countries after Germany invaded, an outcome worse than a German offer which chief Soviet negotiator Leon Trotsky had rejected. The treaty was negotiated in modern-day _____ (in Belarus) and was nullified by the subsequent Treaty of Versailles following Germany's defeat.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918)
(1494) This treaty ostensibly divided the New World (and, in later interpretations, the entire world) between Spain and Portugal. It resulted from a bull by (Spanish-born) Pope Alexander VI granting lands to Spain and established a line west of the Cape Verde islands between future Spanish possessions (west) and Portuguese possessions (east). The line passed through Brazil, allowing the Portuguese to establish a colony there while Spain received the rest of the Americas. Endless wrangling and repeated revisions ensued.
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
(1648) This is the collective name for two treaties ending the Thirty Years' War that were signed by the Holy Roman Empire, minor German states, Spain, France, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic. It confirmed the principle of "cuius regio eius religio" (that a ruler's religion determined that of his country) introduced by the Peace of Augsburg, but mandated relative tolerance of other (Christian) faiths. It adjusted the borders of German states and strengthened their princes with respect to the Emperor and transferred most of Lorraine and some of Alsace to France.
Peace of Westphalia (1648)
(1929) This treaty created the independent country of the Vatican City, made Catholicism the state religion of Italy (ended in 1984), and determined the proper remuneration for Church property taken by Italy. It was signed by Benito Mussolini and a representative of Pope Pius XI in the namesake papal residence and ended the so-called "Roman Question" that arose out of the unification of Italy and the dissolution of the Papal States.
Lateran Treaty (1929)
(1898) This treaty was, surprisingly, the only one of this name to make the list. It ended the Spanish-American War and transferred Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico to the U.S. while making Cuba (ostensibly) independent. The treaty was the beginning of American imperialism and underwent a lengthy and contentious ratification.
Treaty of Paris (1898)
(1475 - 1564) A Florentine "Renaissance man" also known for architecture (the dome of St. Peter's Basilica), painting (The Last Judgment and the Sistine Chapel ceiling), poetry, and military engineering. His sculpted masterpieces include David, a Pietˆ, Bacchus, and a number of pieces for the tomb of Pope Julius II (including Dying Slave and Moses). He preferred to work in Carraran marble.
(1840 - 1917) A French sculptor known for stormy relationships with "the establishment" of the ƒcole des Beaux-Arts [ay-kohl day boh-zar] and his mistress, fellow artist Camille Claudel. His works include The Age of Bronze, HonorŽ de Balzac, The Burghers of Calais, and a massive pair of doors for the Museum of Decorative Arts (the Gates of Hell) inspired by Dante's Inferno. That latter work included his most famous piece, The Thinker.
Auguste Rodin
(1598 - 1680) A Roman who, with the rarely asked-about Francesco Borromini, defined the Baroque movement in sculpture. He is principally known for his freestanding works including David and The Ecstasy of St. Theresa. His David differs from that of Michelangelo in that the hero is shown "in motion," having twisted his body to sling the rock. He is also known for his massive fountains in Rome including the Triton and the Fountain of the Four Rivers.
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
(1386 - 1466) A Florentine sculptor who helped define Renaissance sculpture as distinct from that of the Gothic period. He is known for St. Mark and St. George in the Or San Michele [OR SAHN mee-KAY-lay] (a Florentine church), the bald Zuccone (which means "pumpkin-head," though it depicts the prophet Habbakuk), and the first equestrian statue to be cast since Roman times, the Gattamelata in Padua. He is also known for mastering the low relief form of schiacciato.
(1378 - 1455) A Florentine sculptor and goldsmith who taught both Donatello and Filippo Brunelleschi. He is best known for two pairs of bronze doors on the Florence Baptistery (associated with the Duomo, or Florentine Cathedral). He produced a single, low-relief panel to win a 1401 competition (defeating Brunelleschi) for the commission to design the 28 panels for the north doors. After that, he was given another commission to design ten panels for the east doors. This latter work, by far his most famous, was dubbed the "Gates of Paradise" by Michelangelo.
Lorenzo Ghiberti
(1867 - 1941) An American known for crafting Mount Rushmore in the Black Hills of South Dakota. He is also known for The Mares of Diomedes and an unfinished (and later replaced) tribute to Confederate heroes on Stone Mountain in Georgia.
Gutzon Borglum
(c. 480 BC - c. 430 BC) An Athenian considered the greatest of all Classical sculptors. He created the chryselephantine (gold and ivory) Statue of Zeus at Olympia (one of the Wonders of the Ancient World, now lost) and the statue of Athena in the Parthenon (now lost). He was supported by money from the Delian League (that is, the Athenian Empire) run by his friend Pericles; he was later ruined by charges of corruption generally considered to be part of a political campaign against Pericles.
(1876 - 1957) A Romanian sculptor who was a major figure in Modernism. He is best known for The Kiss (not to be confused with the Rodin work or the Klimt painting), Sleeping Muse, and Bird in Space. He's also the center of anecdote in which U.S. customs taxed his works as "industrial products" since they refused to recognize them as art.
Constantin Brancusi
(1850 - 1931) An American who created The Minute Man for Concord, Massachusetts and Standing Lincoln for the Nebraska state capitol, but who is best known for the seated statue in the Lincoln Memorial.
Daniel Chester French
(1834-1904) A French sculptor primarily known as the creator of Liberty Enlightening the World, better known as the Statue of Liberty. He also executed The Lion of Belfort and a statue of the Marquis de Lafayette in New York's Union Square.
FrŽdŽric-Auguste Bartholdi
(1643-1727, English) His work in pure math includes generalizing the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, doing the first rigorous manipulation with power series, and creating "______'s method" for the finding roots. He is best known, however, for a lengthy feud between British and Continental mathematicians over whether he or Gottfried Leibniz invented calculus (whose differential aspect he called "the method of fluxions"). It is now generally accepted that they both did, independently.
Isaac Newton
(c. 300 BC, Alexandrian Greek) He is principally known for the Elements, a textbook on geometry and number theory, that was used for over 2,000 years and which grounds essentially all of what is taught in modern high school geometry classes. He is known for his five postulates that define Euclidean (i.e., "normal") space, especially the fifth (the "parallel postulate") which can be broken to create spherical and hyperbolic geometries. He also proved the infinitude of prime numbers.
(1777-1855, German) He is considered the "Prince of Mathematicians" for his extraordinary contributions to every major branch of mathematics. His Disquisitiones Arithmeticae systematized number theory and stated the fundamental theorem of arithmetic. He also proved the fundamental theorem of algebra, the law of quadratic reciprocity, and the prime number theorem. He may be most famous for the (possibly apocryphal) story of intuiting the formula for the summation of an arithmetic series when given the busywork task of adding the first 100 positive integers by his primary school teacher.
Carl Friedrich Gauss
(287-212 BC, Syracusan Greek) He is best known for his "Eureka moment" of using density considerations to determine the purity of a gold crown; nonetheless, he was the preeminent mathematician of ancient Greece. He found the ratios between the surface areas and volumes of a sphere and a circumscribed cylinder, accurately estimated pi, and presaged the summation of infinite series with his "method of exhaustion."
(1646-1716, German) He is known for his independent invention of calculus and the ensuing priority dispute with Isaac Newton. Most modern calculus notation, including the integral sign and the use of d to indicate a differential, originated with him. He also invented binary numbers and did fundamental work in establishing boolean algebra and symbolic logic.
Gottfried Leibniz
(1601-1665, French) is remembered for his contributions to number theory including his "little theorem" that ap - a will be divisible by p if p is prime. He also studied Fermat primes (those of the form 22n+1) and stated his "Last Theorem" that xn + yn = zn has no solutions if x, y, and z are positive integers and n is a positive integer greater than 2. He and Blaise Pascal founded probability theory. In addition, he discovered methods for finding the maxima and minima of functions and the areas under polynomials that anticipated calculus and inspired Isaac Newton.
Pierre de Fermat
(1707-1783, Swiss) He is known for his prolific output and the fact that he continued to produce seminal results even after going blind. He invented graph theory with the Seven Bridges of Kšnigsberg problem and introduced the modern notation for e, the square root of -1 (i), and trigonometric functions. Richard Feynman called his proof that ei¹ = -1 "the most beautiful equation in mathematics" because it linked four of math's most important constants.
Leonhard Euler
(1906-1978, Austrian) He was a logician best known for his two incompleteness theorems proving that every formal system that was powerful enough to express ordinary arithmetic must necessarily contain statements that were true, but which could not be proved within the system itself.
Kurt Godel
(1953-present, British) is best known for proving the Taniyama-Shimura conjecture that all rational semi-stable elliptic curves are modular. This would normally be too abstruse to occur frequently in quiz bowl, but a corollary of that result established Fermat's Last Theorem.
Andrew Wiles
(1805-1865, Irish) He is known for extending the notion of complex numbers to four dimensions by inventing the quaternions, a non-commutative field with six square roots of -1: ±i, ±j, and ±k with the property that ij = k, jk = i, and ki = j.
William Rowan Hamilton
(5.4 million sq. mi.) Because it is covered with (solid) water, it is somewhat surprising that this land mass is considered a desert, but it is classified as such due to its lack of precipitation. Be familiar with its tallest mountain (Vinson Massif, in the Ellsworth Mountains), its active volcano Mount Erebus, the surrounding Ross and Weddell Seas, and the Ross Ice Shelf. Norwegian Roald Amundsen was the first to reach the South Pole (1911), while Englishman Robert Scott died trying to reach it. Ernest Shackleton had to abandon his ship, the Endurance, during an attempt to cross it on foot.
(Northern Africa; 3.5 million sq. mi.) It is the world's second largest desert, but its largest hot desert. Know the Atlas Mountains (which bound the western Sahara on the north) and the Sahel, a savannah-like strip that bounds it on the south. It is dominated by rocky regions (hamada), sand seas (ergs), and salt flats (shatt) and dry river valleys (wadi) that are subject to flash floods. Its most asked-about inhabitants are the Berbers and Tuaregs.
Sahara Desert
(Chile; 70,000 sq. mi.) This desert's chief claim to fame is the rain shadow of the Andes which makes it the driest (hot) desert in the world. The desert was the primary bone of contention in the War of the Pacific (1879-1883, Chile defeats Peru and Bolivia) that sought to control its nitrate resources (which were necessary for the production of explosives).
Atacama Desert
(Botswana, Namibia, South Africa; 360,000 sq. mi.) This is a large region, not all of which is arid enough to qualify as a desert. It is known for its red sand, large game reserves (meerkats, gemsbok, springbok, steenbok), and mineral deposits (notably uranium). Most famous are its San Bushmen and their click language.
Kalahari Desert
(U.S.; 25,000 sq. mi.) This desert is bounded by the San Gabriel and San Bernardino mountain ranges along the San Andreas and Garlock Faults. It lies between the Great Basin and the Sonoran Desert and it contains the lowest and driest point of North America, Death Valley. It is most strongly associated with the Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia).
Mojave Desert
(China and Mongolia; 500,000 sq. mi.) This, Asia's second largest desert (after the Arabian Desert), is bounded on the north by the Altai Mountains. It is known for its role in the Silk Road trading route and the Nemegt Basin, where fossilized dinosaur eggs and human artifacts have been found.
Gobi Desert
(Arabian Peninsula; 250,000 sq. mi.) Its name means "Empty Quarter" in English and this desert can be considered the most inhospitable place on earth. It is known for the world's largest oil field, the Ghawar, and for once being part of the frankincense trade.
(Namibia and Angola; 30,000 sq. mi.) This, a coastal desert, is known for its bizarre Welwitschia and medicinal Hoodia plants. It is thought to be the oldest desert in the world.
Namib Desert
(Northern Arizona) This Desert, which is shared by Grand Canyon and Petrified Forest National Parks, is known for its colorful, banded rock formations.
Painted Desert
(Israel; 4,700 sq. mi.) This triangular desert covers the southern half of Israel.
Negev Desert
(China; 105,000 sq. mi.) This is an extremely cold, sandy desert known for splitting the Silk Road into branches running north and south of it. It is bounded by the Kunlun, Pamir, and Tian Shan mountain ranges.
Taklamakan Desert
(Western Australia; 140,000 sq. mi.) Part of the Western Desert, and the ninth largest in the world.
Great Sandy Desert
(Leonard Bernstein; Stephen Sondheim; Arthur Laurents; 1957). Riff and Bernardo lead two rival gangs: the blue-collar Jets and the Sharks from Puerto Rico. Tony, a former Jet, falls in love with the Bernardo's sister Maria and vows to stop the fighting, but he kills Bernardo after Bernardo kills Riff in a "rumble." Maria's suitor Chino shoots Tony, and the two gangs come together. Notable songs include "America," "Tonight," "Somewhere," "I Feel Pretty," and "Gee, Officer Krupke." Adapted from Romeo and Juliet, it was made into an Academy Award-winning 1961 film starring Natalie Wood.
West Side Story
(Andrew Lloyd Webber; Charles Hart & Richard Stilgoe; Richard Stilgoe & Andrew Lloyd Webber; 1986). At the Paris Opera in 1881, the mysterious Phantom lures the soprano Christine Daae to his lair ("The Music of the Night"). Christine falls in love with the opera's new patron, Raoul, so the Phantom drops a chandelier and kidnaps Christine. They kiss, but he disappears, leaving behind only his white mask. Adapted from the eponymous 1909 novel by Gaston Leroux, it is the longest-running show in Broadway history.
The Phantom of the Opera
(Frederick Loewe; Alan Jay Lerner; Alan Jay Lerner; 1956). As part of a bet with his friend Colonel Pickering, phonetics professor Henry Higgins transforms cockney flower girl Eliza Doolittle into a proper lady. After Eliza falls for Freddy Eynsforth-Hill, Higgins realizes he is in love with Eliza. Eliza returns to Higgins' home in the final scene. It is adapted from George Bernard Shaw's play Pygmalion.
My Fair Lady
(Andrew Lloyd Webber; T.S. Eliot; T.S. Eliot). The Jellicle tribe of cats roams the streets of London. They introduce the audience to various members: Rum Tum Tugger, Mungojerrie, Rumpleteazer, Mr. Mistoffelees, and Old Deuteronomy. Old Deuteronomy must choose a cat to be reborn, and he chooses the lowly Grizabella after she sings "Memory." It is adapted from Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats by T. S. Eliot.
(Andrew Lloyd Webber; Tim Rice; Tim Rice; 1978). Che Guevara narrates the life story of Eva Peron, a singer and film actress who marries Juan Peron. Juan is elected President of Argentina, and Eva's charity work makes her immensely popular among her people ("Don't Cry for Me Argentina") before her death from cancer. It was made into a 1996 film starring Madonna and Antonio Banderas.
(Arthur Sullivan; W.S. Gilbert; 1885). The ______ [Emperor of Japan] has made flirting a capital crime in Titipu, so the people have appointed an ineffectual executioner named Ko-Ko. Ko-Ko's ward, Yum-Yum, marries the wandering musician Nanki-Poo, and the two lovers fake their execution. He visits the town and forgives the lovers of their transgression. It includes the song "Three Little Maids From School Are We."
The Mikado
(Richard Rodgers; Oscar Hammerstein II; Howard Lindsey & Russel Crouse; 1959). Maria, a young woman studying to be a nun in Nazi-occupied Austria, becomes governess to the seven children of Captain von Trapp. She teaches the children to sing ("My Favorite Things," "Do-Re-Mi"), and she and the Captain fall in love and get married. After Maria and the von Trapps give a concert for the Nazis ("Edelweiss"), they escape Austria ("Climb Ev'ry Mountain"). It was adapted into an Academy Award-winning 1965 film starring Julie Andrews.
The Sound of Music
(Jerry Bock; Sheldon Harnick; Joseph Stein; 1964). Tevye is a lowly Jewish milkman in Tsarist Russia ("If I Were a Rich Man"), and his daughters are anxious to get married ("Matchmaker"). Tzeitel marries the tailor Motel ("Sunrise, Sunset," "The Bottle Dance"), Hodel gets engaged to the radical student Perchik, and Chava falls in love with a Russian named Fyedka. The families leave their village, Anatevka, after a pogrom. It is adapted from Tevye and his Daughters by Sholem Aleichem.
Fiddler on the Roof
(Richard Rodgers; Oscar Hammerstein II; Oscar Hammerstein II; 1943). On the eve of Oklahoma's statehood, cowboy Curly McLain and sinister farmhand Judd compete for the love of Aunt Eller's niece, Laurey. Judd falls on his own knife after attacking Curly, and Curly and Laurey get married. A subplot concerns Ado Annie, who chooses cowboy Will Parker over the Persian peddler Ali Hakim. Featuring the songs "Oh What a Beautiful Mornin'" and "Oklahoma," it is often considered the first modern book musical.
(Fred Kander; John Ebb; Jon Masteroff; 1966). Set in the seedy Kit-Kat Club in Weimar Berlin, where the risquŽ Master of Ceremonies presides over the action ("Wilkommen"). The British lounge singer Sally Bowles falls in love with the American writer Cliff Bradshaw, but the two break up as the Nazis come to power. Adapted into an Academy Award-winning 1972 film starring Liza Minelli and Joel Grey, it is based on Christopher Isherwood's Goodbye to Berlin.
In 1785, Spanish King Charles III commissioned a building to house a natural history museum, but his grandson Ferdinand VII completed it as an art museum in 1819... Diego Velázquez's Las Meninas, Francisco Goya's The Third of May, 1808, and Hieronymus Bosch's The Garden of Earthly Delights.
(The) Prado
originally designed by Giorgio Vasari to serve as offices for the Florentine magistrates under Cosimo de Medici. After Cosimo I died in 1574, the new grand duke, Francis I, commissioned the conversion of its top floor into a galley. Its outstanding Renaissance holdings include The Birth of Venus and La Primavera, both by Sandro Botticelli, and Titian's Venus of Urbino.
(The) Uffizi
Currently housed in a Gothic Revival building designed by P. J. H. Cuypers and completed in 1885, its most distinguished works include Rembrandt's Night Watch, Franz Hals's The Merry Drinker, and Jan Vermeer's The Kitchen Maid.
(The) Rijksmuseum
Founded in St. Petersburg, Russia, in 1764 by Catherine the Great, its buildings include the Winter Palace, which was once the residence of Russia's tsars. Its most famous pieces include Rembrandt's The Return of the Prodigal Son and Henri Matisse's Red Room.
(The) Hermitage
it was renamed for its benefactor, sugar tycoon Sir Henry ___. The original Tate Gallery has been renamed ____ Britain, and there are now three additional branches: ____ Modern in London, ____ Liverpool, and ____ St. Ives in Cornwall. The Tate awards the Turner Prize, a highly publicized award for British artists, and its collection includes Whaam! by Roy Lichtenstein and many works by J. M. W. Turner.
(The) Tate
Founded as "The Museum of Non-Objective Painting," in 1959 it moved into its current home, a Frank Lloyd Wright building that features a spiral ramp connecting the exhibition areas. Focusing on modern art, its holdings include the world's largest collection of paintings by Wassily Kandinsky.
(The) Guggenheim
Located on the edge of Central Park, its main building on Fifth Avenue was designed by Richard Morris Hunt. Its collection includes El Greco's View of Toledo, Jacques-Louis David's The Death of Socrates, and John Singer Sargent's Madame X.
(The) Met(ropolitan Museum of Art)
it has been connected with the Rockefeller family since its founding in 1929. Its collection includes Vincent van Gogh's The Starry Night, Pablo Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, Salvador Dalí's The Persistence of Memory, and Piet Mondrian's Broadway Boogie Woogie.
(The) M(useum) o(f) M(odern) A(rt)
Located on the western edge of Grant Park, the main building of the Art Institute was built for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. It has an outstanding collection of French Impressionist and American works such as Georges Seurat's A Sunday on La Grande Jatte-1884, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's At the Moulin Rouge, Grant Wood's American Gothic, and Edward Hopper's Nighthawks.
(The) Art Institute (of Chicago)
opened in 1997 and is, like its sister instutition in New York, less famous for its collection than its building, a Frank Gehry design that seems to be an abstract sculpture all its own. Richard Serra's The Matter of Time is permanently installed here.
Guggenheim Bilbao
houses a synoptic collection of pre-1900 paintings assembled by government purchase and donation. It is home to British masterpieces including John Constable's The Haywain and both Rain, Steam and Speed and ~The Fighting Temeraire by J.M.W. Turner. The museum also boasts several major highlights of European painting, from arguably the best known of van Gogh's Sunflowers series to exemplar Baroque works like Caravaggio's Supper at Emmaus, The Judgment of Paris by Rubens, and the Rokeby Venus of Velázquez. Major works of the Italian and north European Renaissance are also represented, including van Eyck's The Arnolfini Wedding, Hans Holbein's The Ambassadors, Titian's Bacchus and Ariadne, Raphael's Portrait of Pope Julius II, and the later of Leonardo's two versions of Madonna of the Rocks.
(The) National Gallery
Usually cited as the longest river in the world, about 4,132 miles in a generally south-to-north direction, headwaters in Burundi to Egypt's Mediterranean Sea coast, where it forms a prototypical delta. Over 80% of the flow comes from the shorter Blue ___ headstream, which arises from Ethiopia's Lake Tana and meets the longer White ___, whose headwaters include Lake Victoria, at Khartoum. At the first of the six cataracts is the Aswan High Dam, which forms Lake Nasser and greatly reduces the annual floods.
(The) Nile (River)
Africa's second-longest river, it flows in a counterclockwise arc some 2,900 miles to the Atlantic Ocean. principal sources are the Lualaba, which rises in the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Katanga province, and Zambia's Chambeshi River. Boyoma Falls (formerly Stanley Falls), a section of seven cataracts near Kisangani, marks the beginning of the Congo River proper. Forming the Malebo Pool near the world capitals of Kinshasa and Brazzaville, the Lower Congo flows past Angola's Cabinda exclave as it enters the ocean. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness depicts the often cruel conditions the Congo basin endured as a Belgian colony.
(The) Congo (River)
Weaving across southern Africa, it rises in eastern Angola, passes through Zambia, flows along the borders of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe, crosses through Mozambique, and enters the Indian Ocean's Mozambique Channel near Chinde. Namibia's Caprivi Strip was created to allow access to it. The Cabora Bassa and Kariba Dams form large lakes of the same name. The most spectacular feature of the Zambezi is Victoria Falls, or Mosi-oa-Tunya ("the smoke that thunders"), which is over a mile wide and is the largest waterfall by flow rate in Africa. The fact that it separates Zambia and Zimbabwe is a classic trivia question.
(The) Zambezi (River)
Africa's third-longest, it flows in a great clockwise arc through Guinea, Mali, Niger, and Nigeria before entering the Gulf of Guinea. The medieval Mali and Songhai Empires were centered on it, whose course was mapped by Scottish explorer Mungo Park in the 1790s. In Nigeria, it receives the Benue River, its main tributary. The massive ___ Delta, known for its fisheries, wildlife, and petroleum, is an area of increasing social unrest.
(The) Niger (River)
Rising as the Crocodile (or Krokodil) River in South Africa's Witwatersrand region, it forms the Transvaal's border with Botswana and Zimbabwe, then crosses through Mozambique. Deforestation in Mozambique contributed to massive flooding in 2000. Perhaps the most famous description comes from Rudyard Kipling, who in "The Elephant's Child" referred to it as "the great grey-green, greasy ___ River, all set about with fever-trees".
(The) Limpopo (River)
It flows for about 1,000 miles from central Angola, through Namibia's Caprivi Strip, and into the Kalahari Desert of Botswana. There, rather than flowing into the sea, it terminates in a massive inland swamp known as the ____ Delta, an area that, especially during the wet season, teems with wildlife in an otherwise inhospitable region.
(The) Okavango (River)
The world's second-largest freshwater lake by area lies along the Equator and is shared between Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. Located on a plateau between two rift valleys, its lone outlet is a precursor of the White Nile. Named by British explorer John Hanning Speke for the Queen, the introduction of the predatory Nile perch in the 1950s has caused environmental degradation, sending many native cichlid species into extinction.
(Lake) Victoria
Africa's second-largest lake by area, it is also the second-deepest in the world, surpassed only by Lake Baikal. Due its extreme depth (over 4,700 feet), it contains seven times as much water as Lake Victoria. A source of the Lualaba River, it is shared by Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi, and Zambia. On its Tanzanian shore is the town of Ujiji, at which Henry Morton Stanley "found" Dr. David Livingstone in 1871.
(Lake) Tanganyikia
Africa's third-largest lake by area and the southernmost of the Great Rift Valley lakes, it is wedged between the nations of Malawi, Tanzania, and Mozambique. Fed by the Ruhuhu River, its lone outlet is the Shire River, a tributary of the Zambezi. Contains hundreds of species of endemic fish, especially cichlids.
(Lake) Malawi (or Lake Nyasa)
The largest manmade lake, by area, in the world, it was created by the construction of Ghana's Akosombo Dam across the Volta River in the 1960s. The lake covers the area where the Black Volta and White Volta rivers formerly converged. The Akosombo Dam can provide over a gigawatt of power, enough to supply nearby aluminum smelters utilizing the energy-intensive Hall-Héroult process and the needs of the rest of the country.
(Lake) Volta
Formerly Africa's fourth-largest lake, its surface area has been reduced by over 90% since the 1960s due to droughts and diversion of water from such sources as the Chari River. The lake is at the intersection of Chad, Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria, but most of the remaining water is in Chad and Cameroon. It is very shallow and has no outlet, so seasonal rainfall causes large fluctuations in its area.
(Lake) Chad
(August 1942-February 1943) ~2 million casualties, often cited as the bloodiest battle in history. Germany's summer campaign to capture vital oil supplies in the Caucasus Mountains, but Friedrich Paulus's 6th Army became bogged down in intense street fighting in the city, allowing Soviet Marshal Georgy Zhukov to launch Operation Uranus, which encircled Paulus's men by defeating the Italian, Hungarian, and Romanian forces guarding their flank. Hitler promoted Paulus to field marshal, a not-so-subtle suggestion that Paulus should either fight to the death or commit suicide; Paulus surrendered anyway.
(Battle of) Stalingrad
(July 1940-October 1940) saw the British Royal Air Force (RAF) defeat the German air force, known as the Luftwaffe, effectively saving Britain from a proposed German amphibious invasion codenamed Operation Sea Lion. The primary German fighter plane was the Messerschmitt Bf 109, which engaged in numerous dogfights against British pilots flying Hurricane and Spitfire aircraft. Effective use of radar helped to repel German forces, forcing the Luftwaffe into nighttime raids against civilian targets in a campaign known as "the Blitz".
(Battle of) Britain
(October 1942-November 1942) The Second Battle of ____ marked the turning point in the African campaign. Named for an Egyptian coastal town 65 miles west of Alexandria, it saw the British Eighth Army under Bernard Montgomery defeat the German Afrika Korps under Erwin Rommel, preventing the Nazis from capturing the Suez Canal and oil fields in the Middle East. Following the battle, Allied forces landed in Morocco and Algeria as part of Operation Torch, and by May 1943 all Axis forces in North Africa had surrendered.
(Battle of) El Alamein
(July 1943-August 1943) Fought in western Russia, the Battle of _____ was the largest tank battle in history, with about 6,000 tanks engaged. Thanks to a complex spy network, the Soviet leadership was well-informed about German plans to launch Operation Citadel against the _____ salient, and constructed massive defensive fortifications. After the German advance was stopped, a successful Soviet counterattack was launched. The German Army never again was able to mount a major attack on the Eastern Front.
(Battle of) Kursk
(June 6, 1944) Also known as Operation Overlord, this was the largest amphibious assault in history, as Supreme Allied Commander Dwight Eisenhower's forces attacked the German Atlantic Wall defenses on the beaches of Normandy, France. Due to his wife's birthday, German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel was absent at the start the invasion, which saw American forces land at Utah and Omaha Beaches, British forces land at Gold and Sword Beaches, and Canadian forces land at Juno Beach. After the landings, Allied forces erected prefabricated artificial Mulberry harbors to aid in transporting goods to France.
(December 1944-January 1945) Germany's last major offensive operation on the Western Front. The German plan to sweep through the Ardennes Forest and capture the port city of Antwerp, Belgium, benefited from Allied aircraft being grounded due to poor weather. During the battle, English-speaking German troops under Otto Skorzeny attempted to disguise themselves as Allied troops and infiltrate enemy lines. German forces also besieged the Belgian town of Bastogne and requested its surrender, to which U.S. Army Brigadier General Anthony McAuliffe replied "Nuts!"; the siege was eventually lifted by forces commanded by George Patton.
(The) Battle of the Bulge
(December 7, 1941) On what President Franklin Roosevelt declared would be "a date which will live in infamy," Japanese carrier-based aircraft launched, without a formal declaration of war, a surprise attack on the American naval base on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. The attack sank four battleships, most notably the USS Arizona, but all of the U.S. Navy's carriers were at sea and were unattacked. Shortly after the attack, Japan began invasions of Guam, Wake Island, the Philippines, and the British colony of Singapore. On December 8, with only Montana Representative Jeannette Rankin dissenting, the U.S. Congress declared war on Japan.
(Attack on) Pearl Harbor
(May 1942) Resulting from a Japanese plan to capture Port Moresby in New Guinea, the battle was fought entirely by carrier-based aircraft, making it the first major naval battle in history in which the two opposing fleets never directly fired upon (or even sighted) each other. The U.S. Navy's carrier Lexington was sunk, and the Yorktown heavily damaged, while the Japanese Navy lost the light carrier Shoho and saw its large carriers Shokaku and Zuikaku damaged. Ultimately, the invasion of Port Moresby was cancelled and the temporary loss of two Japanese carriers gave the U.S. an edge at the subsequent Battle of Midway.
(Battle of the) Coral Sea
(June 1942) Universally considered the turning point in the Pacific Theater, it saw the Japanese lose four aircraft carriers, a blow from which they never fully recovered. Japanese Admiral Yamamoto planned to lure the U.S. fleet into a trap, but the Americans had broken the Japanese code, allowing them to pull off a stunning victory, with dive bombers from the Enterprise sinking the carriers Kaga, Akagi, and Hiryu, while those from the hastily-repaired Yorktown sank the carrier Soryu.
Battle of Midway
(October 1944) By some measures the largest naval battle in history, it resulted from the Japanese Sho-Go plan to halt the American reconquest of the Philippines. The plan nearly worked when American Admiral William "Bull" Halsey was baited into moving all of his battleships and large carriers away from the landing site, but an American force of small escort carriers and destroyers held off a Japanese task force that included four battleships. Another Japanese force tried to pass through the Surigao Strait, but, in the last ever combat between opposing battleships, the American Seventh Fleet crossed their "T" and annihilated the force.
(The Battle of) Leyte Gulf
(February 1945-March 1945) The Allies sought to capture this small island midway between the Mariana Islands and the Japanese home islands, to provide an airbase for the eventual invasion of Japan. Under the leadership of General Tadamichi Kuribayashi, the island's defenders built a complex network of underground tunnels and well camouflaged artillery pieces that enabled them to hold out for a month against vastly superior forces. The battle is best known for Joe Rosenthal's photograph showing six American servicemen raising a flag atop Mount Suribachi.
(Battle of) Iwo Jima
(April 1945-June 1945) The largest amphibious assault of the Pacific Theater, it featured massive casualties among both combatants and civilians. The Japanese launched over 1,500 kamikaze attacks against the U.S. fleet, and even sent the massive battleship Yamato on a one-way suicide mission; it was sunk by aircraft before reaching _____. On the American side, both war correspondent Ernie Pyle and Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr., the commander-in-chief of the ground forces, were killed. Somewhat uniquely, the battle also saw large numbers of Japanese troops surrender, although many were native Okinawans forced into fighting.
(Battle of) Okinawa
(1871-1948; O 1867-1912) They operated a bicycle repair shop in Dayton, Ohio, before creating the first successful, powered, heavier-than-air, manned airplane. For several years, utilizing both a wind tunnel they built as well as test flights, they created and refined gliders before adding an engine to their design. Finally, on December 17, 1903, with O at the controls, the Flyer I made a 12-second flight at Kill Devil Hills near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. They made several more launches that day, with Wilbur staying aloft for 59 seconds on the fourth, and last, flight.
Wright Brothers
(1902-1974) In May 1927, he made the first non-stop, solo, trans-Atlantic flight in the Spirit of St. Louis, a single-engine Ryan aircraft; took off from Roosevelt Field on Long Island and landed at Le Bourget Field in Paris 33-and-a-half hours later; married Anne Morrow in 1929, and the 1932 kidnapping and murder of their son Charles Jr. was deemed "The Crime of the Century"; ultimately, Bruno Hauptmann was convicted and executed. Prior to the U.S.'s entry into World War II, Lindbergh urged the U.S. to remain neutral and was active with the America First Committee, though during the war he flew 50 combat missions in the Pacific.
Charles Lindbergh
(1897-1937?) More than 70 years after her disappearance, remains the most famous aviatrix. In 1932 she became the first woman to make a trans-Atlantic solo flight, and three years later she became the first pilot of either gender to fly solo from Hawaii to California. In June 1937, she and navigator Fred Noonan embarked on a 29,000-mile, around-the-world flight in a twin-engine Lockheed Electra. They completed most of the journey, but became lost and eventually disappeared on the leg between Lae, New Guinea, and Howland Island in the Pacific Ocean. Speculation as to their ultimate fate continues to this day.
Amelia Earhart
(1923-)During World War II, served in the U.S. Army Air Corps, earning "ace in a day" status by shooting down five German aircraft in one mission. On October 14, 1947, piloting a Bell X-1 plane nicknamed (in tribute to his wife) Glamorous Glennis, became the first pilot to exceed the speed of sound in level flight. Profiled in Tom Wolfe's The Right Stuff, re-set the speed record at more than Mach 2 in 1953, and he remained active in the Air Force, even flying combat missions over Vietnam in his mid-40s.
Chuck Yeager
(1905-1976) Subject of the 2004 film The Aviator, he was a skilled aircraft pilot and designer who in the 1930s set speed records for flights across the United States and around the world. His most famous plane was the H-4 Hercules, or "Spruce Goose," a massive wooden plane that to this day holds the record for longest wingspan on an operational craft. Meant to carry as many as 750 troops, he himself was the pilot during its lone flight, a one-minute hop in 1947. Also a movie producer, Hughes is widely remembered for the various eccentricities, such as a pathological fear of germs and a refusal to cut his hair or nails, that he exhibited late in life.
Howard Hughes
(1898-1935) In 1931, with navigator Gatty, completed a circumnavigation of the globe aboard the Winnie Mae, an experience that the two wrote about in Around the World in Eight Days. Two years later, became the first solo pilot to complete an around-the-world trip. He then began investigating the possibility of high-altitude flight and, using a pressurized suit of his own design, reached a height of 50,000 feet and may have been the first to encounter and use the jet stream. Today mainly remembered for the circumstances of his death; while flying through Alaska with world-famous humorist Will Rogers as his passenger, crashed near Point Barrow, Alaska, and both men died.
Wiley Post
(1896-1993) He served as a flight instructor for the U.S. Army during World War I, and after the war became a celebrated race pilot, reaching a world-record speed of 296 miles per hour in 1932. Rejoining the military after Pearl Harbor, he personally led the "______ Raid," in which 16 B-25 bombers took off from the aircraft carrier USS Hornet and bombed the Japanese home islands in April 1942. Following the raid, he commanded the Eighth Air Force that launched massive bombing raids against Germany.
(James) Doolittle
(1892-1918) Better known as the "Red Baron," he was credited with shooting down 80 enemy aircraft, making him the top overall ace of World War I. his personal command, Jagdgeschwader 1, became known as "____ Flying Circus" due to the variety of colors used on its planes. Died on April 21, 1918, when he was shot aboard his red Fokker triplane; though the Royal Air Force credited Canadian ace Roy Brown with the kill, it is more likely that he was brought down by ground fire from Australian troops in the trenches.
Manfred von Richthofen
(1890-1973) Before becoming a pilot, he achieved fame as a race car driver; "Fast ____" competed in the Indianapolis 500 on four separate occasions. During World War I, he joined the U.S. Army as a driver, but was admitted to flight school with the help of Colonel Billy Mitchell, and went on to win the Medal of Honor and finish as the top American ace of the war with 26 kills. He bought the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in 1927 and Eastern Airlines in 1938. While on a military mission in the Pacific in 1942, his plane crashed, but he and all but one crewman survived a brutal 24-day ordeal aboard small life rafts.
Eddie Rickenbacker
(1943-) A legendary aircraft designer, he gained worldwide attention in 1986 when his Voyager plane, piloted by Dick ____ (his brother) and Jeana Yeager (no relation to Chuck Yeager), completed a non-stop, around-the-world flight without refueling. More recently, he designed the Global Flyer, aboard which Steve Fossett made a solo, non-stop circumnavigation without refueling in 2005, and SpaceShipOne, which in 2004 won the $10 million Ansari X Prize by making the first privately funded space flights.
Burt Rutan
(469-399 bc) trial, imprisonment, and death are recounted in Plato's Apology, Crito, and Phaedo, respectively.
(c. 429 BC-347 BC) dialogues include the Symposium (about the nature of love), and the Meno (about whether virtue can be taught). discussed world of "forms"—or ideal versions of real things that lie beyond the human senses— in the Phaedo, founded a school called the Academy, from which we get the common word.
(c. 384 BC-322 BC) school known as the Lyceum. his Physics, which describes motion and change in terms of "four causes" that make a given thing what it is; his Metaphysics, which describes the structure of reality, his Poetics discusses the types of drama and considers an effect of tragedies known as catharsis, or the purging of bad feelings.
(c. 410s BC-323 BC) ____ of Sinope was a student of Antisthenes, who founded the ancient school of philosophy known as Cynicism; rejected conventional social norms in search of a truly virtuous life. according to legend, he lived in a tub or a barrel on the street, and wandered Athens holding a lamp in his futile search for an honest man.
(341 BC-270 BC), belived that the absence of pain (aponia) was the highest pleasure; believed that human happiness consisted of a kind of tranquillity known as ataraxia
(c. 490 BC-430 BC) ___ of Elea was a student of Parmenides, who founded the Eleatic school in a Greek colony of the Italian peninsula; not to be confused with ____ of Citium, who founded the philosophical school of Stoicism two centuries later.
(106 BC-43 BC) Though he is better remembered today for his role in the political life of the Roman Republic, "Tully" was also a significant philosopher. He described the ideal state in such dialogues as On the Republic and On the Laws, while he discussed Epicurean and Stoic views on religion in On the Nature of the Gods. Through the Middle Ages and Renaissance, ____ was considered one of the most important of ancient philosophers. Indeed, Saint Augustine asserted that he turned to philosophy as a result of reading a now-lost work known as the Hortensius.
Begins in the Swiss Alps, passes through Lake Constance (in German, the Bodensee), flows west along the German-Swiss border, then turns north to form part of the German-French border. The river then flows north and joins with the Meuse and Scheldt to enter the North Sea at a delta in the Netherlands. Cities along its course include Basel, Strasbourg, Mainz, Bonn, Cologne, and Rotterdam, and tributaries include the Main, Mosel, and Ruhr. German myth tells of the Lorelei, a nymph who lured sailors on the ____ to their deaths
Starting on the Plateau de Langres near Dijon, it weaves northwest for 485 miles to enter the English Channel near Le Havre. Along the way, it passes through Troyes, Fontainebleau, and Rouen. France's chief transport waterway, along with its tributaries the Marne and Oise. Second largest river in France (behind the Loire)
Principal river of the Iberian Peninsula. Rising in east-central Spain, it flows west for roughly 645 miles to the Atlantic, passing through Lisbon, Portugal on the way. The cities of Toledo and Santarém are on it, and hydroelectric dams on the river produce huge artificial lakes including the Sea of Castile.
One of Europe's few major rivers to flow directly into the Mediterranean (via the Gulf of Lion), it originates in the Swiss Alps and flows into Lake Geneva. It emerges at Geneva and flows south, passes through Lyon, Avignon, and Arles, and enters the sea just west of Marseille. At Arles, the river splits into "grand" and "petit" branches which encircle the island of Camargue. The river's valley is famous for its red wine, and because it is navigable for 300 miles, it is the key access route of southern France.
In Eastern Europe, but it begins in Germany's Black Forest (or Schwarzwald) near Freiburg, crossing Bavaria before it enters Austria. In all, it passes through (or touches the borders of) 10 nations on its 1,785-mile course ending at the Black Sea. Chief tributaries include the Drava and Sava, and it passes through 4 national capitals: Vienna, Bratislava, Budapest, and Belgrade. Formerly known as the Ister, it was often used to define a northern border for the Roman Empire.
Italy's longest river at 405 miles, it passes through Piedmont and Lombardy before entering the Adriatic 30 miles south of Venice. It flows through Turin and Cremona, and it passes near Milan, Padua, Pavia, and Mantua. The river has a long history of floods, and the manmade levees called argini which protect towns and crops can exacerbate the floods. Pollution, especially from Milan, is becoming a major environmental concern.
France's longest river begins in the Cevennes range of southern France, flows north to the center of the country, then flows due west to the Bay of Biscay. Many notable cities are on the river, including Nevers, Orleans, Blois, Tours, and Nantes. sometimes called the "last wild river in Western Europe," and many proposed dams on the river have not been built because of opposition to the flooding of land and to interference with Atlantic salmon. The ____ Valley is particularly known for its vineyards and for its châteaux, a collection of over 300 castles dating to the 16th and 17th centuries.
At 230 miles, it's Ireland's longest river. It flows from Lough Allen, and Loughs Ree and Derg are also on its course. At Limerick, the river widens into its namesake estuary and runs for 50 more miles before it enters the Atlantic. Peat bogs and marshes line the river for much of its course, and it is considered a dividing line between Ireland's more cultivated east and wild west. A chief tributary is the Suck River. Does not pass through Dublin, although the Liffey does.
Along with the Neisse, it forms the Germany-Poland border, as dictated at the Potsdam Conference in July and August of 1945. One of the largest rivers to enter the Baltic, it has been a major transport route for centuries. Ostrava in the Czech Republic and Breslau in Poland are on the river. Near its mouth is Stettin, which Churchill used as the northern terminus of his "Iron Curtain" (Trieste, in the South, is an Adriatic port not near a major river). At the mouth are Usedom Island, Swinemuende, and Peenemuende, which were primary test sites for the German V-2 rocket in the 1940s.
Running from ____ Head near Cirencester to an estuary near Southend in Essex. Flowing through Reading, Oxford, and Swindon, it is prevented from flooding by its namesake Barrier near the Isle of Dogs. Though it is the longest river entirely in England, the Thames trails the Severn (which also flows into Wales) as the longest river in the United Kingdom.
(1885-1962) reconciled Rutherford's results from the gold foil experiment with Planck's quantum theory to create a model of the atom in which electrons resided in specific energy levels at specific stable radii. This model was the basis for Balmer's work with spectroscopy and Rydberg's energy formula, which explicitly stated the frequency of light that an electron would emit if it went from a higher energy to a lower energy. He and his son fled to the US in World War II under the pseudonym Baker and contributed to the Manhattan Project.
Niels Bohr
(1892-1987) his work quantifying the wave-particle duality of quantum mechanics earned him the 1929 Nobel Prize in Physics. His doctoral thesis, which proposed that all particles have a characteristic wavelength dependent on their momentum, was so groundbreaking that the reviewers passed it directly to Einstein, who endorsed it. In opposition to the probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics, he later worked to define a purely causal interpretation, but his work remained unfinished until David Bohm refined it in the 1950s.
Louis de Broglie
(1879-1955) In 1905 he authored four papers that revolutionized modern physics. The first explained the photoelectric effect in terms of discretized electromagnetic radiation. The second formed the foundation for modern statistical physics by explaining the seemingly-random motion of particles in a fluid, a behavior called Brownian motion. The third reconciled Maxwellian electrodynamics with classical mechanics by positing a finite, constant speed of light. This is now known as special relativity. The fourth paper contained his statement that the energy of a body is equal to its mass times the speed of light squared. Ten years later, in 1915, he published his theory of general relativity, which generalized special relativity to account for gravitational fields.
Albert Einstein
(1901-1954) best known to the public as a main contributor to the Manhattan Project, his work with statistical physics laid the groundwork for modern electronics and solid-state technologies. He applied the Pauli exclusion principle to subatomic particles to create ____-Dirac statistics, which accurately predicted the low-temperature behavior of electrons. Particles which obey ____-Dirac statistics are called fermions in his honor. He also suggested the existence of the neutrino in order to balance nuclear beta-decay chains.
Enrico Fermi
(1918-1988). Developed a mathematical formalism called the path integral formulation of quantum theory that utilized the "sum over histories," taking into account all possible paths a particle could take. This constituted the creation of quantum electrodynamics and earned him the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics. He also used the sum over histories in developing _____ diagrams, which illustrate the interaction of subatomic particles. Aside from being a prolific physicist, he was also an accomplished bongo player and sketch artist.
Richard Feynman
(1904-1968) One of the first to explain the implications of the Big Bang theory of cosmology. He correctly predicted the abundance of hydrogen and helium in the early universe, nicknamed Alpher-Bethe-Gamow theory (an intentional pun on the first three letters of the Greek alphabet, alpha, beta, and gamma, for which the otherwise unrelated physicist Hans Bethe was included), and also theorized that the the heat from the Big Bang would still be visible as the cosmic microwave background radiation. Although he received no Nobel for this prediction, the CMB's discoverers, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, as well as two later observers, John Mather and George Smoot, did receive Nobels.
George Gamow
(1901-1976) Most known for his matrix interpretation of quantum theory, which constructs observable quantities as operators, which act on a system. His famous uncertainty principle (better translated, however, as "indeterminacy principle") states that the more accurately an object's position can be observed, the less accurately its momentum can. This is because shorter wavelengths of light (use as a sort of measuring-stick) have higher energies, and disrupt a particle's momentum more strongly. He earned the 1932 Nobel Prize in Physics for discovering the allotropic forms of hydrogen.
Werner Heisenberg
(1858-1947) He allowed quantum theory to move forward in the early 20th century by correctly modeling how an object radiates heat, solving the ultraviolet catastrophe, which was a predicted unbounded increase in the amount of radiation emitted at high frequencies. _____'s Law of Radiation superseded the Rayleigh-Jeans Law, which was used until that point. He suggested that electromagnetic energy could only be emitted in specific packages, called quanta (singular quantum, from the Latin for "how much"), positing that the energy of this photon was equal to its frequency times a fixed value h, now known as _____'s constant.
Max Planck
(1871-1937) His gold foil experiment provided the first evidence that the atom was made up of a large, positively-charged nucleus, surrounded by a cloud of negatively-charged electrons. Won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work. Early leader in nuclear fission techniques, having discovered the decay of carbon-14 and providing the impetus for modern carbon dating. As part of this research, he discovered the proton and neutron, the latter in cooperation with James Chadwick. He is also the only native New Zealander with an element named after him (atomic number 104).
Ernest Rutherford
(1887-1961) Contributed to the early formulations of quantum theory as a foil to Heisenberg, Bohr, and Dirac, criticizing their Copenhagen interpretation with thought experiments. He formulated both the time-independent and time-dependent partial differential equations which described how quantum systems behaved. His work was the basis for Heisenberg's matrix formalism, Feynman's path integral formalism, and quantum mechanical perturbation theory, which considers the effects of a small disturbance to a quantum system.
Erwin Schrödinger
(1902-1984) was one of the first to attempt a generalization of quantum theory to relativistic speeds, the result of which was the ____equation
Paul Dirac
(1868-1953) determined the charge of the electron by meticulously observing oil droplets in an electric field and noting the time it took them to fall a certain distance.
Robert Millikan
(1904-1967) oversaw much of the Manhattan project, but was later stripped of his security clearance during the McCarthy-era Red Scare, as a result of his acquaintance with communists and his enmity with Edward Teller.
J Robert Oppenheimer
(1900-1958) namesake exclusion principle prohibits most types of particles from occupying the same state, and forms the basis for chemical bonds.
Wolfgang Pauli
(1858-1942) Often called the founder of modern anthropology, this first professor of anthropology at Columbia University trained Mead, Benedict, Alfred Kroeber, author Zora Neale Hurston, and many others. He conducted fieldwork on the Inuits of Baffin Island and the Kwakiutl (now referred to as Kwakwaka'wakw) on Vancouver Island. His publications include 1911's The Mind of Primitive Man, which describes a gift-giving ceremony known as the "potlatch."
(Franz) Boas
(1901-1978) For her best-known work, Coming of Age in Samoa, she interviewed young girls on the island of Ta'u, which led her to conclude that adolescence in Samoan society was much less stressful than in the United States; in The Fateful Hoaxing of ____, Derek Freeman claimed that she was lied to in those interviews. She also studied three tribes in New Guinea — the Arapesh, Mundugumor, and Tchambuli — for her book on Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies.
(Margaret) Mead
(1887-1948) A colleague and friend of Mead, studied the Zuni, Dobu, and Kwakiutl cultures in Patterns of Culture, using them to illustrate the idea of a society's culture as "personality writ large." She also described Japanese culture in The Chrysanthemum and the Sword, a work written during World War II at the request of the U.S. government.
(Ruth) Benedict
(1884-1942) Polish-born anthropologist who studied at the London School of Economics, where he would later spend most of his career. He described the "kula ring" gift exchanges found in the Trobriand Islands in Argonauts of the Western Pacific, and the use of magic in agriculture in Coral Gardens and Their Magic. He also argued, in opposition to Sigmund Freud, that the Oedipus complex was not a universal element of human culture in his book on Sex and Repression in Savage Society.
(Bronislaw) Malinowski
(1908-2009) In the 1930s,did fieldwork with the Nambikwara people of Brazil, which formed the basis for his thesis on "The Elementary Structures of Kinship." He held the chair in social anthropology at the Collèege de France from 1959 to 1982, during which time he published such books as The Savage Mind and a tetralogy about world mythology whose volumes include The Raw and the Cooked. He pioneered in applying the structuralist methods of Ferdinand de Saussure to anthropology, which led him to study cultures as sets of binary oppositions.
Claude Lévi-Strauss
(1926-2006) Best known for his work in symbolic anthropology, a view that he expounded in his book The Interpretation of Cultures. In that book, he introduced the term "thick description" to describe his method of analyzing behavior within its social context. One such "thick description" appears in his essay "Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight," in which he discusses cockfighting as a symbolic display of a certain kind of masculinity.
Clifford Geertz
(1881-1955) He is considered the founder of a school of anthropology known as structural functionalism, which focuses on identifying the groups within a society and the rules and customs that define the relationships between people. His own early fieldwork was conducted in the Andaman Islands and Western Australia, where he studied the social organization of Australian tribes. After teaching in Australia, South Africa, and at the University of Chicago, he returned to England, where he founded the Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology at Oxford.
Alfred Radcliffe-Brown
(1854-1941) A Scottish anthropologist who primarily studied mythology and comparative religion. His magnum opus, The Golden Bough, analyzed a wide range of myths that center on the death and rebirth of a solar deity; the original publication controversially discussed the crucifixion of Jesus as one such myth. The work's title refers to a gift given to Persephone by Aeneas so that he could enter the underworld in the Aeneid.
James Frazer
(1914-2002) In 1947, he and five companions sailed across the Pacific Ocean — going from Peru to the Tuamotu Islands — on a balsa-wood raft named after the Incan sun god. He later built two boats from papyrus (Ra, which failed in 1969, and Ra II, which succeeded in 1970) to sail across the Atlantic Ocean. These voyages demonstrated the possibility that ancient people could have migrated around the globe using only primitive rafts.
Thor Heyerdahl
(born 1934) a British primatologist who is best known for her work with chimpanzees in Gombe Stream National Park in Tanzania. Her first research was carried out with Louis Leakey at Olduvai Gorge. In her pioneering work with primates, which is detailed in such books as In the Shadow of Man, she discovered that chimpanzees have the ability to use tools, such as inserting grass into termite holes to "fish" for termites.
Jane Goodall
One of the earliest battles in recorded history (1274 BC), it was fought near the Orontes River in modern-day Syria between Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses II and the Hittite king Muwatalli II. Although Ramses proclaimed a great victory for himself, he was lucky to achieve a stalemate after being ambushed by Hittite chariots. It was probably the largest chariot battle in history, with over 5,000 chariots engaged. The Egyptian chariots were smaller and faster than those used by the Hittites, which gave the Egyptians an advantage.
(Battle of) Kadesh
Persian King Darius I's invasion of mainland Greece ended with a decisive victory for Miltiades and the Athenians at _____ (490 BC). The defeated Persian commanders were Datis and Artaphernes. Among the few Athenian dead of the battle were archon Callimachus and the general Stesilaos. Legend has it that the Greek messenger Pheidippides ran to Athens with news of the victory, but collapsed upon arrival. This is the inspiration for the modern race of 26.2 miles.
(Battle of) Marathon
This (480 BC) was the first battle of the second Persian invasion of Greece. Although the Persians under Xerxes I and his general Mardonius defeated the Spartans, King Leonidas and his Spartan troops put up a heroic defense of the pass at ______. The Greeks were betrayed by Ephialtes, who told the Persians about a path that led behind the Spartans. The battle was part of Themistocles' plan to halt the advance of the Persians. The other part of his plan was to block the Persian navy at Artemisium, and a battle occurred there simultaneously.
(Battle of) Thermopylae
The naval battle at ______ (480 BC) was a major turning point in the Greco-Persian Wars, as it signaled the beginning of the end of Persian attempts to conquer Greece. The battle is named after an island in the Saronic Gulf near Athens. Xerxes was so confident in victory that he watched the battle from a throne on the slopes of Mount Aegaleus. The Athenian general Themistocles devised a plan to lure the large, slow Persian ships into the narrow straits where the Greek ships were able to outmaneuver and destroy much of the Persian fleet. The Persian admiral Ariabignes was killed in hand-to-hand combat, and the Queen of Halicarnassus, Artemisia, had to sink some of her allies' ships to escape.
(Battle of) Salamis
The Battle of _____ (405 BC) on the Hellespont (Dardanelles) ended the Peloponnesian War and the Athenian Empire. After a setback at the Battle of Arginusae in 406 BC, the Spartans reinstated Lysander as the commander of their fleet. The result was a complete victory for Sparta; only a fraction of the Athenian fleet survived, including the general Conon, and the ship Paralus, which brought the news of defeat to Athens. Following the battle, the Spartans besieged Athens and forced its surrender.
(Battle of) Aegospotami
After the Battle of Granicus, ______ (333 BC) was the second major battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire, and the first to feature Darius III. The battle was fought along the Pinarus River near present day Iskenderun in Turkey's Hatay province. Before the battle, Darius was able to surprise Alexander and cut him off from the main force of Macedonians. However, the battle ended with Darius fleeing the field and the capture of his tent and family. The battle was the subject of a 1528 painting by Albrecht Altdorfer, the leader of the Danube School.
(Battle of) Issus
The largest battle of the Second Punic War in (216 BC) represented one of the worst defeats in Roman history. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, while the Romans were led by the consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro. Hannibal employed a double-envelopment tactic, surrounded the Roman army, and destroyed it. Although a total disaster for the Romans, it resulted in their adopting of the Fabian strategy, in which battles are avoided in favor of a war of attrition. This eventually wore down Hannibal's army, and the Carthaginians had to leave Italy.
(Battle of) Cannae
The final battle of the Second Punic War (202 BC) was fought near Carthage in modern-day Tunisia. Scipio Africanus's victory at the Battle of the Great Plains in 203 BC forced Hannibal to leave Italy and return to North Africa for the final showdown. Prior to the battle, the Numidian king Masinissa switched sides, and brought his considerable cavalry force to join the Romans. This, coupled with Scipio's strategy of opening up his lines to allow Carthaginian elephants through without harming his troops, led to a complete Roman victory.
(Battle of) Zama
(52 BC), Julius Caesar defeated the Celtic peoples of Gaul, establishing Roman rule of the lands beyond the Alps. The battle began when Caesar besieged Vercingetorix in the town of ______, shortly after the Roman defeat at Gergovia. The Romans built a wall to surround the city (a "circumvallation") and a second wall around that (a "contravallation") to protect themselves from the Gaulish relief army under Commius. When Commius launched a massive attack on the Romans, Caesar was able to defeat him and force the surrender of Vercingetorix. Although the Romans were outnumbered by as much as four to one, they proved victorious in what was the turning point of the Gallic Wars.
Battle of Alesia
(31 BC), the fleet of Octavian defeated the combined forces of Cleopatra and Mark Antony at this battle near modern-day Preveza in the Ambracian Gulf of Greece. Marcus Agrippa commanded Octavian's fleet, which consisted of small, nimble Liburnian ships. Antony's fleet consisted of massive Quinqueremes, which were less mobile. Following his victory in the battle, Octavian titled himself Princeps, and later Augustus. To some, _____ signals the end of the Roman Republic.
(Battle of) Actium
The Battle of _____ (AD 312) was part of the civil war that ensued when Maxentius usurped the throne of the western half of the Roman Empire from Constantine. Prior to the battle, Constantine supposedly had a vision of God promising victory to his forces if he painted his shields with the Chi-Rho, a Christian symbol. Constantine was indeed victorious, and Maxentius drowned in the Tiber River during the battle. Eventually, Constantine was able to abolish the Tetrarchy, become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire, and end persecution of the Christians.
(Battle of the) Milvian Bridge
Taking place near modern Edirne, Turkey, the Battle of _______ (AD 378) signalled the beginning of the spread of Germanic peoples into the Western Roman Empire. The Romans were led by the eastern emperor Valens, while the Goths were led by Fritigern. Eager for glory, Valens decided not to wait on reinforcements from the western emperor Gratian, and instead attacked the Goths. In the battle, over two-thirds of the Roman army was killed, including Valens. The battle was chronicled by Ammianus Marcellinus, who thought it so important that he ended his history of the Roman Empire with the battle.
(Battle of) Adrianople
(AD 451) was an epic battle between the Romans and the Huns fought in what is now France. The Roman army was commanded by Flavius Aetius and included Visigoths under Theodoric I, who was killed by an Ostrogoth during the battle. The Hunnic army was led by Attila, who was rampaging through Gaul. The battle ended with a victory for the Roman-Visigothic alliance, which stopped the Huns' advance into Gaul. The next year, Attila invaded Italy; however, in 453, Attila died and his empire broke up shortly after.
(The Battle of) Chalons (or Catalaunian Fields)
begins at Lake Itasca, Minnesota, and flows 2,340 miles to a vast delta on the Gulf of Mexico, forming portions of ten state borders and the world's third-largest drainage basin... picks up numerous major tributaries including the Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, Arkansas, and Red Rivers and flows past numerous major cities including Minneapolis, St. Louis, Memphis, and New Orleans.
Mississippi (River)
runs southwest for 1,450 miles to the Gulf of California in northwestern Mexico; has significant dams such as Hoover Dam near Las Vegas (forming Lake Mead) and Glen Canyon Dam in Arizona (forming Lake Powell).
Colorado (River)
Historically seen as the border between the northern and southern United States; formed in downtown Pittsburgh by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers, flowing past Wheeling, Cincinnati, Louisville, and Evansville, forming borders of five states before emptying into the Mississippi at Cairo, Illinois. Other major tributaries include the Kanawha, Kentucky, Tennessee, Wabash, and Cumberland Rivers.
Ohio (River)
flows through Lake Revelstoke before entering Washington state. Grand Coulee Dam in Washington forms Lake Roosevelt. When it was completed in 1943, Grand Coulee was the largest hydroelectric plant in the world; it is still America's largest electric power plant... receives the Yakima and Snake Rivers
Columbia (River)
drains the Great Lakes and serves as a major waterway of eastern Canada. First explored and named by Jacques Cartier in the early 16th century; emerges from the northeastern corner of Lake Ontario in the Thousand Islands archipelago, forming the border between Ontario and New York; receives the Ottawa and Saguenay Rivers and flows through Montreal and Quebec City.
S(ain)t Lawrence (River)
flows 315 miles through eastern New York state. After receiving the Mohawk River it flows past New York's capital of Albany and West Point before forming the boundary between Manhattan and New Jersey. It is also culturally significant as an inspiration for Washington Irving and a school of painters
Hudson (River)
North America's longest, at 2,341 miles; formed in western Montana by the confluence of the Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin Rivers. It flows past Bismarck, North Dakota and Kansas City before emptying into the Mississippi just north of St. Louis.
Missouri (River)
longest river of Canada. Flowing 1,080 miles out of the Great Slave Lake, the river flows past Fort Providence and Fort Simpson in Canada's Northwest Territories, emptying into a vast delta on the Beaufort Sea. The river was named for a Scottish explorer who crossed Canada to the Pacific ten years before Lewis and Clark.
Mackenzie (River)
Rising at Fairfax Stone in West Virginia, it runs 405 miles, forming the border between Virginia and Maryland. Washington, D.C. was sited on it at its confluence with the Anacostia River.
Potomac (River)
In the late fourth century, they entered central Europe from the steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas. The Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus wrote that they inflicted "tremendous slaughter" on Germanic and Roman enemies alike. Their great leader, Attila, known as the "scourge of God," was defeated at the Catalaunian Fields (near Chalons in what is now northern France) by an alliance of Romans and Visigoths. After Attila's death in 453, a rebellion of Germanic subject peoples broke up the empire.
Germanic people scattered by advancing Huns. Took refuge south of the Danube under protection of Roman Empire. Rebelled and caused disorder in Rome's Balkan provinces. Emperor Valens sent the army to restore order; fought Fritigern's troops at Adrianople (378) and died. Wandered at length, and under Alaric sacked Rome itself (410). Finally settled in southern Gaul (the "kingdom of Toulouse") and the Iberian peninsula. Converted to Christianity at 589 council. Driven out of Gaul by Franks, but regained control over Spain until their king Roderic was killed by Islamic invaders from North Africa in 711
A subject people of the Huns north of the Danube, but rejected Hunnic dominion after death of Attila. After last Roman emperor of the west, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed in 476, they occupied Italy and established their own kingdom. Their king Theodoric "the Great" ruled from 493 to 526 and tried to restore peace. The philosopher Boethius worked as an official in Theodoric's court. Kingdom collapsed in the 6th century after Justinian's Byzantine generals Belisarius and Narses fought for control of Italian peninsula.
A people who crossed the Rhine into Roman Gaul in 406, moving into Spain and across Gibraltar to attack Roman Africa. By 439, they occupied Carthage, controlling grain trade and navy. Became Mediterranean pirates and sacked Rome in 455 under King Gaiseric. Justinian's Belisarius smashed the Vandal army at Tricamerum in December 533
Moved into northern Italy after the devastation of the war between Byzantines and Ostrogoths. They shared control of Italy with Byzantine garrisons. Although Catholics, Papal requests for assistance led to the 8th century invasion by Frankish forces under Charlemagne, who crushed their kingdom and seized their "iron crown". Their famed history Paul the Deacon retired the Monte Cassino to write of his now-vanquished people
Settled in Gaul late in the 5th century, displacing the Roman official Syagrius. Clovis, the first great ruler of the Merovingian dynasty, converted to Catholicism in 496 and closely associated with the Papacy; plagued by infighting, in 751 Pepin the Short deposed last Merovingian and established Carolingian dynasty. Pepin's son was Charlemagne, who subjugated much of western Europe and presided over a revival of learning known as the Carolingian Renaissance. Crowned emperor in 800. His grandsons split the kingdom after the Treaty of Verdun (843): Lothair I, Holy Roman Emperor (795-855; Middle Francia), Charles the Bald (823-877) (West Francia), Louis the German (804-876) (East Francia)
Early medieval inhabitants of northern Britain, known for their raids on Hadrian's Wall. Their art is notable for elaborate stone carvings of mysterious beasts. Absorbed by the Scots in the 9th century
Group of Germanic peoples who migrated from the North Sea coast of Germany and mainland Denmark to Britain in the 5th and 6th centuries. Conquered or displaced Roman and native Britons (King Arthur is portrayed as a British ruler fighting them). By early 600s, they had 7 kingdoms, collectively known as the Heptarchy. Christian missionaries converted them; illuminated manuscripts, the Venerable Bede, and Beowulf. Hit hard by Viking raids of 800s; only Wessex, the southwesternmost kingdom, survived. The kings of Wessex then unified the territories into one.
Anglo-Saxons (Angles, Saxons, and Jutes)
Like the Huns, they were a nomadic people of central Asia. Their language is Ugric, related to Finnish. Occupied the Danube basin before 900. Exploited the decline of the Carolingian empire to carry out raids on East Francia and Italy. The 955 Battle of Lechfeld, won by Germany's Otto the Great, halted their expansion into central Europe. At the end of the 900s, the grand prince was baptized with the name Stephen and crowned the first king of Hungary.
Raiders from Scandinavia who used longships to attack coastal regions of western Europe from 700s-1000s. Best known for pillaging English/Irish monasteries, but were pretty much everywhere, founding cities in Russia, Iceland, Greenland, and the New World. Seized part of northern France from Charlemagne's heirs to establish the duchy of Normandy. During 1000s, Normans fought as mercenaries and built castles in Sicily, southern Italy, France, and Britain. Norman Duke William defeated Anglo-Saxons at the 1066 Battle of Hastings
Long-time (1948-1971) CBS variety show; Sunday night at 8 pm. Broadcast live from the ____ Theater on Broadway, which is currently the home of the Late Show with David Letterman. "Senor Wences" the Spanish ventriloquist. In 1964, the Beatles were on for three straight weeks.
The Ed Sullivan Show
One of America's most-watched shows during its 6-season run (1951-1957). Neighbors Fred and Ethel Mertz.
I Love Lucy
Considered the first TV spinoff (1955-1956), because it centered on Brooklyn bus driver Ralph Kramden who had previously been on the Jackie Gleason Show. His wife Alice was frequently the recipient of his bombastic threats "bang zoom, straight to the moon!" Had neighbors Ed and Trixie Norton. Not very popular at the time (1-season)
The Honeymooners
Longest-running primetime series (1955-1975) in American television history until The Simpsons. Set in Dodge City, Kansas in the late 1800s, it centered on US marshal Matt Dillon. For several seasons it featured a young Burt Reynolds as blacksmith Quint Asper
Classici sitcom (1958-1966) with a talking horse, a palomino voiced by Allan Lane, who only spoke to his owner, architect Wilbur Post.
Mr. Ed
Series (1959-1966) whose opening them composed by Bernard Herrmann. One famous episode starred a young William Shatner as a salesman who becomes convinced that a gremlin nobody else can see is trying to crash the airplane on which he is flying
The Twilight Zone
One of the most popular TV series of the 60s; title actor played sheriff Taylor in the small town of Mayberry, North Carolina. Ron Howard rose to fame playing son Opie. Distinctive supporting characters: gas station attendant Gomer Pyle, deputy sheriff Barney Fife.
The Andy Griffith Show
CBS Sitcom (1970-1977) centering on Mary Richards, a young woman who moves to Minneapolis to work in the newsroom at WJM-TV. Three supporting characters got their own spinoffs: Phyllis (starring Cloris Leachman); Rhoda (starring Valerie Harper); and Lou Grant (a drama rather than a sitcom). Groundbreaking for portrayal of Mary as an independent single woman.
The Mary Tyler Moore Show
Producer Norman Lear created this CBS sitcom (1971-1979) which was based on the successful British series Till Death Us Do Part. Sherman Hemsley played George Jefferson, who later got a spinoff. Jean Stapleton played wife Edith, Rob Reiner played Meathead, and Sally Struthers played daughter gloria.
All in the Family
Another highly successful CBS sitcom (1972-1983) that dealt with controversial social issues. Centering on 4077th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital in South Korea, it was adapted from the 1970 feature film of the same name, directed by Robert Altman. Hawkeye Pierce was a wisecracking surgeon played by Alan Alda; Sherman Potter was added to the show after commanding officer Henry Blake was killed off; and Corporal Klinger, who would dress in women's clothing in an attempt to be discharged.
(1759-1797) British author and philosopher; "Vindication of the Rights of Women." Responded to Edmund Burke's conservative "Reflections on the Revolution in France" with "A Vindication of the Rights of Men." Daughter wrote Frankenstein.
Mary Wollstonecraft
(1793-1880) Quaker, abolitionist, and women's rights activist. Attended the World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840, but women forced to sit in separate area. One of the older delegates at the Seneca Falls Convention. Mentored Elizabeth Cady Stanton, was president of the American Equal Rights Association, and was one of the Quakers who founded Swarthmore College.
Lucretia Mott
(1797-1883) Born Isabella Baumfree in Dutch New York. Converted to Methodism in 1843 and changed her name; already a well-known abolitionist speaker, she attended the 1851 Ohio Women's Rights Convention and declared that she has "as much muscle as any man" in her famous "Ain't I I Woman?" speech.
Sojourner Truth
(1806-1873) Utilitarian philosopher known for "On Liberty' (1859) and 'Utilitarianism' (1863). Wrote "The Subjection of Women" (1869), an influential philosophical defense of women's rights. Wife Harriet Taylor coauthored the text. Also wrote "The Enfranchisement of Women" (1851) together.
(John Stuart and Harriet Taylor) Mill
(1815-1902) Presented the "Declaration of Sentiments" at the first women's rights conference at Seneca Falls, NY, in 1848. Based on the Declaration of Independence: "we hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal." Tutored by Mott and collaborated with Susan B. Anthony for many years.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
(1820-1906) Cofounded first women's temperance society with Elizabeth Cady Stanton in the 1850s; the two women founded a journal in 1868 called The Revolution, which promoted women's rights. The two also formed the National Woman Suffrage Association. She gained fame when arrested for voting in the 1872 presidential election; tried to defend herself by quoting the 14th Amendment
Susan B. Anthony
(1858-1928) The most prominent advocate for women's suffrage in the UK. Helped found the Women's Social and Political Union. She and her suffragettes were arrested often and endured hunger strikes. In 1913, Parliament passed the Cat and Mouse Act, where hungerstrikers would be released from jail and re-arrested after they regained their health. In 1914, Mary Richardson attacked Velazquez's Rokeby Venus with meat cleaver to protest her arrest. Parliament finally granted voting rights to women in 1918.
Emmeline Pankhurst
(1879-1966) Founded the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood. Wrote Sex-ed columns "What Every Mother/Girl Should Know" while nursing in NYC. In 1914, began writing a newsletter called The Woman Rebel, in part to challenge the Comstock law which prohibited sending "obscene" texts by mail, since she considered education about contraception an issue of free speech.
Margaret Sanger
(1882-1941) Her essay "A Room of One's Own" (1929), she argued that a woman must have money and space in order to write and express herself. Created character Judith Shakespeare, the imagined sister of William who did not have the same access to education. Also addressed these themes in Three Guineas (1938)
Virginia Woolf
(1908-1986) Best known for her treatise "The Second Sex" (1949); argued that womanhood is defined by its differences from masculinity, which is the perceived norm, including the famous line "one is not born a woman, but becomes one." Two parts to the book: "Facts and Myths" and "Lived Experience." She was a lover of Jean-Paul Sartre. Considered a pioneer of "second wave" feminism which emphasizes sexuality and the workplace over first-wave focus on voting/property rights.
Simone de Beauvior
(1921-2006) Author of The Feminine Mystique (1963) and prominent co-founder of the National Organization for Women. A survey at her alma mater Smith College led her to argue that housework is unfulfilling and she advocated for women to seek education and outside work
Betty Friedan
(b. 1934) Journalist who founded and edited Ms. magazine, which popularized the use of the title "Ms." to address women regardless of marital status. Went undercover as a Playboy bunny. Advocate of abortion rights. Wrote for New York magazine. Also wrote the book "Outrageous Acts and Everday Rebellions" (1983), and the phrase "a woman without a man is like a fish without a bicycle" is often attributed to her.
Gloria Steinem
Became the first female candidate for the presidency of the United States in 1872, when she ran with the Equal Rights Party. Frederick Douglass was nominated as her vice presidential candidate. Susan B. Anthony jailed for voting for her.
Victoria Woodhull
Name this first woman elected to the House of Representatives (1916), and this first woman to serve in both houses of Congress and to be nominated for the presidency of a major party
(Jeannette) Rankin and (Margaret Chase) Smith
Publicized the issue of sexual harassment in 1991 when she testified at Clarence Thomas's Supreme Court confirmation hearings that he had harassed her.
(Anita) Hill
Fifth largest satellite in the solar system. USSR's Luna unmanned spacecraft first reached the moon in 1959, and Apollo 8 became the first manned mission to orbit the moon in 1968. Apollo 11 first landed here in the Sea of Tranquility in 1969, and the Apollo program would make 5 more landings.
(Earth's) Moon
Discovered by Asaph Hall in 1877; biggest moon to orbit this planet, orbiting more closely to its planet than any other moon, and appears to set twice each day. Its features are named for characters in Gulliver's Travels. US Mariner IX provided close-up pictures in 1971. Means "fear"
Discovered by Asaph Hall in 1877; largest and only named craters are Swift and Voltaire. Not as rough because regolith has filled in some craters. Means "dread"
Densest, most geologically active moon. 4th largest in the solar system. 400 volcanoes. Features named for fire, volcano, and thunder deities and from Dante's Inferno. Pioneer 10 passed by in 1973
Largest moon the solar system; only moon with magnetosphere. Based on suggestion from Simon Marius, named for one of Jupiter's lovers. Featured named for Egyptian and Babylonian mythology. Third of the Galilean satellites
Largest moon of Saturn; second largest in solar system; only moon with dense atmosphere; only satellite with stable surface liquid. Discovered in 1655 by Christiaan Huygens. Features named for enchanted places from literature and myth, including the highy reflective Xanadu area. Thought to be most likely place for microbial life to exist outside Earth
Saturn's third largest moon after Titan and Rhea. Discovered by Giovanni Cassini in 1671 and named upon suggestion of John Herschel (son of discovered of Uranus, William) for the brothers and sisters of Saturn (Cronos). Two-tone red/grey coloration. Features named for people/places in French Song of Roland, including Charlemagne Crater. Unexplained mountains
Uranus' largest moons discovered on the same day in 1787 by William Herschel, who also discovered Uranus itself in 1781. Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to have visited the Uranian moons. Moons experience extreme seasons. Most of the largest moon's features named for female Shakespeare characters (eg largest crater is Gertrude crater), while second largest named for male characters, although its largest feature is Mommur Chasma, named for a French epic poem
Titania and Oberon
Largest moon of Neptune; only large moon with retrograde orbit. Thought to have been captured from the Kuiper Belt. ______ thought to be Neptune's only moon until 1949, when Nereid was discovered. Nitrogen geysers. Featured named for water myths. Voyager 2 only space probe to visit. "cantaloupe terrain"
Largest satellite of Pluto, wasn't discovered until 1978. Appears to be covered in water ice. New Horizons mission scheduled to visit in 2015. Named by discoverer James Christy.
(Meredith Wilson nd Franklin Lacey, 1957). Swindler Harold Hill attempts to con the families of River City, Iowa by starting a boys' band. While there, he falls in love with the librarian Marian Paroo. The scheme is exposed, but the town forgives him. Notable songs include "Trouble" (the origin of the phrase "trouble in River City") "Seventy-Six Trombones," "Shipoopi," "Gary, Indiana," and "Till There was You."
The Music Man
(Jonathan Larson, 1996). tells the story of impoverished artists living in the East Village of New York City circa 1990. It is narrated by filmmaker Mark Cohen, whose ex-girlfriend Maureen just left him for a woman (Joanne), and whose recovering heroin addict roommate Roger meets the dying stripper Mimi. Mark and Roger's former roommate and itinerant philosopher/hacker Collins comes to town, where he is robbed, then saved by the transvestite Angel, with whom he moves in. Meanwhile, the former fourth roommate of Mark, Roger, and Collins - Benny - has married into a wealthy family and bought the building Mark and Roger now live in, from which he wants to evict them. An adaptation of Puccini's opera La bohéme, Rent won the 1996 Pulitzer Prize for Drama and includes songs like "La Vie Bohéme" and "Seasons of Love".
(Frank Loesser, Jo Swerling, and Abe Burrows, 1950). Nathan Detroit runs an underground craps game but needs a location. To make enough money to use the Biltmore garage for his game, he bets notorious gambler Sky Masterson that Sky can't convince a girl of Nathan's choice to go to Havana with him for dinner; Nathan chooses the righteous missionary Sarah Brown. Sky wins the bet but ends up having to bring a dozen sinning gamblers to a revival meeting. As Nathan attends the meeting, his long-suffering fiancé Adelaide, a nightclub dancer, is increasingly frustrated that their fourteen-year engagement has not led to marriage. At the meeting, Sky bets a large amount of money against the gamblers' souls, winning, and eventually convincing Sarah to marry him and Nathan to marry Adelaide. Adapted from short stories by Damon Runyon, the musical includes songs like "A Bushel and a Peck," "Luck Be a Lady," and "Sit Down, You're Rockin' the Boat."
Guys and Dolls
(Alain Boublil, Claude-Michel Schönberg, and Herbert Kretzmer, 1985). Main character convicted of stealing a loaf of bread to feed his starving niece. He breaks his parole and is doggedly pursued by Inspector Javert. Several years later, the lives of Valjean, his adoptive daughter Cosette, her lover Marius and his former lover Éponine, and Javert become intertwined on the barricades of an 1832 student rebellion in Paris. The longest-running show on London's West End, it features the songs "I Dreamed a Dream," "Master of the House," "Do You Hear the People Sing?", "One Day More," and "On My Own."
Les Miserables
(Irving Berlin, Herbert Fields, and Dorothy Fields, 1946). Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show comes to town, and performer Frank Butler challenges anyone to a shooting contest. Annie Oakley wins the contest and joins the show. She and Frank fall in love, but Frank quits out of jealousy that Annie is a better shooter than he is. The title role was originated by Ethel Merman, and songs in the show include "There's No Business Like Show Business," "Doin' What Comes Natur'lly," and "Anything You Can Do."
Annie Get York Gun
(W.S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan, 1879). Frederic, having turned twenty-one, is released from his apprenticeship to the title pirates. Reaching shore for the first time, Frederic falls in love with Mabel, the daughter of Major-General Stanley. Frederic realizes that he was apprenticed until his twenty-first birthday, and, having been born on February 29, he must return to his apprenticeship. Mabel vows to wait for him. The Major-General and the police pursue the pirates, who surrender. The pirates are forgiven, and Mabel and Frederic reunite. As the work is actually a light opera, most of the songs are simply titled after their first lines; the most memorable ones include "Pour, oh pour, the pirate sherry" and "I am the very model of a modern Major-General."
The Pirates of Penzance
(W.S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan, 1878). Aboard the title ship, Josephine promises her father, the captain, that she will marry Sir Joseph Porter, but Josephine secretly loves the common sailor Ralph Rackstraw, and the two plan to elope. A peddler named Buttercup reveals that she accidentally switched the captain and Ralph at birth: Ralph is of noble birth and should be captain, while the captain is nothing more than a common sailor. Ralph, now captain, marries Josephine, and the former captain marries Buttercup. Like The Pirates of Penzance, songs are named after their first lines; they include "We sail the ocean blue," "I'm called Little Buttercup," and "Pretty daughter of mine."
HMS Pinafore
(Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, 1951). Anna Leonowens, a British schoolteacher, travels to Siam (now Thailand) to teach English to the King's many children and wives. Anna's western ways, the looming threat of British rule, and romance between Lun Tha and the concubine Tuptim all weigh heavily on the traditional, chauvinistic King. As the King dies, Anna kneels at his side, and the prince abolishes the practice of kowtowing. Adapted from Anna and the King of Siam by Margaret Landon and inspired by Anna Leonowens' memoirs, it was made into an Academy Award-winning 1956 film starring Yul Brynner. Its songs include "I Whistle a Happy Tune," "Getting to Know You," and "Shall We Dance?".
The King and I
(Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice, 1971). In the week leading up to the crucifixion, Judas grows angry with Christ's claims of divinity, and Mary Magdalene laments her romantic feelings for Christ. Judas hangs himself, and Christ, though frustrated with God, accepts his fate. Among the songs in this musical are "I Don't Know How to Love Him," "Gethsemane," and "Trial Before Pilate."
Jesus Christ Superstar
(Stephen Sondheim and Hugh Wheeler, 1979). Sweeney Todd, a barber, returns to London from Australia, where the evil Judge Turpin, who lusted after his wife, unjustly imprisoned him. Sweeney's daughter, Joanna, escapes Turpin - of whom she had been a ward during her father's incarceration - and falls in love with the sailor Anthony Hope. A vengeful Sweeney begins murdering his customers, and his neighbor, Mrs. Lovett, bakes them into meat pies. Sweeney kills the Judge but, in his fury, accidentally kills a mad beggar woman who was really his long-lost wife. Mrs. Lovett's shop boy, Tobias, grows scared and kills Sweeney. Its famously complex score includes "The Ballad of Sweeney Todd," "The Worst Pies in London," "Johanna," and "God, That's Good," but the show is nearly sung through and it is sometimes nontrivial to identify distinct songs within it.
Sweeney Todd: the Demon Barber of Fleet Street
(Richard Rodgers, Oscar Hammerstein II, and Joshua Logan, 1949). During the Pacific Theater of World War II, Nellie Forbush, a U.S. Navy nurse, has fallen in love with Emile, a French plantation owner. Emile helps Lt. Cable carry out an espionage mission against the Japanese. The mission is successful, and Emile and Nellie reunite. Featuring the songs "Some Enchanted Evening," "There is Nothing Like a Dame," and "I'm Gonna Wash that Man Right Outta My Hair," it is adapted from James Michener's Tales of the South Pacific.
South Pacific
(PM 1721-1742): Generally recognized as the first British Prime Minister, he established personal control over a Whig-dominated Parliament on behalf of the German-speaking George I. He rose to power after many rivals were tarnished by the collapse of the South Sea Company. His long tenure continued under George II, but his attempts to avoid British military commitments worldwide led to his downfall during the War of the Austrian Succession.
Robert Walpole
(PM 1834-1835, 1841-1846): Set out the founding principles of the Conservative Party in the Tamworth Manifesto and led the new party to its first general election victory. The Irish Famine accelerated his decision to repeal the Corn Laws, promoting free trade by removing grain tariffs. This act was achieved with Whig support and lost him the backing of his party.
Robert Peel
(PM 1868, 1874-1880): Before becoming Prime Minister, he was instrumental in the passage of the Second Reform Act as leader of the House of Commons. Britain's only Prime Minister of Jewish descent, he was also a successful novelist. He promoted a strong, imperial foreign policy including investment in the Suez Canal and the peace achieved at the Congress of Berlin.
Benjamin Disraeli
(PM 1868-1874, 1880-1885, 1886, 1892-1894): Noted Liberal Prime Minister who passed a Third Reform Act and modernized the military, but failed to achieve Irish Home Rule. Queen Victoria loathed him. During Disraeli's ministry his campaign sensationalized the "Bulgarian horrors," suggesting that Britain needed to resolve the "Eastern Question" about the fate of the Ottoman Empire.
William Gladstone
(PM 1908-1916): Liberal Prime Minister who made sweeping reforms, including limiting the power of the unelected House of Lords with the Parliament Act in order to introduce the "People's Budget" of 1911 which established state pensions. Not a successful wartime leader, he lost control of a coalition government during World War I and was forced to resign in favor of David Lloyd George.
HH Asquith
(PM 1916-1922): A native Welsh speaker who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer under Asquith. Taking control during World War I, he represnted the UK at the Paris Peace Conference, leading to the Treaty of Versailles. After the war he split the Liberal Party by aiming to continue the coalition government together with the Conservative Bonar Law: the coalition collapsed after embarrassment over the independence of Ireland and a scandal over the sale of honors.
David Lloyd George
(PM 1940-1945, 1951-1955): Best remembered as the UK's wartime prime minister from the country's isolation in 1940 to victory in 1945. The son of a major Conservative politician Randolph, he was a Liberal who served in Asquith's cabinet, becoming First Lord of the Admiralty before resigning over the failure of Gallipoli. As Stanley Baldwin's (PM 1923-1924, 1924-1929, 1935-1937) Chancellor of the Exchequer he put the UK on the Gold Standard. Winning a second term as Prime Minister during the Korean War, in later life he also won the Nobel Prize for Literature and wrote A History of the English-Speaking Peoples.
Winston Churchill
(PM 1945-1950): Won a huge Labour landslide victory in 1945 between the end of the war in Europe and victory in Japan. He founded the modern welfare state based on the Beveridge Report, including the National Health Service under his minister Nye Bevan. His Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin took the UK out of Palestine and sent troops to the Korean War. PM between Churchill's terms
Clement Attlee
(PM 1979-1990): divisive 1980s Conservative premiership saw the collapse of British heavy industry and its replacement by a services-based economy, especially focused on banking. Re-elected in 1983 after winning the Falklands War, she clashed with the mine workers' leader Arthur Scargill as well as her right-hand man Michael Heseltine, and after losing popularity due to a poll tax was ousted by her own party in favor of John Major (PM 1990-1997).
Margaret Thatcher
(PM 1997-2007): Won a famous landslide election victory in 1997 to end 18 years of Conservative rule as his "New Labour" movement abandoned traditional socialism and moved the Labour Party to the centre. Re-elected in 2001 and 2005, his friendship and later enmity towards his Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown (PM 2007-2010) ended with Brown succeeding him as Prime Minister. Blair's close relationship with George W. Bush led to the UK joining the invasion of Iraq in 2003; his domestic legacy was higher public spending and the devolution of Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
Tony Blair
(PM 1770-1782): The American War of Independence was lost during his ministry.
Lord North
(PM 1783-1801, 1804-1806) strengthened the role of the Prime Minister and pursued war against revolutionary France.
William Pitt the Younger
(PM 1812-1827) was Prime Minister at the time of victory at the Battle of Waterloo, and faced social turmoil including the Peterloo Massacre of protesters in Manchester.
Lord Liverpool
(PM 1855-1858, 1859-1865): was a long-serving Secretary of State and the first Prime Minister of the Liberal Party that succeeded the Whigs. He kept Britain neutral during the American Civil War
Lord Palmerston
(PM 1937-1940) signed the Munich Agreement with Adolf Hitler and promised "peace for our time" with a policy of appeasement. British military failures in 1940 led to his replacement by Churchill.
Neville Chamberlain
(PM 1957-1963) said "you've never had it so good" as the British economy recovered in the late 1950s. Later he purged his cabinet in a mass sacking dubbed the "Night of the Long Knives."
Harold Macmillan
(PM 2010-) leads a Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government and has favored austerity economics and the elimination of the UK's fiscal deficit.
David Cameron
Divided into bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) and pterophytes (ferns, club mosses, quillworts, and horsetails). Both of these groups, like all other plants, reproduce by producing sperm and eggs on a structure called the gametophyte. The gametes fuse to form another structure called the sporophyte, which produces spores that disperse and grow into new gametophytes. Both groups produce flagellated sperm that require water for fertilization.
Seedless plants
Small enough that water and nutrients can diffuse to all parts of the plant without any specialized vascular tissue. They lack true leaves and roots, instead fastening themselves to the ground with rhizoids. Unlike other land plants, they have a prominent gametophyte stage that is usually dioicous, meaning that an individual plant produces only one type of gamete (either sperm or egg). The short-lived sporophyte grows from the female gametophyte.
They have vascular tissues that provide structural support and transport water and other materials throughout the plant. Many of them do have true leaves and roots. Pterophytes have a prominent sporophyte stage that grows from a small, short-lived gametophyte. May be dioicous or monoicous
Divided into gymnosperms (cycads, ginkgos, conifers, and gnetophytes) and angiosperms (phylum Anthophyta, or flowering plants). Most of these plants produce male gametophytes that grow into the female, allowing fertilization to take place in relatively dry conditions. Many of them also exhibit secondary growth of woody tissues, allowing them to grow even taller than the pterophytes.
Seed plants
Their gametophytes develop on the surface of leaves or on the scales of cones. In contrast, angiosperm means "receptacle seed." Their gametophytes develop enclosed within flowers. Angiosperms are further classified based on their seed structure
Most angiosperms fall into one of two classes based on the number of these embryonic seed-leaves, in the plant embryo (one or two). While there are no other hard-and-fast distinguishing characteristics between the two groups, plants in each category tend to share other characteristics
These angiosperms produce pollen grains that have a single furrow (monosulcate); flower parts in multiples of three; numerous, fibrous roots; parallel leaf veins; and stems with scattered vascular bundles. They also lack secondary growth, remaining herbaceous throughout their lives.
These angiosperms tend to have pollen with three furrows (tricolpate); flower parts in multiples of four or greater; taproot systems; stems with rings of vascular tissue; and branching leaf veins. Many of them exhibit secondary growth that produces wood.
This flower structure is composed of sepals, specialized green leaves that protect the flower as a bud and provide support for the fully bloomed flower
(c. 1600-1046 BC) is the first Chinese dynasty attested from written records. Archaeological excavations at the "ruins of Yin," near the modern city of Anyang, uncovered the remains of a Chinese civilization from the Bronze Age. Writings are those found on "oracle bones," pieces of ox bone or turtle shell that were heated to produce a pattern of cracks that supposedly foretold the future.
Shang (dynasty)
(1046-256 BC) chariot warriors who overthrew the Shang dynasty. Although it lasted for nearly 800 years, during much of the time period, real power lay in the hands of feudal lords. Sacking by barbarians in 771 BC marks the beginning of the Spring and Autumn Period (771 BC - 476 BC). During the Spring and Autumn Period, the Hundred Schools of Thought (including Confucianism) flourished and Sun Tzu wrote his Art of War. The end of the dynasty devolved into the Warring States period (476 BC - 221 BC), during which power coalesced into seven independent feudal states. The state of Qin eventually grew powerful and efficient enough that it was able to defeat the other six states and complete the unification of China.
Zhou (dynasty)
(221 - 206 BC), despite its short duration, is usually considered the origin of many of the institutions of imperial China. The founding emperor, Shi Huangdi, has gained an ill-deserved reputation in traditional Chinese historiography because he destroyed many Confucian texts in his infamous book burning. He standardized weight measurements, unified the Chinese script, and used conscripts to build the Great Wall. After his death, the suicide of the crown prince led to a period of incompetent rule and revolts that caused the collapse of the dynasty
Qin (dynasty)
A golden age of Chinese civilization founded by peasant Liu Bang (became Emperor Gaozu). Established capital at Xi'an. Instability in the early years caused by nomadic Xiongnu, a problem solved by 7th Emperor Wudi whose wars greatly expanded China's domain. Emperor Wu also formalized the Bureaucracy and established state Confucianism. Wang Mang toppled the dynasty and established the Xin ("new") dynasty, hoping to restore the ways of the Zhou. Wang Mang unable to maintain power because the Yellow River changed course, causing Red Eyebrows peasant revolts. Liu Xiu restored the old dynasty and establishing the Eastern Han. Dynasty ended with rebellions called Yellow Turbans and Five Pecks of Rice
Han (dynasty)
(AD 184-280) This short period has had an enormous cultural impact thanks to the classic Chinese novel. After a period of disunion, the lands of the former Han dynasty coalesced into three kingdoms: Cao Wei north of the Yangtze, Eastern Wu in the lower Yangtze, and Shu Han in the Sichuan region. The Battle of Red Cliffs (AD 208) was fought during this period. Under the leadership of the Sima family, Cao Wei managed to defeat the other two kingdoms. The reunification was, however, short-lived. For the next four centuries, China went through a period known as the Southern and Northern Dynasties.
(Period of the) Three Kingdoms
(618-907) Important poets such as Li Bai (or Li Po) and Du Fu lived and the printing press was invented. This dynasty, which reunited China after the collapse of the short-lived Sui dynasty, was ruled by the Li family and its capital was at Chang'an (modern day Xi'an). Its first ruler, like the founder of the Han Dynasty, used the title of Emperor Gaozu. Gaozu forced by his second son, Li Shimin (later Emperor Taizong), to abdicate after Li Shimin killed two of his brothers in an ambush. Despite his bloody path to power, Taizong is considered to be one of the greatest rulers in Chinese history, subjugating much of what is now western China and parts of central Asia. After his death, power came to be concentrated in the hands of Empress Wu. Empress Wu (or Wu Zetian), the only woman to become emperor of China, called her rule the "Second Zhou dynasty." Wu was a notable supporter of Buddhism and promoted the imperial examination, but succession troubles resulted in the premature end of her dynasty. During the reign of Emperor Xuanzong, the An Lushan rebellion (also called An Shi rebellion) concentrated power in the hands of regional military overlords. The dynasty had a tumultuous end in 907 that marked the beginning of the Five dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tang (dynasty)
(960-1279) Dynasty known for its devotion to cultural activities instead of warfare and for the establishment of Neo-Confucianism as state doctrine, with the imperial examination as the primary way of recruiting talent. During this dynasty, gunpowder and the compass were discovered. Forced to relinquish parts of northern China to the "barbarian" Liao dynasty, paying tribute for peace. First ruler, Taizu, realized that his rival generals could take power from him. He set up the dominance of the scholarly elite over the military elite. This policy was continued by his successors. In the north, however, the Liao dynasty was eventually replaced by the militaristic Jin dynasty, who captured their capital at Kaifeng along with two Emperors. The remnants of the court fled across the Yangtze and established the Southern _____ with a new capital at Hangzhou, maintaining peace with the Jin through annual tribute. This state of affairs was brought to an end after this dynasty aided the Mongols in crushing the Jin, only to discover that they themselves were the next target. Repelled major Mongol offensives for nearly 40 years, before it was finally defeated.
Song (dynasty)
(1271-1368) was a short-lived dynasty established by the invading Mongols, who destroyed the Jin and Song states. Its most notable ruler was Kublai Khan, whose invasions of Japan were thwarted typhoons that the Japanese called the kamikaze, or "divine wind." Yuan rulers were hostile to many Chinese institutions and thus received minimal support from the Chinese elites. The Red Turban rebellion of the 1350s marked the beginning of the end.
Yuan (dynasty)
(1368-1644) this was the last native dynasty of China; its rulers came from the Zhu family. The use of the word "china" to describe fine porcelain originated from this period. Its founding ruler, Zhu Yuanzhang (Emperor Hongwu), was a peasant leader of the Red Turbans who helped expel the Mongol Yuan rulers from China. He was succeeded by his grandson, who quickly lost power to Zhu Di (Emperor Yongle). During the reign of the Yongle emperor, the eunuch Zheng He led treasure fleets on seven voyages to display Chinese greatness. Zhu Di moved China's capital to Beijing. After his death, the dynasty banned maritime commerce. The Ming dynasty came to an end after the rebellion of Li Zicheng. Simultaneously, the Manchu people, tributaries of the Ming from northeast China ("Manchuria") in modern day Manchuria, marched on the Great Wall. The Manchus suppressed Li Zicheng's revolt and took power in Beijing themselves.
Ming (dynasty)
(1644-1911) it was the last dynasty to rule imperial China. An important institution was the banner system, which acted as a guaranteed welfare system for Manchus and gave them benefits in the imperial examination (positions were often duplicated, with one Han Chinese and one Manchu from the banners). The foundations were established under its second ruler, the Kangxi Emperor who put down the Revolt of the Three Feudatories. He is also famous for the Kangxi dictionary, which is known for popularizing the system of Chinese radicals. During the last century of its rule, China was weakened both by foreign attacks (the Opium Wars against Britain) and internal dissent (the devastating Taiping Rebellion of 1850-1864). Attempts to modernize (the Self-Strengthening Movement and the Hundred Days' Reform of 1898) proved inconclusive. Dowager Express Cixi, who opposed the reformers, was implicated in the Boxer Rebellion, an anti-foreign uprising of 1900 that caused eight Western nations to send military forces to Beijing. China's last emperor was Puyi, who came to the throne at the age of two in 1906. The 1911 Xinhai Revolution ended the dynasty and created the Republic of China.
Qing (dynasty)
(Dada) President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979. He came to power in a coup when Prime Minister Milton Obote was out of the country. His death squads such as the Public Safety Unit and the State Research Bureau caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. In 1972 he expelled tens of thousands of Asians from Uganda. He allowed Palestinian hijackers to land a captured Air France plane at Entebbe Airport in 1976; Jewish hostages on board were freed by Operation Thunderbolt, an Israeli commando operation during which Yonatan Netanyahu, the older brother of the future Prime Minister Benjamin, was killed. A 1979 invasion by Tanzania forced him from power; he fled to exile in Saudi Arabia.
Idi Amin
leader of Libya from 1969 to 2011. His "Free Officers Movement," modeled after the Egyptian organization of the same name, overthrew King Idris I in 1969. The Little Green Book collects ideas and sayings associated with his pan-Arabist ideology. The U.S. and Britain criticized his terrorist associations and blamed him for the bombing of Pan Am flight 103 over Scotland which killed 270 people. After a discotheque in Berlin was bombed in 1986, the U.S. attacked several sites in Libya. He was overthrown and killed by supporters of the National Transitional Council during the Libyan Civil War in 2011.
(Muammar al-) Gadaffi
Leader of the Kikuyu people, fought against British control of Kenya during the Mau Mau rebellion of the 1950s. He studied at the London School of Economics with Bronislaw Malinowski; his book, Facing Mount Kenya, is an account of traditional Kikuyu society under pressure from colonialism. When Britain allowed elections to take place, his KANU (Kenya African National Union) party was successful; in 1964 he became the country's first president. He used the slogan "harambee," which is Swahili for "all pull together," to encourage national unity and economic growth. His son Uhuru became Kenya's fourth president in 2013.
(Jomo) Kenyatta
Came to power during the "Congo Crisis," which resulted in the assassination of elected Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba and the death in a plane crash of United Nations Secretary General Dag Hammarskjold. He changed the name of his country from "Congo" to "Zaire" (it reverted to "Democratic Republic of the Congo" after his fall). Despite his atrocious human rights record, the regime was supported by the United States because he took an anti-Communist position during the Cold War. Rebels led by Laurent Kabila overthrew Mobutu in 1997.
(Mobutu) Sese Seko
First president of post-colonial Zimbabwe in 1980 and has led that country ever since. Zimbabwe was the successor state to Rhodesia, the white-supremacist state in south-central Africa led by Ian Smith. He was leader of the Zimbabwe National African Union and a key figure in the civil and military struggle for African rights in Rhodesia. Under increasing criticism for his failure to prevent hyperinflation and his suppression of political dissent. Morgan Tsvangirai, a leader of the Movement for Democratic Change, is one of his chief rivals.
Robert Mugabe
Leader of the African National Congress the first democratically-elected president of South Africa. In the 1960s he was a radical; along with Oliver Tambo and others, he founded a militant group called Umkhonto we Sizwe (the "spear of the nation") to carry out acts of sabotage against the apartheid government. In 1964 He was charged with criminal activity in the Rivonia Trial; he was imprisoned for 27 years, most of them on Robben Island, a prison colony located off the coast of Cape Town. The leading figure in South Africa's transition away from apartheid; he and his predecessor, F. W. de Klerk, shared the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize.
(Nelson) Mandela
Leader of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. He supported the Free Officers Movement led by Muhammad Naguib that overthrew King Farouk in 1952, but he then took power while accusing of Naguib of allying with the Muslim Brotherhood. He nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956, leading to a confrontation with Britain, France, and Israel. From 1958 to 1961 he served as president of the United Arab Republic, a short-lived federation of Egypt and Syria. He was succeeded in 1970 by his ally Anwar Sadat.
(Gamal Abdel) Nasser
He became the prime minister of the Gold Coast in 1952 and declared independence from Britain in 1957, renaming the country Ghana. He was the first African leader to declare independence from a colonial power. He supported pan-Africanism, an ideology that proposed continent-wide cooperation and union of African peoples. His regime racked up large debts through military reform and the building of the Akosombo Dam to create Lake Volta. A 1966 coup ended his rule over Ghana.
(Kwame) Nkrumah
Leader of Tanganyika and then Tanzania from 1961 to 1985. (Tanzania was formed by the 1964 merger of Tanganyika with Zanzibar.) Tanganyika gained independence due to negotiations between him and British Governor Richard Turnbull. He put forward his socialist plans in the Arusha Declaration of 1967. His policies were known by the term ujamaa, signifying family unity in Swahili. Under his leadership, literacy improved significantly, but poverty remained high, especially among rural laborers uprooted by centralized economic planning. His Chama Cha Mapinduzi, or Party of the Revolution, remains as the dominant power in Tanzania politics.
Julius Nyerere
Born Tafari Makonnen, he was the Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974. A 1936 invasion by fascist Italy forced him to live in exile in England until 1941, when he was restored to the throne with the assistance of the British military. Many members of the Rastafarian movement consider him to be a sacred and messianic figure. Ethiopia suffered a severe famine in the early 1970s, and he was overthrown in 1974. The military government that replaced him was known as the Derg.
(Haile) Selassie
(ca. 1254 - ca. 1324): The Venetian merchant brothers Niccolo and Maffeo traveled to China in 1261, serving Kublai Khan from 1266 to 1269. Kublai sent them back to Europe as envoys in 1269; when they returned to China in 1274 they brought Niccolo's son along. They served Kublai Khan until 1292, and he spent time as governor of Yangzhou. After being captured by the Genoese at the naval Battle of Curzola, he dictated his memoir, a text known as Il Milione, to his prison cellmate Rusticiano (or Rusticello) of Pisa.
Marco Polo
(1451-1506): On his first voyage (1492), he landed at San Salvador in the Bahamas (where he dubbed the Arawak inhabitants "Indians") before discovering Hispaniola and founding the settlement of Navidad there. On his second voyage (1493), he returned to Hispaniola before discovering Jamaica. On his third voyage (1498), he discovered South America, and on his fourth voyage (1502), he landed in Central America.
(Christopher) Columbus
(1450-1499) A Genoese explorer, he sailed for Henry VII of England. His 1497 voyage aboard the Matthew landed somewhere in eastern Canada, probably in what is today Newfoundland.
(John) Cabot
(1491-1557) This Frenchman went on three expeditions (1534-1542) for Francis I. On the second one, he sailed up the St. Lawrence River and named the hill behind the village of Hochelaga "Montreal."
(Jacques) Cartier
This Frenchman went on several voyages (1603-1635), founding what is now Quebec City and becoming the first European to see Lake Huron
(Samuel de) Champlain
(ca. 1480-1521): Emperor Charles V endorsed his proposal to sail around the Americas and across the Pacific, and the expedition left in 1519. He began with five ships: the San Antonio, Trinidad, Concepción, Santiago, and Victoria. The expedition discovered and navigated the Strait of Magellan in 1520, reaching the Philippines in 1521. There, he was killed in battle on the island of Mactan. Only the Victoria, commanded by Juan Sebastián Elcano, returned to Spain in 1522.
(Ferdinand) Magellan
(ca. 1485-1547): Spanish conquistador who participated in the conquest of Cuba. In 1519 the Cuban governor Diego Velázquez commissioned him to sail west and explore the mainland coast. Fearing that Velazquez would change his mind, he left Cuba secretly and began a mission of conquest rather than exploration. On the coast of the Yucatan the Cortés expedition was joined by the Spanish castaway Jeronimo de Aguilar and a Nahua captive known as "La Malinche" or "Doña Marina," who served as translators. After traveling north, they defied the authority of Velazquez by founding the city of Veracruz, an act which allowed him to take legal control of the expedition. The Spanish then pressed inland, surviving an attempted massacre in the city of Cholula and making allies with the Tlaxcalans, who were traditional enemies of the Aztecs. He was welcomed by Aztec emperor Montezuma II at Tenochtitlan, but he took Montezuma prisoner; he was forced to return to the coast to deal with a punitive expedition sent by Velazquez and commanded by Panfilo de Narvaez. He won the new arrivals over to his side, but the situation in Tenochtitlan deteriorated as the conquistador Pedro de Alvarado murdered celebrants at a festival. Shortly after he returned to the city, Montezuma was killed and the Spanish were forced to flee during the Noche Triste (Night of Sorrows). After escaping, he marshalled Spanish and indigenous forces to fight the Aztecs, who were successively led by the emperors Cuitlahuac and Cuauhtemoc. After the Aztec defenders were seriously weakened by an outbreak of smallpox, he and his followers captured Tenochtitlan in 1521 and rebuilt it as Mexico City. Much of our knowledge of the conquest of Mexico comes from a follower named Bernal Díaz del Castillo, who wrote detailed memoirs of the expedition.
(Hernan) Cortes
(ca. 1475-1541): After receiving a commission from Emperor Charles V, he went with his partner Diego de Almagro and the priest Hernando de Luque to Peru (1530). The invaders marched to the city of Cajamarca, where they seized the emperor Atahualpa and held him for ransom. Even though the Incas brought the Spanish a ransom of precious metal, he killed Atahualpa and captured the Incan capital of Cuzco. In 1535 he founded Lima, where he was murdered six years later.
(Francisco) Pizarro
(ca. 1543-1596): In 1576, Elizabeth I of England sent him to find the unknown southern continent. His ship was the Pelican, which he renamed the Golden Hind. After sailing through the Strait of Magellan, Drake sailed up the western coast of South, Central, and North America as far as California, capturing Spanish ships and treasure along the way. After circumnavigating the globe and returning to England (1580), he fought against the Spanish Armada (1588).
(Sir Francis) Drake
(ca. 1565-1611): Sailing for the Dutch in 1609, he journeyed up the New York river now named for him as far as present-day Albany. On his final voyage (1610), he sailed for England in search of the Northwest Passage aboard the Discovery. After sailing between Baffin Island and Labrador (a strait now named for him), he turned south into a Bay now named for him. There, most of his crew mutinied under the leadership of Robert Juet. He, his son, and some loyal crew members were placed in an open boat and left to die.
(Henry) Hudson
(1728-1779): On his first voyage (1768-1771), he sailed aboard the Endeavour to observe the transit of the planet Venus from Tahiti. From there he went to New Zealand (discovering that it was two islands), then to Australia's Botany Bay. On his second voyage (1772-1775), He sailed aboard the Resolution and became the first to cross the Antarctic Circle. On his third voyage (1776-1779), he failed to find the Northwest Passage and was killed when he came into conflict with the inhabitants of Hawaii.
(James) Cook
The Corps of Discovery, departed from Camp Wood (near St. Louis) in 1804, sailing up the Missouri River. The group wintered at Fort Mandan in present-day North Dakota, where they met Sacajawea, the Shoshone wife of fur trader Toussaint Charbonneau. The group's last winter was spent at Fort Clatsop, along the Columbia River in Oregon near the Pacific.
(Meriwether) Lewis and (William) Clark
op. 91 (1813): Also commonly known as the "Battle Symphony." This heavily programmatic work was originally written for the panharmonicon, an automated orchestra; Beethoven later revised the work for live performers. The work utilizes several familiar melodies—including "God Save the Queen," "Rule Britannia," and "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow"—and calls for special effects such as musket fire. The work is generally regarded as one of Beethoven's worst; even the composer himself acknowledged it as being a money-maker rather than serious art.
Wellington's Victory (or, the Battle of Vitoria)
op. 57 (1804-06): Again, Beethoven had no hand in the popular title of this sonata: the label was applied by a publisher some years after Beethoven's death. The sonata begins ominously: a theme descends in open octaves to the lowest note of the contemporary piano before rising again in an arpeggio, immediately repeated a minor second higher. The second movement has no stable conclusion, instead directly leading to the third through the use of a diminished seventh chord. The final movement's coda, which itself introduces new thematic material, is one of the most demanding and difficult passages in all of the composer's repertoire.
Appassionata (Piano Sonata No. 23 in F minor)
op. 27 no. 2, (1801-02): As with the "Emperor," Beethoven did not give its nickname; it was coined several years after the composer's death by Ludwig Rellstab, who commented on the first movement's resemblance to Lake Lucerne at night. Beethoven's score calls for the sustain pedal to be held down through the entirety of the first movement. Often overshadowed by the ubiquitous first movement is the violent third movement, a Presto agitato sonata-allegro form with an extended coda, which on a larger scale serves as a recapitulation for the entire sonata. Beethoven dedicated the sonata to Giulietta Guicciardi, his pupil.
Moonlight (Piano Sonata No. 14 in C sharp minor, quasi una Fantasia)
op. 73 (1809-10): composed near the end of Beethoven's "heroic decade," is the last concerto of any type that he completed. Beethoven defies traditional concerto structure in the opening movement by placing the most significant solo material for the piano at the beginning of the movement, rather than near its end. Beethoven did not give the work its title; Johann Cramer did, who first published the work in England. It premiered by pianist Friedrich Schneider, is the only one of Beethoven's piano concertos that the composer himself never performed publicly.
Emperor (Piano Concerto No. 5 in E-flat major)
op. 123 (1819-23): Although it uses the traditional text, Beethoven intended the work for concert performance rather than liturgical use. Beethoven became increasingly fascinated by the fugue during his third stylistic period; his Missa solemnis includes two immense examples that conclude the Gloria and Credo movements. The composer dedicated the work to his patron, the Austrian Archduke Rudolf.
Missa solmenis (in D major)
(1805; revised 1806 and 1814): This work is Beethoven's only opera. The libretto is by Joseph Sonnleithner, with revisions by Stephan von Breuning and Georg Treitschke. Leonore wishes to rescure her husband Florestan from the prison of the evil Pizarro; to do so, she disguises herself as the eponymous boy so that the jailer Rocco will hire her to help him, and thus grant her access to her husband. Beethoven struggled with his opera: he first presented it as a three-act work before cutting it to the present two-act form, and wrote four separate overtures. The opera utilizes some spoken (rather than sung) dialogue, and includes "O what joy," a chorus sung by prisoners.
Fidelio (op. 72)
op. 68 (1802-08): this is a programmatic depiction of rural scenes; it is the composer's only truly programmatic symphony. The symphony's five movements, rather than the traditional four, each include a short title or description of their content: "Awakening of cheerful feelings upon arrival in the country" (I), "Scene at the brook" (II), "Happy gathering of country folks" (III), "Thunderstorm" (IV), and "Happy and thankful feelings after the storm" (V). In the score for the second movement, Beethoven explicitly identifies several woodwind motifs as being based on bird calls.
(Symphony No. 6 in F major) Pastoral
op. 55 (1803-04): this Symphony was composed during the first part of his middle stylistic period, often referred to as his "heroic decade." Beethoven may have been influenced in the work's composition by his personal confrontation with his growing deafness. The second movement is a solemn, C minor funeral march, while the finale is a playful set of variations on a melody Beethoven used in several other works. The composer originally intended to title the symphony "Bonaparte"
Eroica (Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major)
op. 125 (1822-24): it marks the first significant use of voices as part of a symphony, though they are only used in the final movement. The opening motif from the first movement reappears in altered form in a second movement scherzo, which itself is followed by a slow third movement that alternates between quadruple and triple time. The massive final movement, whose internal form closely resembles that of the entire symphony, utilizes both Friedrich Schiller's poem and original texts by Beethoven himself. A typical performance takes approximately 75 minutes; the fourth movement alone takes 25.
Choral (Symphony No. 9 in D minor)
op. 67 (1804-08): The iconic opening motif has become ubiquitous in popular culture, though the claim that it represents "fate knocking at the door" is an apocryphal invention. The work's third movement, a scherzo and trio in C minor, ends on a G major chord that proceeds directly into a C major final movement; that finale features one of the first orchestral uses (though not the first orchestral use) of trombones. Premiered as part of a concert that also included the premiere of the Sixth Symphony.
Symphony No. 5 (in C minor)
1937-1945: Japan invades; Manchukuo puppet state, Marco Polo Bridge Incident; Rape of Nanking; Limited allied support, with flying tigers.
Sino-Japanese War
Planned by Yamamoto; 4 US ships sunk on 12/7/1941; aircraft carriers were elsewhere.
(Attack on) Pearl Harbor
Immediately after Pearl Harbor, Japanese struck Luzon, forcing US to retreat to title peninsula. MacArthur vowed "I shall return" before evacuating to Australia. Wainwright took over but retreated to Corregidor and surrendered. US prisoners sent by Homma on a death march.
(Battle of) Bataan
Japan strikes at British Empire; sinks Prince of Wales; General Arthur Percival forced to surrender. Stunning loss; many Indian prisoners switched sides to fight for Japan. POWs labored in terrible conditions on the Siam-Burma railway (Bridge over the River Kwai)
(Fall of) Singapore
(5/42) Japan prevented from invading Port Moresby; Frank Jack Fletcher damaged two aircraft carriers and lost one (the Lexington). First naval battle fought entirely by aircraft.
(Battle of the) Coral Sea
(6/42) Turning point of WWII in the Pacific. Yamamoto launched attacks here and in the Aleutian Islands but US had broken the code and were forewarned. Admiral Chester Nimitz lost the carrier Yorktown, but US took 4 carriers; Japan crippled for rest of the war.
(Battle of) Midway
(9/42 to 2/43) First allied counteroffensive in the Pacific; "operation watchtower" because US targeted island in the Solomons to secure communications. Henderson Field and Edson's Ridge. Battle of Savo Island, "Tokyo Express"
Guadalcanal (campaign)
(10/44) Fulfilled MacArthur's Bataan promise; one of the largest naval battles in world history. US Admiral "Bull" Halsey criticized for poor coordination. Japan desperate enough to use Kamikaze.
(Battle of) Leyte Gulf
(2-3/45) Island between Marianas and Honshu. Defended by Kuribayashi and a system of tunnels. US stormed the island and sustained 1000s of casualties; Joe Rosenthal's famous photo on Mt. Suribachi.
(Battle of) Iwo Jima
(4-6/45) Operation Iceberg, last major ground battle in Pacific. Kakazu Ridge and Shuri Castle. High point of Kamikaze (1500+) and heavy casualties on both sides led US to use atomic weapons instead of launching Operation Downfall.
(Battle of) Okinawa
(c. 1466-1520) one of the last Aztec rulers. Allowed Cortes to enter Tenochtitlan. Imprisoned within his own palace. Pedro de Alvarado killed people; Aztecs named a new ruler, Cuitlahuac; Spanish fled during Noche Triste, because many conquistadors died crossing the causeways that connected island city to Texcoco shores. Aided by smallpox and Tlaxcalan allies, Cortes conquered the capital and captured Cuauhtemoc, the final Aztec emperor.
Montezuma II
(1753-1811) Priest who became leader of Mexico's first independence movement. Napoleon ousted Ferdinand VII of Spain; he issued a call for revolt known as the "Grito de Dolores" in 9/16/1810. Rebels unable to take Mexico City, and he was executed by colonial regime. Date still celebrated as independence day.
Miguel Hidalgo
(1783-1824) Royalist general who changed allegiance to become first ruler of independent Mexico. Reached out to insurgent Vicente Guerrero and offered legal racial equality in exchange for military support. In 1821, released Plan of Iguala, ("Plan of Three Guarantees"), which called for Mexican independence, a wholly Catholic state, and equality of all races. His Army of the Three Guarantees forced O'Donoju, the last viceroy of New Spain, to acknowledge Mexican independence in Treaty of Cordoba. In 1822, became first emperor of Mexico, but revolt led by Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna forced him into exile in 1823.
Agustin de Iturbide
(1794-1876) General who served as president of Mexico 11 different times between 1833 and 1855. Held elaborate funeral for the leg that he lost during the "Pastry War" with France. Unable to prevent loss of northern territories. Despite success at Alamo, defeated by Sam Houston at 1836 battle of San Jacinto and force to see Texas independence. Over a decade later, seized control of government during Mexican-American War, but lost major battles at Cerro Gordo and Chapultepec.
(Antonio Lopez de) Santa Anna
(1806-1872) Liberal lawyer, first indigenous president of Mexico. Led opposition to French-backed empire of Maximilian von Habsburg. Key figure in Liberal movement that deposed Santa Anna, "La Reforma", and conservative backlash led to the War of the Reform. Napoleon III used Mexico's foreign debts as a pretense for invasion, the "French Intervention", which briefly imposed Austrian archduke Maximilian as Mexico's second emperor. Liberal troops captured and executed Maximilian on the Hill of the Bells in Queretaro. He returned to Mexico City and remained president until his death.
(Benito) Juarez
(1830-1915) Liberal general, long lasting dictatorship which led to Mexican Revolution. 1876 Plan of Tuxtepec; served as president continuously from 1884 to 1911. Skilled leader and politician, whose Cientificos opened Mexico to foreign investment and began industrialization. Creelman interview led Anti-Reelectionist forces of Francisco Madero torevolt in 1910, sparking uprisings that led to his resignation in the Treaty of Ciudad Juarez.
(Porfirio) Diaz
(1873-1913) Led the 1910 revolution against Porfirio Diaz and served as president from 1911 to 1913. Idealistic. Wrote book arguing against Diaz reelection and was arrested. Elected after ousting Diaz. Disliked by American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson, who encouraged Huerta to stage a coup, Ten Tragic Days. He forced to resign and was murdered.
(Francisco) Madero
(1859-1920) President from 1917 to 1920. After death of Madero, issued plan of Guadalupe and opposed Huerta. Supported by Generals including Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata (who had led the Convention forces during the Mexican Revolution). Huerta forced out; new liberal government which divided generals who had supported him. Very liberal, as in almost communist. One general, Obregon, ousted him.
(Venustiano) Carranza
(1895-1970) Another revolutionary general, president from 1934 to 1940. Worked to fulfill Constitution of 1917's promises of land reform and nationalization of key resources. After Carranza's death, Mexico was ruled by the "Sonoron dynasty" of Obregon and Calles, the latter founding PRI. Very popular liberal reforms including land reform and promotion of organized labor. His son Cuauhtemoc Cardenas challenged PRI control of politics in 1988 election; though he lost because of fraud, politic changes led Vicente Fox of PAN to be elected in 2000.
(Lazaro) Cardenas
Secretary of State from 1790-1793 under Washington
(Thomas) Jefferson
Secretary of State from 1825-1829 under John Quincy Adams. Helped negotiate the "corrupt bargain" that led JQA to win the house vote that decided the presidency (the only election in history to be decided by the House vote). His slave, Charlotte Dupuy sued for her freedom while he held this post, foreshadowing the Dred Scott case. He lost the presidential elections as a Whig candidate three times. Sen, Kentucky.
(Henry) Clay
Secretary of State from 1841-1843 under Harrison and Tyler; again form 1850-1852 under Fillmore. Negotiated the namesake treaty that defined the eastern border between the US and Canada. Sen, Massachusetts.
(Daniel) Webster
Secretary of State from 1861-1869 under Lincoln and Johnson. Helped end Atlantic slave trade in the Lyons-_____ treaty between the US and the UK.
(William) Seward
Secretary of State from 1898-1905 under McKinley and Roosevelt. Negotiated the 1898 Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish-America War; established the "open door policy" with China; negotiated treaty that established the Panama Canal Zone in 1903
(John) Jay
Secretary of State from 1905-1909 under Teddy Roosevelt. Won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1912. Moved the consular service into the civil service.
(Elihu) Root
Secretary of State from 1933-1944 under FDR. Known as the "Father of the United Nations", awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1945. Namesake note to Japan prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor, trying for force Japanese out of French Indochina, China, and Manchukuo in accordance with his predecessor's Stimson Doctrine.
(Cordell) Hull
Secretary of State from 1947-1949 under Truman. As general, oversaw the largest expansion of US military in history; namesake plan helped Europe recover after WWII from 1948 to 1952. President of American Red Cross.
(George) Marshall
Secretary of State from 1949-1953 under Truman. Developed policy of containment, designed to prevent the spread of communism. Created NATO in 1949. Autobiography Present at the Creation major source for Cold War historians
(Dean) Acheson
Secretary of State from 1973-1977 under Nixon and Ford. Held SALT1 talks; pursued detente to deescalate the Cold war. Instrumental in opening relations between the US and China in 1972. Won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1973 for negotiation of Paris Peace Accords and ceasefires ending the Vietnam War. "Shuttle diplomacy" to settle the Yom Kippur War among Egypt, Syria, and Israel.
(Henry) Kissinger
(1898-1937) "Concerto in F", "Cuban Overture"; two songs "Embraceable You" and "I Got Rhythm" appeared in his Broadway musical Girl Crazy (1930). His opera featured an entirely African-American cast and the song "It Ain't Necessarily So." Brother often composed the lyrics for his vocal works.
(George) Gershwin
(1900-1990) Studied in Paris with Nadia Boulanger; Symphany No. 1 (1928); "El Salon Mexico". Opera "The Tender Land" (1954) included the chorus "The Promise of Living"
(Aaron) Copland
(1918-1990) Gave numerous televised "Young People's concerts" during his 11 years as director of NY Philharmonic. Symphony No. 1 "Jeremiah"; jazz clarinet concerto "Prelude, Fugue, and Riffs" (1949) premiered by Benny Goodman. Ballet Fancy Free, operetta Candide. Composed the score for On the Waterfront (1954)
(Leonard) Bernstein
(1874-1951) Austrian; taught Berg and Webern; atonal music; klangfarbenmelodie; Five Pieces for Orchestra (1909)
(Arnold) Schoenberg
(1937-present) Portrait Operas like Satyagraha (1979) and Akhnaten (1983). Sofelege syllables and numbers instead of standard libretto. "Strung Out" , "Music in Fifths". Composed film scores for The Truman Show, The Hours, and Notes on a Scandal
(Philip) Glass
(1910-1981) ballet score Cave of the Heart; "Dover Beach"; "Knoxville: Summer of 1915"; Romantic relationship with Gian-Carlo Menotti. First opera Vanessa won the Pulitzer; second, Antony and Cleopatra, was a flop
(Samuel) Barber
(1874-1954) worked in the insurance industry; "Concord" sonata depicts for leading figures of transcendentalist movement. "The Camp Meeting", "The Unanswered Question"
(Charles) Ives
(1947-present) "On the Transmigration of Souls" (2002) to memorialize the 9/11 attacks. Also Harmonium; Shaker Loops
(John) Adams
(1930-present) lyricist for West Side Story; musicals for which he was both lyricist and composer include Company, Sweeney Todd, Into the Woods, and Sunday in the Park with George
(Stephen) Sondheim
(1797-1851) Her most famous work features Henry Clerval and the titular swiss scientist Victor
(Mary) Shelley
(1828-1905) One of his works features Professor Lidenbrock and the Italian volcano Stromboli. Another work is narrated by Pierre Aronnax.
(Jules) Verne
(1866-1946) One of his works features two futuristic races, the Eloi and the Morlocks. In another, a spaceship lands in Surrey and invaders use "Tripods" and "Black Smoke". Another features shipwrecked Edward Prendick on an island with a crazed vivisectionist, and another centers on a physics student named Griffin.
(HG) Wells
(1894-1963) One work features the "Bokanovsky's Process", immersive entertainment known as feelies; features John the Savage, Lenina Crowne, Bernard Marx, Helmholtz Watson, and World Controller Mustapha Mond.
(Aldous) Huxley
(1902-1950) Wrote novel Burmese Days, the Road to Wigan Pier, and the essay "Politics and the English Language".
(George) Orwell
(1920-1992) Along with Heinlein and Clarke, one of the Big Three. Stories like "Nightfall" and "Robbie". Character Hari Seldon, psychohistorian. Other novels: The Caves of Steel, Pebble in the Sky, The Stars, Like Dust
(Isaac) Asimov
(1920-2012) Some novels set in Green Town Illinois, like Dandelion Wine. Character in The Illustrated Man has tattoos that foretell the future. His most famous includes characters Clarisse Mclellan, wife Mildred, and Fire Captain Beatty
(Ray) Bradbury
(1922-2007) Most famous work features character Montana Wildhack, Eliot Rosewater, and the wealthy Rumfoord family. Another features the creation of scientist Felix Hoenikker and a prophet who lives on San Lorenzo.
(Kurt) Vonnegut
(1939-present) Famous work features Republic of Gilead and is narrated by Offred. Also wrote The Robber Bride, Alias Grace, The Blind Assassin, and a trilogy with The Year of the Flood and MaddAddam. Retold the Odyssey from a female point of view in the Penelopiad.
(Margaret) Atwood
(1952-2001) Wrote The Meaning of Liff and novels about Dirk Gently (eg, Long Dark Tea-Time of the Soul). Authorized sequel to his works "And Another Thing..." written by Eoin Colfer of Artemis Fowl fame. Famous works feature aliens Vogons, Ford Prefect, spaceship Heart of Gold, paranoid android Marvin, two-headed galactic president Zaphod Beelebrox, and the scientist Trillian.
(Douglas) Adams
(1939-present) Famous work features Republic of Gilead and is narrated by Offred. Also wrote The Robber Bride, Alias Grace, The Blind Assassin, and a trilogy with The Year of the Flood and MaddAddam. Retold the Odyssey from a female point of view in the Penelopiad.
(Margaret) Atwood
Play with Brekekekex, ko-ax, ko-ax. Centers on Dionysius who goes to the underworld with his much smarter slave Xanthias to bring Euripides back form the dead. Aeschylus comes back instead.
The Frogs
Play with Tereus turned into a hoopoe; convinced by Peisthetaerus to build a city in the sky and act like gods. Build Nephelokokkygia, or "Cloudcuckooland".
The Birds
Play making fun of Socrates; protagonist Strepsiades and his horse-obsessed son Pheidippides. Dad wants son to enter the Phrontisterion or "thinkery". Learns to justify beating up his father with the skills he learns.
The Clouds
Play whose title character is an Athenian woman who decides to end the Peloponnesian War by assembling women from all around Greece and persuading them to not have sex until the men stop fighting. Girl called Diallage, or Reconciliation, helps finally bring peace.
Play coming before the events in Antigone, but by a different playwright. Polyneices and Eteocles agreed to rule Thebes together before Polyneices seized the throne. He brings six captains to besiege the city , and he and his brother kill each other in battle. Aeschylus
Seven Against Thebes
Play depicting vengeance against Jason as he prepares to marry Glauce; poisoned robes are used to kill her, and she kills her sons she had by Jason as well. She drives a chariot pulled by dragons. Ending example of deus ex machina. Euripides.
Originally a four-play cycle, only Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers, and The Eumenides survive (Proteus was lost). Describe the murder of Agamemnon and Cassandra by his adulterous wife Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus, how these two were murdered by children Orestes and Electra, how the Furies pursue Orestes for matricide (in the Eumenides) and how Apollo and Athena acquit him. Retold in modern literature (Mourning Becomes Electra; The Flies).
(Russia, 1613-1917) Following the Time of Troubles; Michael co-ruled with his father Patriarch Filaret. Included Peter the Great (who defeated Sweden in the Great Norther War), Catherine the Great, and Alexander II (who freed the serfs). Ruled until Nicholas II's execution.
(Netherlands, 1544-present) Founded by William the Silent who led the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish (Habsburgs, Phillip II) during the 80 Years War. Resulted in Netherlands independence in 1648. Currently led by Willem-Alexander.
(Brandenburg, Prussia, Germany, and Romania) Began as Burgraves of Nuremburg, but eventually gained Margrave of Brandenburg, Duke and King of Prussia, Emperor of Germany, and King of Romania. Rulers included Frederick the Great (Enlightened ruler who established military might of Prussia) and Wilhelm II (Emperor of Germany during WWI).
(Holy Roman Empire, Austria-Hungary, Spain) Ruled much of central Europe from the Middle Ages to the end of WWI. First important king was Rudolf I, King of Germany and Duke of Austria in late 1200s. Notables include Charles V, Maria Theresa, and Franz Joseph
(England, 1154-1399) Name comes from Geoffrey V of Anjou's nickname (they are Angevins, but so are York and Lancaster); he married Matilda and his son Henry II Curtmantle was the first of this dynasty. Ended when Richard II was deposed in 1399.
(England, 1485-1603) Rose to power when Henry VII aligned with the Lancasters in the War of the Roses; became king following victory at Bosworth Field. Elizabeth I never married and led to the extinction of the house.
(England and Scotland) First was James I (James VI of Scotland) who commissioned namesake bible and survived the Gunpowder Plot. Charles I was beheaded following the English Civil War; Charles II restored after Cromwell Died. Last of the dynasty, Queen Anne, saw the Acts of Union passed, thus forming Great Britain.
(France, 987-1328) First monarch was Hugh, who was elected after death of Louis V. Notables include Philip II (3rd Crusade), Louis IX (Saint), and Philip IV (who expelled the Jews in 1306 and arrested the Knights Templar). Ended when Philip IV's sons failed to produce male heirs.
(France, 1328-1589) First king was Philip, whose reign saw begin the 100 Years War and the Black Death. Notables include Louis XI (who acquired Burgundy), Francis I (who began the French renaissance), and Henry III whose assassination in the French wars of Religion ended the dynasty
(France, 1589-1792) First king was Henry IV, victor in the War of the Three Henrys and whose Edict of Nantes guaranteed religious freedom. Almost ended when Louis XVI was beheaded during the Revolution, but following Napoleon's Fall, they briefly ruled France again until the July Revolution of 1830. Spain also mostly ruled by them since 1700.
(Portugal, 1442-1910) Branch of house of Aviz and thus ultimately of Burgundy. First ruler was King John/Afonso I. Final ruler was Manuel II.
(France, Portugal, 1030-1361) Branch of Capetian dynasty.
(France, c 751-c 888 ) Led up to by the Pippinids and the Arnulfings, it began in 751 when the Merovingians were denied by the Papacy and Pepin the Short was crowned King of the Franks. His father, Charles Martel, had defeated the Umayyads at the Battle of Tours, paving the way. After Charlemagne and the Treaty of Verdun, the dynasty was split between grandsons Lothair I (HRE, Middle Francia), Charles the Bald (West Francia), and Louis the German (East Francia).
(France, c. 450 - 751 ) Founded by Childeric I whose famous son Clovis I united all of Gaul under their rule. Sometimes referred to as the "long-haired kings" because most Franks wore their hair short.
(Germany, UK, 1635-1901) Succeeded Stuarts in Great Britain and ruled their from 1714-1901, from George I to Victoria.
(Germany, 1079-1268) Three members, Frederick I (Barbarossa), Henry VI, and Frederick II crowned HRE. Diminished the significance of the German tribes in Saxony, Lorraine, Franconia, Bavaria, and Swabia. Ruled Sicily and Italy as well.
(Poland, Lithuania, Hungary/Bohemia; 1386-1572) Began with union of Poland and Lithuania. Saw beginnings of the Polish Golden Age/Renaissance with Kings Sigismund I and II.
(England, 1362-1471) Founded by John of Gaunt and ended by Henry VI's murder in the tower, and later by Henry Tudor's accession to the throne. Founded Eton College and Kings College Cambridge
(Russia, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Greece, Iceland; 1448-1918) Rose to prominence when Count Christian I was elected King of Denmark in 1448. Norway in 1450, and Sweden in 1457 (Kalmar Union). Schleswig-Holstein, Tsar Nicholas II.
(Russia, Ukraine, Belarus 1199-1598) Varangian's known as the Rus established around Novgorod in 862. Ruled until 1598 and the Time of Troubles. Includes all the Ivans and Boris Godunov up until Feodor II
(Northern Italy, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Spain, Ethiopia, Croatia, Albania, 1003-1946) Grew from small kingdom in Italy to (a cadet branch) overseeing the Unification in 1861 and ruling up through WWII. Kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II.
(Germany, UK, Belgium, Portugal, Bulgaria, 1826-1918) Started with Ernest. Prince Albert
Saxe-Coburg (and) Gotha
(Sweden, Poland-Lithuania, Russia; 1523-1688) founded by King Gustav I in 1523 in Sweden after abolition of the Kalmar Union. Also Charles IX and Gustavus Adolphus.
(Germany, Kalmar Union, Bavaria, Greece; c 1000-1918 ) German dynasty from Bavaria; Ruperts and Rudolfs. Founded by Otto I. Charles X of Sweden.
(England, 1385-1499) Three kings of England, descended from Edmund of Langley. Edward IV, Edward V, Richard III. Lost the War of the Roses.
The quintessential antihero, Richard describes how his hunchbacked appearance has made him "determined to prove a villain" in a monologue that begins "now is the winter of our discontent / made glorious summer by this son of York." In the aftermath of a Yorkist victory in the Wars of the Roses, Richard plots against his brothers King Edward IV and George, Duke of Clarence, and causes Edward to imprison Clarence in the Tower of London. Assassins sent by Richard later kill Clarence, who is drowned in a "malmsey-butt," or cask of wine. Richard also marries and kills the Lady Anne, and orders the deaths of Edward's children (the "princes in the tower"). Although Richard becomes king, he soon faces a rebellion led by Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond. On the eve of a battle at Bosworth Field, Richard is haunted by the ghosts of those he wronged. The battle turns against Richard (who cries "a horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse!"), and Richmond is crowned as King Henry VII of England.
Richard (Duke of Gloucester, from Richard III)
Though Macbeth is the play's protagonist, his pursuit of the Scottish throne is largely driven by his wife's ambition. After three witches predict that Macbeth will be king, Lady Macbeth fears that her husband is "too full 'o the milk of human kindness" to commit murder, and bids "spirits" to "unsex" her and imbue her with willpower. She insults Macbeth's masculinity, and urges him to "screw [his] courage to the sticking-place" and kill King Duncan. When Macbeth is unable to frame two grooms for the murder, Lady Macbeth does so in his place. Later, Lady Macbeth is wracked with guilt for her actions. While sleepwalking, she tries to wash imaginary blood from her hands, and cries "out, damned spot!" In the final act, the news of her death prompts Macbeth to deliver the "tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow" soliloquy.
Lady Macbeth
Iago is the "ancient," or standard-bearer, of the general Othello, and is passed over for a promotion to lieutenant in favor of the less-experienced Michael Cassio. In addition, Iago believes that his wife, Emilia, may have cheated on him with Othello. Consequently, Iago vows revenge. At the start of the play, Iago and his associate Roderigo alert the Venetian senator Brabantio that Brabantio's daughter, Desdemona, has eloped with Othello. After Desdemona testifies that she married Othello willingly, the Duke of Venice places Othello in charge of defending Cyprus. On the island, Iago ingratiates himself with Othello, and deceitfully warns the general against the "green-eyed monster" of jealousy. Iago then places Desdemona's handkerchief in Cassio's room, causing Othello to believe that Desdemona and Cassio are having an affair. Once Othello has murdered Desdemona, Emilia exposes Iago's plot. Before killing himself, Othello stabs Iago, who survives to be arrested by Cassio.
Tybalt is a hot-headed member of the Capulet family who is the beloved cousin of Juliet. During the public brawl that begins the play, Tybalt provokes the peaceful Benvolio. At a ball given by the Capulets, Tybalt recognizes the disguised Romeo and calls for a sword, but is prevented from fighting by Lord Capulet. Tybalt then demands a duel with Romeo, who does not wish to fight one of Juliet's kinsmen. Romeo's friend Mercutio is shocked by this "vile submission," and calls Tybalt "king of cats" while challenging him to a duel. (Tybalt shares his name with a feline character from medieval fables about Reynard the Fox.) Romeo tries to intervene in the duel, which allows Tybalt to kill Mercutio. Romeo then kills Tybalt, and is banished from Verona
efore the start of the play, Claudius became the ruler of Denmark by pouring poison into the ear of his sleeping brother, King Hamlet. Claudius then married Gertrude, King Hamlet's widow. In the play's first act, Prince Hamlet learns of his uncle's treachery by speaking to King Hamlet's ghost. Hamlet then arranges for a troupe of actors to perform a play titled The Murder of Gonzago, which Hamlet revises to increase the similarities to his father's death. Claudius is disturbed by the performance, and storms out during the murder scene. Later, Claudius prays for forgiveness, causing Hamlet to delay killing him out of fear that Claudius's soul would go to heaven. As Hamlet feigns madness, Claudius sends him to England with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who unknowingly carry a letter calling for Hamlet's execution. After Hamlet escapes and returns to Denmark, Claudius arranges for Hamlet to fight a duel with Laertes, who seeks revenge for the death of his father, Polonius, and sister, Ophelia. Laertes uses a poison-tipped sword, and Claudius prepares a poisoned drink as a back-up. When Laertes falls in combat he reveals the plot, prompting Hamlet to stab Claudius with the poisoned sword, and make Claudius drink from the poisoned cup.
Regan and Goneril are the elderly King Lear's two evil daughters. After Lear bequeaths his kingdom to them, they conspire to undermine Lear's remaining power and defeat Cordelia, Lear's sole loyal daughter. Angered by the treatment that he has received from his heirs, Lear leaves Regan's home in the middle of a thunderstorm. Gloucester, who desires Lear's reinstatement, aids Cordelia's invading army; he is exposed, and Regan and Cornwall gouge Gloucester's eyes out. While Albany and Cornwall arrange their armies to fight Cordelia, Regan and Goneril both romantically pursue the villainous Edmund. This love triangle results in Goneril killing Regan with poison. Goneril also tries to have Albany killed, but commits suicide when the plot is exposed. Cordelia is captured and executed, and Lear dies of grief soon afterward, leaving the redeemed Albany and Edmund's half-brother Edgar to take charge of the realm.
Regan (and the Duke of Cornwall) and Goneril (and the Duke of Albany)
Caliban is the son of the Algerian witch Sycorax, who once ruled the island where Caliban was born. After Sycorax died the island fell under the control of the magician Prospero, an exiled duke of Milan. Prospero taught the young Caliban language, and showed kindness to him, until Caliban tried to rape Prospero's daughter Miranda. In response, Prospero enslaved Caliban, and began treating him as a subhuman creature. (Caliban's exact nature is unknown, but he seems to be physically distinct from the other characters in the play. At various points, Caliban is called a "monster," a "demi-devil," a "strange fish," a "thing of darkness," a "moon-calf," and a "freckled whelp" who lacks a "human shape.") When the play begins, Caliban longs to overthrow Prospero but still fears Prospero's magic, which is stronger than that of Caliban's god, Setebos. Trinculo and Stephano, two drunkards who are shipwrecked and separated from the rest of their crew, give Caliban liquor; Caliban then conspires with them to kill Prospero. When the group hears music played by the spirit Ariel, Caliban delivers a speech beginning "Be not afeard, the isle is full of noises" that demonstrates sensitivity and loss. The plot to unseat Prospero quickly fails, and Caliban vows to be "wise hereafter." Unlike Ariel, Caliban is not freed at the end of the play.
Before the opening of the play, Frederick overthrew his brother, Duke Senior, and seized control of the court. There, Frederick harbors his brother's daughter Rosalind as a companion to his own daughter, Celia. When Frederick banishes Rosalind out of fear that she is plotting against him, Celia volunteers to go with her beloved cousin, and suggests that they reunite with Duke Senior in the Forest of Arden. At the same time, a young nobleman named Orlando flees to the Forest of Arden to escape his brother Oliver's mistreatment. Frederick suspects that Orlando is in the company of Celia and Rosalind, and seizes Oliver's lands until Orlando can be produced. After Oliver departs to search for his brother, Duke Frederick is not heard of again until the end of the play, when Oliver and Orlando's brother Jaques reports that Frederick suddenly repented of his crimes after meeting "an old religious man." Frederick relinquishes the crown to Duke Senior, and restores the property of Duke Senior's supporters.
Duke Frederick (from As You Like It)
Proteus begins the play as an innocent lover, but develops into the primary antagonist after he visits his friend Valentine in Milan, and becomes infatuated with Valentine's love, Silvia. Although Proteus has sworn that he will be faithful to a woman in Verona named Julia, he breaks his promise and tries to win Silvia for himself. To this end, Proteus betrays Valentine by telling Silvia's father, the duke, that Valentine and Silvia plan to elope. After the duke exiles Valentine, Silvia rejects Proteus because of his treachery towards his friend, and his unfaithfulness to Julia. When Silvia escapes to the woods to find Valentine, Proteus follows her and rescues her from outlaws. Silvia continues to reject Proteus, who threatens to rape her ("I'll force thee yield to my desire") before Valentine intervenes. Proteus repents, and Julia, who has been disguised as Proteus's male page, reveals herself. Proteus then reunites with Julia and resumes his friendship with Valentine, whom the duke permits to marry Silvia.
Proteus (from The Two Gentlemen of Verona)
Angelo is entrusted with the rule of Vienna by Duke Vicentio, who pretends to leave the city but actually remains present, disguised as "Friar Lodowick." Angelo enforces antiquated laws against fornication, resulting in Claudio's arrest and imminent execution. Claudio's sister, the novice nun Isabella, pleads for Claudio to be pardoned; Angelo agrees, but only if Isabella will have sex with him. After debate, Duke Vincentio proposes a "bed trick." Isabella pretends that she is willing to have sex with Angelo in absolute darkness and silence, which allows Mariana, a woman who was once betrothed to Angelo, to take Isabella's place. Although the plan works, and Angelo believes that he had sex with Isabella, he goes back on his word and orders Claudio's execution. This forces the duke to arrange a "head trick," in which the head of the pirate Ragozine is presented to Angelo, and Claudio's life is saved. Once the duke "returns" to Vienna, Isabella and Mariana petition him to right their wrongs. Angelo initially denies the charges brought against him, but confesses once he learns that the duke and Friar Lodowick are the same person. Angelo's life is spared for Mariana's sake, and the duke proposes marriage to Isabella.
Angelo (from Measure for Measure)
In addition to the main isotope (also called protium), there are two other significant isotopes of hydrogen: deuterium (2H or D), which has one neutron, and tritium (3H or T), which has two neutrons. It naturally exists as a diatomic gas (H2), which was discovered by British chemist Henry Cavendish. Hydrogen is highly flammable when exposed to high temperatures or electric current; a notable example of this was the Hindenburg disaster. It can react with nonmetals by losing an electron to form the H+ ion, or react with metals to form the hydride ion H-.
lightest noble gas and the second most abundant element in the Universe (after hydrogen). Discovered by Sir William Ramsey, Pierre Janssen, and Norman Lockyer, it has two stable isotopes, helium-3 and helium-4, with helium-4 by far the more common. Because of their different quantum properties (the helium-3 nucleus is a fermion, while the helium-4 nucleus is a boson), the isotopes of helium actually have significantly different physical properties. Helium-4 can exist in a zero-viscosity state known as superfluidity when its temperature drops below the lambda point. Helium has the lowest boiling point of any element; liquid helium is used for devices that need intense cooling, such as MRI machines. Most helium on Earth results from radioactive decay, since the helium nucleus is equivalent to an alpha particle.
by mass, the most common element in Earth's crust. It was discovered independently by Carl Scheele and Joseph Priestley; Priestley originally called it "dephlogisticated air." Oxygen normally exists in elemental form as a diatomic gas (O2), but it can also exist in a triatomic form, ozone (O3), which is known for its role in blocking UV rays in Earth's stratosphere. Diatomic oxygen is, despite having an even number of electrons, paramagnetic, meaning it has unpaired electrons. This points out a problem with traditional valence bond theories, which predict that oxygen should be diamagnetic; molecular orbital theory correctly explains this behavior. Because oxygen is easily capable of accepting electrons, reactions in which a species gives up electrons are known as oxidation reactions.
the most abundant element in Earth's atmosphere. Nitrogen, which was first isolated as "noxious air" by Daniel Rutherford, exists primarily as a diatomic molecule containing two triple-bonded nitrogen atoms (N2). Because nitrogen gas is extremely stable, N2 is unusable for many biological and chemical purposes. To make it useful, it often undergoes fixation to convert it into usable nitrogen species such as the ammonium ion (NH4+)—as it is by bacteria in the root nodules of legume plants—or ammonia gas (NH3), as is done industrially in the Haber-Bosch process. Conversely, its stability makes it useful in preventing unwanted combustion reactions. It also has a relatively low boiling point (-196°C), which makes liquid nitrogen useful as a refrigerant.
one of just two elements that is a liquid at standard temperature and pressure (the only other one is bromine). It has been known since antiquity, and is found in ores such as cinnabar. Older names for it, reflecting its liquid nature, include hydrargyrum (the source of its symbol) and quicksilver. Because it is a very dense liquid, it is commonly used in barometers to measure atmospheric pressure; the pressure exerted by the atmosphere equals the pressure exerted by a column containing 760 millimeters of mercury. Alloys of mercury with other metals are called amalgams, some of which have been used as dental fillings. Chronic exposure to mercury can cause psychological problems; its use in hatmaking led to the expression "mad as a hatter." More recently, concerns about mercury exposure have led to the banning of mercury in thermometers.
widely known in the ancient world, and is referred to in the Bible as brimstone. Its nature as an element was first recognized by Antoine Lavoisier. Its most stable allotrope is an eight-membered ring that exists as a yellow solid. It is most often isolated by injecting superheated steam into the ground in the Frasch process. As an element, it is used in the vulcanization process to cross-link the polymer strands of rubber to increase rubber's strength; similarly, sulfur-sulfur bonds hold many proteins together. Industrially, though, the majority of sulfur is used to make sulfuric acid, H2SO4 (in fact, sulfuric acid is the most widely produced chemical in the chemical industry). Sulfur compounds are noted for their strong and unpleasant odors; small quantities of hydrogen sulfide, H2S, are frequently added to natural gas, which is normally odorless, to help detect gas leaks.
most common metal in the Earth, and one of the major components of the core as well. Iron was known to the ancients; its atomic symbol Fe comes from the Latin name ferrum. Iron is the namesake of ferromagnetism; one of its ores is magnetite, Fe3O4, which contains iron in both of its most common oxidation states, 2+ and 3+. Iron(II) sulfide, FeS2, is formally known as pyrite, but because of its appearance has long been known as fool's gold. Iron can react with oxygen in the air to form iron(III) oxide, Fe2O3, in a relatively slow but exothermic process; this process is used in "all-day" heat patches. Hydrated iron(III) oxide is better known as rust; rust only forms when iron is exposed to both oxygen and water. Its isotope 56 is "doubly magic" in that its nucleus has 28 protons and 28 neutrons; 28 is a magic number that carries special stability. As a result, iron-56 is one of the most stable of all nuclei, and it is the heaviest nucleus that is normally produced during stellar nucleosynthesis. The largest use of iron is in steel.
fourth most abundant element in the Universe. It has three major isotopes: isotope 12, which is stable; isotope 13, which is used in NMR spectroscopy; and isotope 14, which is radioactive and is the basis of carbon dating. Carbon's ability to form four chemical bonds means that it has many different allotropes. The best-characterized natural isotopes are diamond, which consists of a tetrahedral network of carbon atoms, and graphite, which consists of planes of carbon atoms arranged in hexagons. Fullerenes such as buckyballs and carbon nanotubes, on the other hand, are generally produced synthetically; buckyballs are roughly spherical. More recently, graphene, which is a single layer of atoms shaped like graphite, has proven to have remarkable properties; for example, it is nearly transparent while being about 200 times stronger than an equivalent mass of steel.
the most common metal in Earth's crust, and the first metal in the p block of elements. First isolated by Hans Christian Oersted, its primary ore is bauxite, from which it is refined using large amounts of electric current, via electrolysis, through the Bayer and Hall-Héroult processes. (Because aluminum exists only in a +3 oxidation state, it takes three moles of electrons to produce one mole of aluminum; as a result, it has been estimated that 5% of all electricity in the U.S. goes to purifying aluminum.) It is found in the mineral corundum, which is found in many gems, including sapphires and rubies; the specific impurities found in a gem determine its color. It is also found in aluminosilicates such as feldspar.
known to the ancients as a relatively inert metal. Its atomic symbol Au comes from its Latin name, aurum. It is resistant to attack by most acids, but it (along with platinum) will dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Among all metals, it has the highest electronegativity and electron affinity; it occasionally is found in a -1 oxidation state as Au-. Widely used in jewelry, it also has a number of scientific uses. Ernest Rutherford's gold foil experiment demonstrated the existence of a positively charged nucleus. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) often requires that specimens be "sputtered," or thinly coated, with gold atoms to allow imaging. Suspensions of gold compounds have been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.
began his feud with Alexander Hamilton while serving as Secretary of State even though his office had no bearing on Hamilton's Treasury. He founded the Democratic-Republicans. He resigned his post after failing to secure from the British compensation for released slaves, withdrawal from garrisons in the Northwest Territory, and admission of violating the terms of the Treaty of Paris that ended the Revolution. Secretary of State from 1790 to 1793 under Washington.
(Thomas) Jefferson
Secretary of State (1825-1829) under John Quincy Adams; helped negotiate the "corrupt bargain" that led to John Quincy Adams winning the House vote that decided the presidency in 1824 and led to his appointment as Secretary of State. While serving in that post his slave, Charlotte Dupuy, sued for her freedom in a move that foreshadowed the Dred Scott case. He lost presidential elections as a Whig candidate three times prior to his involvement in the Compromise of 1850.
(Henry) Clay
Secretary of State (1841-1843) under Harrison and Tyler; (1850-1852) under Fillmore; negotiated the Webster-Ashburton treaty that defined the border between Maine and New Brunswick (the Eastern border) and left his post in 1843 under pressure from Whigs, who had resigned in protest from Tyler's cabinet over the issue of the national bank. In his second term, he upheld the Compromise of 1850; that compromise cost him popularity with his fellow New Englanders.
(Daniel) Webster
Secretary of State (1861-1869) under Lincoln and Johnson; wanted to resign prior to Lincoln's inauguration, but the request was denied. Prior to the purchase of Alaska (Seward's Folly), he helped set the conditions that ended the Atlantic slave trade in the Lyons-Seward treaty between the US and UK. He survived an assassination attempt the night Lincoln was shot. The purchase of Alaska was completed on March 30, 1867 for close to two cents an acre from Russia.
(William) Seward
Secretary of State (1898-1905) under McKinley and Roosevelt; negotiated the 1898 Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish-American War and established the "open door policy" with China. He also served as Lincoln's personal secretary while working as a clerk in the Interior Department. He negotiated the Hay-Bunau-Varilla treated that established the Panama Canal Zone in 1903.
(John) Hay
Secretary of State (1905-1909) under T. Roosevelt. Succeeding Hay after his death, he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1912 for attempting to bring nations together for arbitration and cooperative agreements. During his tenure, he moved the consular service under the umbrella of the civil service. His negotiations with Great Britain settled border disputes regarding Alaska and Canada, and he was a proponent of free trade policies with China that Hay established.
(Elihu) Root
Secretary of State (1933-1944) under FDR. Known as "Father of the United Nations," He was a Nobel Peace Prize recipient in 1945 for his work in founding that organization. He sent a namesake note to Japan prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor making a futile attempt to force the Japanese out of French Indochina, China, and Manchukuo, in accordance with his predecessor's Stimson Doctrine.
(Cordell) Hull
Secretary of State (1947-1949) under Truman. As a general, he oversaw the largest expansion of the U.S. military in its history and wrote the central strategy for the Allies in Europe. After he left his post, he was president of the American Red Cross. He correctly predicted that Israel's declaration of statehood would lead to war and attempted to mediate the Chinese Civil War.
(George) Marshall
Secretary of State (1949-1953) under Truman. The successor to Marshall, he is known primarily for developing the policy of containment — designed to prevent the spread of Communism — and the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949. His autobiography Present at the Creation is a major source for Cold War historians.
(Dean) Acheson
Secretary of State (1973-1977) under Nixon and Ford; held the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks that resulted in SALT I with the Soviet Union and pursued the "détente" policy to de-escalate the Cold War. He was instrumental in opening relations between the United States and China in 1972. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1973 for the negotiation of Paris Peace Accords and ceasefires that ended the Vietnam War. Kissinger used "shuttle diplomacy" to settle the Yom Kippur War among Egypt, Syria, and Israel.
(Henry) Kissinger
every single-variable polynomial, other than constants, has a root in the complex numbers, which means that if f(x) is a polynomial, then the equation f(x) = 0 has at least one solution where x is some complex number.
Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
there is no way to find a formula for the solutions of all quintic or higher-degree polynomials, if the formula must be based on the traditional operations (addition/subtraction, multiplication/division, and exponentiation/taking roots). That impossibility is the topic that began an area of study called Galois theory, which is part of abstract algebra.
Abel-Ruffini Theorem
(1894-1991) was the first dancer invited to perform at the White House. As a choreographer, she developed the "__________ technique" that creates dramatic tension through "contraction" and "release" of major muscles. Her first major success was her 1958 concert-length ballet Clytemnestra, one of four collaborations with composer Halim Ed-Dabh. She performed the title role in Clytemnestra with her namesake dance company, whose dancers included Merce Cunningham and her husband, Erick Hawkins, both of whom went on to become choreographers in their own right. Hawkins danced the male lead in Appalachian Spring, a ballet with "an American theme" that Graham commissioned from Aaron Copland.
Martha Graham
(1880-1942) was accepted to the Imperial Ballet School in St. Petersburg, Russia, at age 9, eventually becoming a teacher there. He choreographed a four-minute ballet for Anna Pavlova called The Dying Swan, set to "The Swan" from The Carnival of the Animals (the title comes from a Tennyson poem entitled "The Dying Swan"). He mentored Vaslav Nijinsky (see below) and featured him in early works like Les Sylphides, a ballet based on the music of Frédéric Chopin. After Sergei Diaghilev (see below) hired Fokine to work for the Ballets Russes in Paris, ______ showcased Nijinsky's talents in several ballets based on the work of famous composers, such as Scheherazade, The Firebird, Petrushka, Daphnis et Chloé, and The Spirit of the Rose. However, once Nijinsky turned to choreography _________ quit the Ballets Russes, only returning after Nijinsky's dismissal.
Michel Fokine
(1927-1987) came to prominence in the 1953 film Kiss Me Kate. While he and dance partner Carol Haney only had small roles, the dance that Fosse choreographed for them in the number "From This Moment On" launched his career. His unique style, featuring turned-in knees, rolled shoulders, sideways movement, and "jazz hands," found its greatest expression on Broadway, where he choreographed the musicals The Pajama Game, Damn Yankees, Redhead, Sweet Charity, Pippin, and Chicago. Many of his works featured his wife Gwen Verdon, who won four Tonys under his choreography or direction. Fosse also directed the films Cabaret and All That Jazz, winning an Oscar for Cabaret. Many commentators have described his cameo as The Snake in a 1974 film adaptation of The Little Prince as a forerunner to the dance style of Michael Jackson.
Bob Fosse
(1918-1998) is probably best known for his work with Leonard Bernstein. He broke through as a choreographer with an experimental ballet about three sailors on leave in New York City, Fancy Free, which he then helped rework into the hit 1944 musical On the Town. Known for being temperamental and difficult to work with, he conceived, choreographed, and directed the 1957 original production of West Side Story and won an Oscar for co-directing the 1961 film version (despite quitting early in the process due to creative differences). He also choreographed and directed the original production of Fiddler on the Roof. He acted as an uncredited "show doctor," rescuing several floundering Broadway shows, including A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum and Funny Girl.
Jerome Robbins
(1904-1983) trained in his native Georgia and Russia and briefly worked with Diaghilev at the Ballets Russes in Paris before being invited by impresario Lincoln Kirstein to the United States, where the two co-founded the New York City Ballet (NYCB) and its associated School of American Ballet. As artistic director of NYCB, Balanchine began the tradition of annually staging The Nutcracker at Christmas. One of his four wives—all dancers—was the company's first major star, Native American prima ballerina Maria Tallchief. He collaborated with composer Igor Stravinsky and visual artist Isamu Noguchi on the 30-minute ballet Orpheus.
George Balanchine
(1889-1950) was known as the greatest male dancer of his era, but what he really wanted to do was choreograph. His boss at the Ballets Russes, Sergei Diaghilev, gave him the opportunity in 1912 with The Afternoon of a Faun, set to the music of Debussy, and a year later a riot broke out at the premiere of another ballet he choreographed, his choreography of Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring. (The exact cause of the riot is unclear.) In 1919 Nijinsky was diagnosed with schizophrenia. He never danced again in public, and spent much of the rest of his life in various asylums and institutions.
Vaslav Nijinsky
(1931-1989) was a pioneering African-American choreographer. He originally danced in the Horton Dance Company run by his mentor Lester Horton. After Horton's unexpected death in 1953, Ailey took over as its artistic director. In 1958 he formed Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater in New York City. His best-known work, Revelations, was based on his upbringing in Texas and is divided into three parts titled "Pilgrim of Sorrow," "Take Me to the Water," and "Move Members, Move." "Move Members, Move" emphasizes gospel music, including the traditional spiritual "Sinner Man," and concludes with the number "Rocka My Soul in the Bosom of Abraham," which recreates a joyous church service.
Alvin Ailey
(1631-1705) taught dance to French King Louis XIV at Versailles for over two decades. An early director of the Western world's first dance institution, the Académie Royale de Danse, he collaborated extensively with Molière's acting company and composer Jean-Baptiste Lully. He is often credited with codifying the five basic feet positions in ballet. His system of dance notation, later revised by Raoul-Auger Feuillet and Pierre Rameau and today known as "Beauchamp-Feuillet notation," was used until the late 1700s.
Pierre Beauchamp
(1905-1993), niece of film director Cecil B. DeMille and granddaughter of economist Henry George, worked extensively with American Ballet Theater, but the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo commissioned her most famous work, Rodeo. That ballet, featuring music by Aaron Copland (possibly assisted by an uncredited Leonard Bernstein), details a love rectangle between characters known as American Cowgirl, Champion Roper, Head Wrangler, and Rancher's Daughter. Her other notable stage ballets include Three Virgins and a Devil and Fall River Legend (based on the life of Lizzie Borden). De Mille also found success in musical theater, creating a revolutionary "dream ballet" for Rodgers and Hammerstein's Oklahoma!.
Agnes de Mille
(1941-present) made her mark in the mid-1970s with the "crossover ballets" Deuce Coupe (performed by the Joffrey Ballet to music by The Beach Boys) and Push Comes to Shove (starring Mikhail Baryshnikov), both marked by a fusion of diverse musical and dance styles. She found success on Broadway with the "jukebox musical" Movin' Out, set to the catalog of Billy Joel; she subsequently built musicals around the songs of Bob Dylan and Frank Sinatra. She created the children's ballet The Princess and the Goblin and collaborated with director Milos Forman on the Hollywood films Hair, Ragtime, and Amadeus.
Twyla Tharp
defended the revolutionary government with artillery fire during the coup of 13 Vendémiaire (October 1795) and was rewarded with command of the French forces in Italy, where his series of battlefield victories forced Austria to sign the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio.
Napoleon Bonaparte
(July 21, 1798, and August 1-3, Egypt) After his victory over Austria, Napoleon proposed crossing the Mediterranean and invading Egypt. While the stated goal of this expedition was to strike a blow against British trade with the Middle East and Asia, it also catered to Napoleon's fascination with antiquity. A team of scientists followed his military expedition, whose most lasting result was the discovery of the Rosetta Stone, unearthed by soldiers digging to construct a fort in the Nile delta. Napoleon supposedly cried "Soldiers, forty centuries look down upon you" at the 1798 Battle of the Pyramids, where his troops used modern artillery and large square formations to ward off a cavalry charge by the Egyptian Mamluks. French control of Egypt, however, was dependent on communications across the Mediterranean, which were interrupted by the Royal Navy's attack on the French fleet in Aboukir Bay in early August. British victory at the Nile forced Napoleon to abandon his army and return to France.
The Pyramids and The Nile
(June 14, 1800, northern Italy) The coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9, 1799) brought down France's existing government (the Directory) and made Napoleon himself "first consul," the effective leader of France. While Napoleon was absent in Egypt, a coalition of Austria, Russia, and Britain had pushed French troops back on all fronts. In 1800 Napoleon marched over the Alps to roll back Austrian gains in Italy. His troops, overextended in an attempt to relieve the Austrian siege of Genoa, were hit by an Austrian surprise attack on June 14, 1800. General Louis Desaix led a column of French reinforcements to Napoleon's aid; the additional troops drove off the Austrian army, but Desaix was shot and killed.
(October 21, 1805, coast of southwest Spain) In 1804 Napoleon abolished the consulate and became France's emperor. He faced an array of enemies who made up the "Third Coalition": the humiliated Austrians sought military aid from both Russia and Britain. France and Spain allied in the hope of challenging the Royal Navy and making it possible for Napoleon's armies to launch an invasion of Britain. This battle, fought in the Atlantic off the coast of Spain in the fall of 1805, was the last great naval battle of the Napoleonic era. A combined French and Spanish fleet under admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve was attacked by Royal Navy ships under Lord Horatio Nelson, Britain's greatest admiral. Just before the battle, Nelson's flagship, HMS Victory, flew the signal "England expects that every man will do his duty." Although Nelson was killed by a French sniper in the battle that followed, his ships captured half of the French fleet, including Admiral Villeneuve. French plans to invade Britain were postponed indefinitely.
(December 2, 1805, Czech Republic) Napoleon's Grand Army then struck east at Austria and Russia, the land-bound members of the Third Coalition. Napoleon's first move was to force the surrender of 30,000 Austrians under General Mack at Ulm. The French then turned east into the heart of Austria, where they seized Vienna and awaited counterattack by the Russians. At this battle on December 2, 1805, a mostly-Russian coalition army collided with the waiting French. (The Russians, led in person by Tsar Alexander I, were joined by the scattered remains of the Austrian army under Holy Roman Emperor Francis II. It is thus known as the "Battle of the Three Emperors.") The allies, planning to advance their left, abandoned the Pratzen Heights, a dominating hill in the center of the battlefield. Napoleon seized the heights, splitting the Russian army and then defeating each half in turn. The resulting Peace of Pressburg (December 26, 1805) ended the War of the Third Coalition and brought about the downfall of the Holy Roman Empire.
(October 14, 1806, Germany) In 1806 Napoleon turned his forces against Prussia. At the twin October battles, Napoleon and Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout worked together to smash a Prussian army led by the Duke of Brunswick, who was mortally wounded by Davout's troops near Auerstadt. The collapse of the Prussian army, widely considered the continent's most experienced and professional military force, shocked European observers. Napoleon felt that he had secured revenge for Frederick the Great's victory over France at Rossbach in the Seven Years' War (1757).
(July 22, 1812, Spain) While Napoleon struggled against Austrians, Russians, and Prussians on the plains of central and eastern Europe, a smaller but no less violent conflict was fought for control of Spain and Portugal. During this "Peninsular War" (1807-1814), the throne of Spain was claimed by Napoleon's older brother, Joseph Bonaparte. Spanish and Portuguese resistance (the first "guerrilla" warfare, from the Spanish for "little war") was supported by the landing of British troops under the command of the Duke of Wellington. Wellington's triumph over Marshal Auguste Marmont at this Battle in July 1812 was a decisive blow against the stability of Joseph's regime.
(September 7, 1812, Russia) n 1812 Napoleon assembled the largest army of his reign for the most ambitious military operation of the 19th century: a full-scale invasion of Russia. Russan Tsar Alexander I, despite losing to Napoleon in central Europe between 1805 and 1807, refused to agree to the "Continental System," the Napoleonic proposal for a Europe-wide embargo on British trade in manufactured goods. Napoleon's march on Moscow was slowed by Russian resistance here, where Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov's army was driven out of fortified redoubts after a day of destructive fighting. Although French forces were briefly able to seize control of Moscow, the subsequent retreat through the worst of the Russian winter ruined Napoleon's Grand Army.
(October 16-19, 1813, Germany) The following year the Russian army marched west into central Europe at the head of a "Sixth Coalition" that brought the previously defeated Austrians and Prussians back into hostilities against France. At Leipzig in central Germany coalition forces met a hastily-assembled replacement army raised by Napoleon after the disaster in Russia. More than 600,000 men fought in this four-day struggle, popularly known as the "Battle of the Nations" for the multi-ethnic nature of the coalition army. The forces of Saxony, one of the minor German states, switched sides during the Battle of Leipzig, leaving Napoleon's army to join the allies. The premature destruction of a bridge over the River Elster hindered Napoleon's retreat from here, the first in a series of military disasters that led to the emperor's forced abdication and exiled to the Mediterranean island of Elba in 1814.
(June 18, 1815, Belgium) Napoleon's escape from Elba began a period known as the "Hundred Days," in which the emperor briefly returned to the throne of France. The struggle between the restored emperor and the "Seventh Coalition" began when Napoleon's Army of the North marched into the Low Countries, hoping for a showdown with the British, Dutch, and Prussians before the Austrian and Russian armies gathering further east could come to their aid. The French brushed aside Allied advance guards at the two preliminary battles of Quatre Bras and Ligny on June 16. Napoleon's victory over the Prussians at Ligny led him to falsely believe that he had enough time to pursue and defeat the British without further Prussian interference. On June 18 Napoleon's advance on Brussels approached the crossroads of Mont St. Jean, where the Duke of Wellington had set up a defensive position for a combined army of British Peninsular War veterans, Dutch, and pro-British Germans. On the French left, British troops defended the walled farm of Hougoumont from a series of infantry assaults; in the center, Marshal Michel Ney's massed cavalry charge was broken by the square formations of the British infantry; on the right, Gebhard von Blücher's Prussian army arrived to attack the French army in the flank. Napoleon's final gamble was to commit his Imperial Guard to a renewed assault on the Allied center. The guardsmen were cut down by the fire of British light infantry, leading to the general collapse of the French army. Napoleon was exiled once more, this time to the isolated South Atlantic island of St. Helena, where he died in 1821.
This man created Mario (first called "Jumpman" in the Donkey Kong games) and the Legend of Zelda (with villain Ganon)
Shigeru Miyamoto
The series is closely associated with composer Nobuo Uematsu, who created the soundtracks for the first nine games as well as part of the tenth; a particularly successful version was released in 1997, and characters have included Cecil Harvey (IX), Cloud Strife (VII) and Tidus (X)
Final Fantasy
The game features three playable races: Terrans (humans), Zerg (a single-minded collective of insect-like aliens), and Protoss (strong, humanoid aliens with psionic powers). The series's latest entry was split into three parts whose stories each focused on one of the three races. Major characters in the series include Jim Raynor, a Terran leader, and Sarah Kerrigan, a former Terran psychic corrupted by the Zerg.
This mission saw the first Moon landing and moonwalk by astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin (astronaut Michael Collins piloted the Command Module in lunar orbit and never walked on the moon). After the Lunar Module landed in the Sea of Tranquility, Armstrong said, "Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed." Later stepping onto the lunar surface, he said, "That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind." According to Chris Kraft, NASA officials chose Armstrong as the first to walk on the Moon because he was more humble than Aldrin, and because he was the Commander. However, the stated reason was that Armstrong's seat was closer to the door.
Apollo 11
These missions transported the first human and the first woman into space (respectively, Yuri Gagarin and Valentina Tereshkova). Gagarin's April 12, 1961 flight is still celebrated as Yuri's Night.. Gagarin completed a single orbit around Earth before re-entering and parachuting out of his capsule.

The latter was largely uneventful, though Tereshkova did note minor physical pains and also could not reach the scientific experiments aboard.
Vostok 1 and Vostok 6
The first artificial satellite; the second of this name carried the dog Laika into low-earth orbit, but was destroyed upon re-entry
This space program had only two missions, and were superseded quickly by the Soyuz program. The spacecrafts made use of Sergei Korolev's designs. Korolev himself was preoccupied with the Moon race, again in a position of favor after the fall of Khrushchev (though Korolev died before the designs were used).

1 was the first flight to contain multiple astronauts, and 2 was the platform for the first EVA (extra-vehicular activity or "spacewalk"). Alexey Leonov, who conducted the spacewalk on 2, also participated in the later Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.
Voskhod (1 and 2)
supposed to land in the Fra Mauro region of the Moon. An improperly-refurbished No. 2 oxygen tank and subsequent improper repairs caused the tank to rupture during a routine "cryo-stir" before entering lunar orbit. The explosion also damaged the No. 1 oxygen tank and caused further leakage. To bring back the astronauts, the orbiter was put on a free-return trajectory around the Moon. NASA engineers also solved power-management, water-conservation, and trajectory planning problems with the help of Ken Mattingly, the primary Command Module pilot who had been grounded due to exposure to German measles. All three astronauts returned to Earth safely, and the landing site was re-assigned to the subsequent Apollo 14 mission.
Apollo 13
intended to be a test of the Command/Service Module in low-Earth orbit (LEO). However, a fire on the launchpad during a test killed the three astronauts aboard (Virgil "Gus" Grissom, Roger Chaffee, and Ed White). The fire was exacerbated by the pure-oxygen, positive-pressure environment inside the capsule, and the fact that the capsule door opened inward. Both of these design elements were scrapped in subsequent missions, and the second was replaced with an outward-opening hatch nominally to facilitate spacewalks. Lessons learned here were also taken into account during the design of the Space Shuttle.
Apollo 1
disaster was attributed by the Rogers Commission (the investigative body set up after the accident) to poor performance of the solid rocket booster (SRB) O-rings. The O-rings lost integrity and became brittle at low temperatures, such as those present on the morning of the launch. The failure of the O-rings caused "blow-by," where hot gasses escaped the booster joint, ultimately resulting in the destruction of Challenger. The Rogers Commission also cited both NASA and SRB contractor Morton Thiokol for a failure to redesign the SRB joint, known to be dangerous—manifestations of "go fever."
the disaster on STS-107 was due to a piece of foam from the external fuel tank hitting and breaching the left wing of the Orbiter during launch. The breach damaged the heat shielding, allowing hot gas to enter the Orbiter during re-entry. Ultimately, that damage caused the vehicle to disintegrate over Texas.

Along with the Challenge, this resulted in the complete loss of crew (seven crew were on each mission) and orbiters. Both modes of failure had been previously observed in earlier missions, but went un-fixed because those missions were successful.
a definite end to the Space Race, and was a symbol of the de-escalation of tensions between the US and the USSR. Deke Slayton, an original Mercury 7 astronaut grounded for medical reasons until 1973, was accompanied by Tom Stafford and Vance Brand on the last launch of Apollo before the advent of the Space Shuttle. The mission demonstrated that two dissimilar spacecraft could rendezvous and dock while in space (an Apollo Command Module and Soyuz 19 docked), and also enabled the crew of Soyuz to photograph the Sun's corona through an artificial eclipse created by the Apollo spacecraft. Each spacecraft also carried out independent experiments.
Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
(established 1828) became America's first third party by riding the tide of anti-Masonic sentiment following the 1826 disappearance of Freemason whistleblower William Morgan. For the 1832 election, the Anti-Masons selected William Wirt in the first presidential nominating convention in United States history. Running against eventual winner Andrew Jackson, a Democrat seeking re-election, and Henry Clay, a National Republican, Wirt managed to receive 8% of the popular vote and 7 electoral votes from Vermont. Vermont and Pennsylvania both elected Anti-Masons as governors, and Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont and other states all sent Anti-Masons to the U.S. House of Representatives.
Anti-Masonic Party
(established 1848) was created through a union of anti-slavery factions from the two major parties, the Barnburner Democrats and Conscience Whigs. Its platform, unlike that of James G. Birney's earlier Liberty Party (established 1840), did not aim to abolish slavery, but rather to cease its expansion. As a result, this party backed the Wilmot Proviso and opposed the Democratic Party on using popular sovereignty to decide slavery's status. In its first year, 1848, the party ended up with two Senators and fourteen Representatives in Congress. This party's presidential candidate Martin van Buren managed to capture 10% of the popular vote, and his influence may have secured Whig candidate Zachary Taylor's close victory over Democrat Lewis Cass.
Free Soil Party
(established 1843) formed from the anti-Catholic, anti-immigrant nativism of early America. Secret societies like the Order of the Star Spangled Banner had been sprouting up since the 1840s, but the Party was not a unified entity until the 1854 elections, when it won 52 of the 234 seats in the House, including the position of Speaker of the House. The 1856 presidential election was the first one for both this Party behind Millard Fillmore and the Republican Party behind John C. Frémont. Fillmore received 22% of the popular vote but only 8 electoral votes from Maryland; Frémont won 11 states with 33% of the popular vote. Strong Southern support, however, allowed Democrat James Buchanan an easy win.
American (or Know-Nothing) Party
(established 1891) had its roots in the same farmer-labor partnership that created the Greenback Party (established 1874). Opposed to the elites of the banking and railroad industries, the Populist movement promised agrarian and labor reform. Its first presidential candidate, James B. Weaver, captured 22 electoral votes from 6 western states with 8.5% of the vote in 1892 as Democrat Grover Cleveland won his rematch against Republican Benjamin Harrison. Also in the West, multiple Populist governors, Senators, and Representatives held power throughout the decade. The Populists nominated the same presidential candidate as the Democrats in 1896, William Jennings Bryan, because of his stance on a silver bi-metal currency, though the Populist vice-presidential candidate, party leader Thomas E. Watson, differed from the Democratic candidate. Bryan's failure to defeat Republican William McKinley spelled the decline of the People's Party.
The People's (or Populist) Party
(established 1901) is usually associated with Eugene V. Debs, the face of the American socialist movement at its peak. He ran for president five times from 1900 to 1920, and managed to increase his vote counts with each successive campaign. He attracted over 900,000 votes twice: in 1912 with 6% of the vote, almost making it a four-way race, and in 1920, when Debs famously ran his campaign while imprisoned. Starting in 1928, his successor, Norman Thomas, ran for president six consecutive times, though the party was not quite able to replicate Debs's success.
Socialist Party
(established 1912) created after he was unable to reclaim the Republican nomination from his former ally William Howard Taft. Roosevelt pitted his platform of New Nationalism, which promised reforms inspired by the Progressive movement, against Democrat Woodrow Wilson's more conservative New Freedom. In the most successful American third party campaign ever, Roosevelt's 27% was still only enough to win 6 states; the split of the Republican voter base between him and Taft ensured a dominant victory for Democrat Woodrow Wilson despite only receiving 42% of the vote.
Bull Moose (or Progressive) Party
(established 1948) founded by Southern Democrats to oppose president Truman's re-election bid, in response to his actions advancing civil rights. When Truman was nominated by the Democrats in 1948, members from the South stormed out of the convention, creating a further divide within the party. With South Carolina governor Strom Thurmond as its candidate, the Dixiecrats, while receiving the same amount of votes as Henry Wallace, won 39 electoral votes from 4 Southern states. Though it was a temporary split, the issue of civil rights did not disappear.
States' Rights (or Dixiecrat) Party
(established 1919) notable mainly for attempts to outlaw it, such as the 1940 Smith Act which criminalized organizations advocating the violent overthrow of the government, the Communist Control Act of 1954, and the inquiries of the House Un-American Activities Committee and Senators Richard Nixon and Joseph McCarthy. Though the 1951 Supreme Court case of Dennis v. U.S. ruled that there is no First Amendment right to advocate the overthrow of the government, general concerns about freedom of speech and overreach in investigations of Communists put an end to prosecutions of individuals solely for belonging to the Communist Party by the early 1960s. The CPUSA ran Gus Hall for President four times, but was never a significant force at the ballot box. In 1995, a cache of Soviet documents known as VENONA was published, revealing that the CPUSA was controlled by Moscow. Like the Socialist Party, the CPUSA has splintered into several similarly named successor organizations.
Communist Party (of the United States of America)
(established 1967) sort of spiritual successor to the Dixiecrats from two decades before. In an effort to combat the desegregation being pushed by a pro-civil rights federal government, George Wallace, the segregationist governor of Alabama, ran for president on the ticket of the AIP, led by Bill and Eileen Shearer. Running on a platform of segregation once again proved appealing to the South, as Wallace won 46 electoral votes from 5 states, and 13% of the vote with nearly 10 million votes. Many Wallace supporters, including the organizers of the AIP, later joined the U.S. Taxpayers Party, which was renamed the Constitution Party, and still exists as a small party to the right of the Republicans.
American Independent Party
(established 1995) created to follow up on Ross Perot's 1992 independent campaign for President, in which he won 19% of the popular vote but no electoral votes, making him the most successful alternative candidate by vote count since Theodore Roosevelt in 1912. Reform Party members agreed on the need for a balanced budget and changes to the electoral process, and were generally opposed to free trade agreements and immigration. The lack of a unified platform on other issues led to constant infighting over the party's goals and an inability to capitalize on Perot's initial success. Perot ran under the Reform banner again in the 1996 election, taking 8% of the vote. The Reform Party is perhaps best known for candidate Jesse Ventura's surprise victory in the 1998 election for governor of Minnesota. In the 2000 election cycle, a conservative faction led by Pat Buchanan took over the party, leading to the departure of many Perot supporters including Ventura, who left the party midway through his governorship, and causing the effective end of the Reform Party. Buchanan received several disputed votes under the Reform Party line on the infamous 2000 Florida "butterfly ballot."
Reform Party
(established 1991) never attracted as large of a share of the vote as the other third parties, but the ticket of Ralph Nader and Winona LaDuke pulled 2.7% of the popular vote in the infamous 2000 presidential election, possibly influencing Republican George W. Bush's extremely narrow victory over Democrat Al Gore, the winner of the popular vote. The Green Party continues to nominate candidates for presidential elections, and cites ecological sustainability, social justice, and fair democracy among its goals.
Green Party