31 terms

Biology Ch 3 Miller & Levine

Important terms/concepts from Chapter 3
STUDY
PLAY
Biosphere
Consists of all life on Earth, all parts of the Earth on/in which life exists; contains every organism; extends 8 kilo meters above Earth's surface and 11 kilometers below the surface
Ecology
The study of how organisms react with their physical surroundings and the other organisms around them
Ecosystem services
support, provisions, regulation, and cultural services made by ecosystems like purifying water, absorbing flood waters, and rejuvenating one's spirit
Biotic Factors
Biological influences on organisms; any part of the environment with which an organism might interact, e.g. animals, plants, mushrooms, bacteria
Producers
autotrophs; organisms that make their own food through chemosynthesis or photosynthesis; e.g. plants, phytoplankton, or some bacteria
Abiotic Factors
Physical components of an ecosystem; any nonliving part of the environment, such as sunlight, heat, precipitation, humidity, wind, water currents, soil type, ect.
Heterotroph
consumers; obtain energy by eating other organisms; "other feeders"
Carnivores
obtain energy and nutrients by eating other animals
Scavengers
Eat things that have been killed; feed on the carcass
Decomposers
break down dead or dying matter for energy and nutrients; some of the nutrients are cycled back into the environment; e.g. bacteria and fungi
bacteria and fungi
the main type of decomposers
Herbivores
organisms that eat plants
Omnivores
Eat plants and animals
Detritvore
Heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (dead plant or animal matter)
Photosynthesis
process of capturing light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbon compounds (glucose)
Chemosynthesis
A process in which chemical energy in used to produce carbohydrates; e.g. bacteria in volcanic vents
Food Chain
A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
Phytoplankton
Floating algae that are key producers in many aquatic food chains
Food Web
A network of feeding interactions; multiple food chains
Trophic Level
Each step in a food chain or food web
Ecological Pyramid
Show the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a given food chain or web: There are three kinds
Biomass
The total amount of living tissue withing a given trophic level
Energy, biomass, and number
The three kinds of ecological pyramids
Biome
group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms; e.g. rainforest or tundra
ecosystem
all the organisms that live in a place, together with their physical environment
community
an assemblage of all the individual populations of the various species that live together in an area
population
group of individuals that belong to the same species and live IN THE SAME AREA
species
a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
secondary consumer
The heron in the picture is at what level?
tertiary consumer
The highest level of the hawk in the food chain and food web pictured
10% rule
The amount of energy available for the next trophic level