54 terms

Honors US History Unit 2

WWHS Unit 2 Test
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Urbanization
-The growth of Cities
-Late 1800's, american cities grew rapidly
Jacob Riis
-Photographer
-Used flash photography
-publishes promoted reform
Americanization Movement
educational program designed to help immigrants assimilate to American culture.
Tenement
multifamily urban dwelling, usually overcrowded and unsanitary.
Mass Transit
transportation systems designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes.
Social Gospel Movement
a 19th-century reform movement based on the belief that Christians have a responsibility to help improve working conditions and alleviate poverty
Settlement House
a community center providing assistance to
residents—particularly immigrants—in a slum neighborhood.
Jane Adamms
American settlement activist/reformer, social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace.
Political Machine
an organized group that controls a political party in a city and offers services to voters and businesses in exchange for political and financial support.
graft
the illegal use of political influence for personal gain
Patronage
an officeholder's power to appoint people—usually those who have helped him or her get elected—to positions in government.
Civil Service
the nonmilitary branches of government administration.
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th President
President after the reconstruction era ended
James A. Garfield
20th President
Assassinated 6 months after took office
Pendleton Civil Service Act
United States federal law, enacted in 1883, which established that positions within the federal government should be awarded on the basis of merit instead of political affiliation.
Ends Spoil System
Grover Cleveland
22nd and 24th President of the United States
Benjamin Harrison
23rd President
Benjamin Harrison was an American politician and lawyer
Frederick Law Olmsted
Frederick Law Olmsted was an American landscape architect, journalist, social critic, and public administrator.
Came Up with Skyscaper Idea
Orville and Wilbur Wright
Built First Plane
George Eastman
American entrepreneur who founded the Eastman Kodak Company and popularized the use of roll film, helping to bring photography to the mainstream.
Booker T Washington
Born as a slave. Worked from the bottom up. Washington was the dominant leader in the African-American community. Urged African Americans to settle down and go for low paying jobs
Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute
Started by Booker T Washington. A school that was for African American's to teach them how to do jobs.
W.E.B Du Bois
Born in the north. Went to Harvard. Wanted Blacks to get a high education
Disagreed with Booker T Washington.
Ida B Wells
Urged blacks to move to north
Niagara Movement
Started by W.E.B Du Bois help get Blacks civil rights
Poll Tax
an annual tax that formerly had to be paid in some
Southern states by anyone wishing to vote
Grandfather Clause
a provision that exempts certain people
from a law on the basis of previously existing circumstances—especially a clause formerly in some Southern states' constitutions
that exempted whites from the strict voting requirements used to keep African Americans from the polls.
Segregation
the separation of people on the basis of race.
Jim Crow Laws
laws enacted by Southern state and local
governments to separate white and black people in public and
private facilities.
Debt Peonage
a system in which workers are bound in servitude until their debts are paid
Progressive Movement
an early-20th-century reform movement seeking to return control of the government to
the people, to restore economic opportunities, and to correct injustices in American life.
Prohibition
an early-20th-century reform movement seeking to return control of the government to the people, to restore economic opportunities, and to correct injustices in American life.
Muckraker
one of the magazine journalists who exposed the corrupt side of business and public life in the early 1900s.
scientific management
the application of scientific principles to increase efficiency in the workplace.
Initiative
a procedure by which a legislative measure can be originated by the people rather than by lawmakers
Referendum
a procedure by which a proposed legislative measure can be submitted to a vote of the people.
Recall
a procedure for removing a public official from
office by a vote of the people
17th Amendment
established the popular election of United States Senators by the people of the states
suffrage
the right to vote
NAWC
the National Association of Colored Women—a social service organization founded in 1896.
Square Deal
President Theodore Roosevelt's program of progressive reforms designed to protect the common people against big business
Meat Inspection Act
a law, enacted in 1906, that established strict cleanliness requirements for meatpackers and created a federal meat-inspection program.
Pure Food and Drug act
a law enacted in 1906 to halt the sale of contaminated foods and drugs and to ensure truth in labeling
NAACP
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is a civil rights organization in the United States
Gifford Pinchot
American forester and politician. Pinchot served as the first Chief of the United States Forest Service from 1905
William Howard Taft
served as the 27th President of the United States and as the 10th Chief Justice of the United States
Bull Mouse Party
a name given to the Progressive Party, formed to support Theodore Roosevelt's candidacy for the presidency in 1912.
Woodrow Wilson
American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
Tariff V Income Tax
Government used to only make money from tariffs but in 1913 government introduced a tax on how much money a person made
16th Amendment
Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.
Clayton Antitrust Act
Gave government power to break up trusts
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
Gave government power to regulate trade
Federal Reserve System
establish a form of economic stability in the United States through the introduction of the Central Bank
19th Amendment
Gave women right to vote