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overstating something to make it look worse than it is.


attitude of the writer toward his or her subject.


verbal cleverness


use of language to hurt/ridicule: more caustic than irony


imitation that seeks to amuse through ridiculous exaggeration and distortion.


humorous imitation of serious works

double entendre

phrase that can be understood in either of two ways.


one word modifies two or more words with different senses. (ex: you held your breath and the door for me)

situational irony

what actually occurs is the opposite of what is expected.

dramatic irony

reader knows something that the characters do not.

socratic irony

presenting a willingness to learn for the sake of exposing an opponents errors.

verbal irony

contrast between what is said and what is meant.
(ex: understatement. antithesis, hyperbole)

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