HIST151 Exam 3
Terms in this set (81)
Rush-Bagot Treaty, 1817
This was the first modern arms reduction treaty. It reduced the number of naval vessels Great Britain and the United States could maintain on the Great Lakes after the War of 1812.
Convention of 1818
Refined the Rush-Bagot Treaty to include a definition of the the western boundary of Canada and the U.S. at the 49th parallel to the Rocky Mountains.
Adams-Onis/Transcontinental Treaty, 1819
This was the treaty that transferred Florida to the United States and established a boundary between Spain's holdings in North American and the United States. That boundary extended to the Pacific Ocean, giving the U.S. a transcontinental, ocean-to-ocean boundary.
American System of Manufacturing
This was a term that foreign observers used to describe the organization of industry in the U.S. during the modernization period. Americans, it was said, were innovators who were not resistant to change. They made good use of the ample natural resources available to them and used innovation to address shortages of other resources, like labor.
Tariffs are essentially taxes levied on imported goods. The idea is to make those goods more expensive than ones produced domestically, thus protecting those goods and encouraging their production. Generally, the Federalists and the Whigs supported protective tariffs and Democrats opposed them. It was the tariff issue that led to the Nullification Crisis.
Second Bank of the U.S.
This was the second of two U.S. banks and was in existence from 1817-1836. Andrew Jackson and the Democratic party did not like the Second Bank or its director, Nicholas Biddle, and succeeded in preventing its charter from being renewed in 1836.
McCulloch v. Maryland
This Supreme Court case of 1819 ruled in favor of the 2nd Bank of the United States. It affirmed the existence of implied powers for Congress to implement express powers and affirmed that state governments cannot impede constitutional laws.
This was the first canal of its scale in the U.S. Upon its completion in 1825, it connected the Hudson River to Lake Erie and allowed for cheaper and more direct transfer of goods and services. This is an example of private social overhead capital investment.
Social overhead capital
This is a term used to describe investment in what people of the 19th century called "internal improvements." Today we call it "infrastructure." There was significant debate as to whether government should provide social overhead capital or if it should be left to private sources. The South generally opposed internal improvements and the North generally endorsed them.
Intensive economic growth
This is a type of economic growth that is tied to increases in individual productivity. It generally explains the economic growth in the U.S. after 1815.
Extensive economic growth
This is a type of economic growth that is tied to increases in population. It generally explained economic growth in the U.S. before 1815.
This was the first manufacturing enterprise to industrialize. The modern factory system originated in New England textile mills.
Panic of 1819
This was a major economic crisis that resulted from several factors, including unregulated printing of bank notes and widespread land speculation that resulted in a "bubble." Significant unemployment and many bankruptcies resulted as a consequence. The crisis did not abate until 1821.
The Missouri Compromise
This was a compromise Henry Clay brokered to ensure that the state of Maine would be brought into to the Union at the same time Missouri became a state to maintain the balance of free and slave states.
The Monroe Doctrine
This is a policy that Secretary of State John Quincy Adams wrote for President James Monroe's Annual Message to Congress in 1823. The President announced that it would be U.S. policy to oppose European intervention in the Western Hemisphere, to oppose the creation of new colonies in the Western hemisphere, and to oppose the transfer of colonies already existing in the Western Hemisphere to other non-hemispheric powers. Monroe also announced that the U.S. would not interfere in European affairs.
Vesey was a former slave who had purchased his freedom. He plotted a slave rebellion in South Carolina in 1822, but was captured and executed before the rebellion could take place. This played into South Carolina's white minority's fears and the results were greater restrictions on slaves.
Andrew Jackson used his position as president to reward loyal Democrats who had supported him with federal jobs, regardless of whether they were qualified for the position. This came to be known as the patronage system.
The Democrats stood in opposition to the Whigs. They opposed protective tariffs, opposed a strong central government (in theory) and supported states' rights. They also stood for rapid expansion of U.S. territory and were generally considered friendly to farmers, the nascent working class, and to the institution of slavery.
Elected in 1828, Jackson developed into a strong executive. He is credited with developing the patronage system, of using the veto as a political instrument rather than as a test of a piece of legislation's constitutionality, with the Removal Policy and the Trail of Tears, with opposition to the Bank of the United States, and with a strong stand against South Carolina's efforts to nullify the 1832 Tariff.
John C. Calhoun
Calhoun was at one time a presidential candidate, had been vice president of the United States, Secretary of War, and a U.S. senator from South Carolina. He was an instrumental participant in the Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1833, and the Compromise of 1850. He was the principle promoter of a broadened concept of state's rights with his expanded view of nullification and he promoted slavery as an absolute good.
This was a philosophy drawn in part on the ideas expressed in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798, with regard to whether a state could nullify federal law. The resolutions of 1798 claimed that states could nullify unconstitutional laws. John C. Calhoun expanded the theory of nullification during the debate of the Tariff of 1832 to include the claim that states could nullify any federal law, constitutional or not.
A force act is passed when Congress authorizes the President to use force to accomplish something. In this case, Congress granted President Andrew Jackson a force act to protect federal interests, rights, and installations in South Carolina as a response to that states issuance of legislation nullifying the federal tariff of 1832.
Compromise of 1833
This settled the nullification crisis. Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun were its principle authors. It provided for the gradual reduction of tariffs. The threat that the Force Act implied for South Carolina may have been the reason it agreed to the compromise.
This was an idea based on the belief that blacks and whites could not live together. Bushrod Washington and Henry Clay, among others, supported the American Colonization Society, created in 1817. That organization sought to "return" free blacks to Africa. The problem was that 99.9% free blacks in 1817 had been born in America, so Africa was as foreign to them as it would have been to white Americans. The ACS eventually founded the African nation of Liberia, but they were never successful in their ultimate goal.
Turner was a Virginia slave whose master had taught his mother to read the Bible. She in turn taught Nat to read. He became a skilled lay minister and orator. He became convinced that violence was the only means to end slavery and led a rebellion in 1831 to do just that. The rebellion led to numerous deaths before turner and his followers were captured and subsequently tried and executed. The backlash with regard to new restrictions on slaves was severe.
The Virginia Debate
This was a debate over the institution of slavery in Virginia that occurred in the wake of Nat Turner's Rebellion. Some Virginians believed that slavery must be gradually abolished or there would be more such rebellions. Another side, the side that won the debate, called for more restrictions on slaves, including legislation making it illegal to teach them to read.
Andrew Jackson adopted this policy as part of his attack on "soft" money. He now required that payment for federal lands sold to private citizens must be in specie (gold or silver) and not paper money. One of the result was that it dried up the revenue the federal government had previously received from such sales as there was insufficient specie available. This was also one of the factors that led to the Panic of 1837.
The Whig Party was the successor to the Federalist Party. Whigs were general pro-business, supported protective tariffs, supported the national bank, supported government investment in social overhead capital, and supported public education. They were wary of rapid expansion of the nation's territory, especially with regard to its implication with regard to additional slave states.
These included the Cherokee, the Chickasaw, the Choctaw, the Creek, and the Seminole. Their success, especially that of the Cherokee, led many white people to become jealous. This led to broad white support for removal policy, despite the fact that the Supreme Court had sided with the Cherokee in their right to retain their land.
This was a policy whose intended result was to remove Native Americans in the eastern of the nation to what was called the "Trans-Mississippi West." Its earliest recorded advocate was Thomas Jefferson, but its most well-known advocate was Andrew Jackson. Jackson pushed the Indian Removal Act through Congress in 1830.
Trail of Tears
The Trail of Tears was one of the consequences of the Indian Removal Act. The term refers to the forced relocation of what were then known as the five "Civilized" tribes—the Cherokee, the Creek, the Choctaw, the Chickasaw, and the Seminole—from their lands in the east to the Trans-Mississippi West. The relocations, often conducted in the winter at the gunpoint of U.S. Army forces, resulted in thousands of Indian deaths. In the case of the Cherokee, more than 20% of those making the March died. Additionally, local Indian tribes already occupied the territory west of the Mississippi that was the designated new land for the Eastern tribes, thus putting them in competition with each other for resource.
Osceola was a Seminole leader who opposed the Removal Act. He and his followers fought the U.S. Army successfully with guerrilla tactics. Osceola agreed to negotiate with army officers under a white flag of truce, but those officers arrested him instead.
He was a leader of the Sauk Indian tribe and went to war against the U.S. in 1832 in attempt to retrieve the land other leaders had traded to the U.S. for lands west of the Mississippi River in Iowa. He was unsuccessful.
These were men who received large tracts of land in Texas from the Mexican government in exchange for their promise to bring settlers. Men like Moses and Stephen Austin did just that. The settlers were required to become Mexican citizens and to convert to Catholicism, but rarely did so and remained loyal to the U.S. and sought annexation to the U.S., even after Texas became independent in 1836.
This is a term used to describe various connected and unconnected movements during the 1820s-1850s that rejected modernization, sought individual meaning, and searched for a more equitable division of wealth. Examples would include New Harmony, the Mormons, the Shakers, and other religious and secular groups.
This movement of the 1820s-1850s reflected discontent with the materialism of the industrialization/modernization movement. Transcendentalists promoted individual spiritual quest and almost deified nature.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Emerson was an influential author, lecturer, and intellectual in the 19th century and the principle leader of the Transcendental Movement. Among his best known works are his essay Nature and Over-Soul.
Henry David Thoreau
He was a prominent Transcendentalist who promoted the idea of civil disobedience in response to immoral laws.
This was a religious group that followed the teachings of Joseph Smith, who based his interpretations on the Book of Mormon that he said God revealed to him on inscribed golden plates, and a long list of prophets who followed him. The official name is the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. One of its most controversial teachings in the mid-nineteenth century was that of polygamy. The church had to renounce this doctrine in order for the Territory of Utah, which church members had founded, to enter the Union as a state.
The belief that a man could take more than one wife at a time.
The temperance movement was interested in reducing the amount of alcohol Americans consumed. Many U.S. businessmen advocated it as an efficiency, productivity, and safety measure as drunk or hung-over workers were often inefficient, unproductive, and careless. The American Temperance Union originally advocated moderation, but eventually called for abstinence. That move led to a decline in membership.
Charles Grandison Finney
He was one of the principal leaders of the Second Great Awakening. He was an abolitionist and influenced William Lloyd Garrison. Finney was also a founder of modern "revivalism."
This movement was part of the broader reform movement of the 1830s/1840s. Its advocates wanted better facilities and treatment for Americans with mental illnesses.
The members of this movement sought to abolish slavery. There were divisions within the movement among those who sought gradual abolition and those who demanded immediate abolition. The leaders of the Second Great Awakening were mostly abolitionists and attacked slavery as a moral issue.
William Lloyd Garrison
Garrison was an early militant abolitionist. He advocated "uncompromising resistance" to slavery. He went so far as to encourage people to boycott the Constitution because t it endorsed slavery.
This order in the House of Representatives, passed in 1836, sought to prevent debate in the House over the issue of slavery. John Quincy Adams, the only ex-president to serve in the House, fought the gag rule until it was eventually rescinded in 1844.
Panic of 1837
This was an economic crisis that resulted from Andrew Jackson's attack on the Second Bank, his Specie Circular, and the collapse of speculation in federal lands.
Jefferson's "yeomanly farmer" was the back-bone of the antebellum South. Many of them were among the 2/3rd of Southerners who did not own slaves, but who aspired to and, in large part, supported the "peculiar institution" even though they were directly vested in it.
This was a small group of slave owners, like those depicted in Gone With The Wind, who owned substantial numbers of slaves and who dominated Southern politics, culture, and economics.
Mann, who was Secretary of Education for the State of Massachusetts, pushed educational reform, including public funded education, standardized curricula, mandatory attendance, the establishment of "normal" schools to train teachers, and a required minimum education through the eighth grade. His reforms, which took place in Massachusetts in the 1830s and 1840s and were later adopted across most of the Northern and Western states, greatly influenced the growth of literacy in the U.S. and contributed to the spread of modernization.
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
These two sisters from South Carolina opposed slavery and spoke out against it at great cost to their personal lives. They were also early advocates of women's rights.
This was a Spanish slave ship whose cargo of slaves revolted and overpowered the crew, killing some of them. The slaves then demanded to be returned to their homes in Sierra Leone, only to have the crew trick them and take them t the U.S. A law suit over the disposition of slaves, especially with regard to whether they were free men, ensued. John Quincy Adams argued the case on behalf of the Africans in front of the U.S. Supreme Court in 1841 and won.
Douglass was an escaped slave who went on to become one of the most famous abolitionists of his day. He was a brilliant orator and supported equality for all peoples and both genders. He famously met with Abraham Lincoln to promote the use of African American soldiers during the civil war in positions other than grave diggers and manual laborers. He also asked the president for equal pay for African American soldiers and sailors.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Although this battle between government forces and the Shawnee occurred in 1811, William Henry Harrison used the name to evoke leadership and victory in his campaign for the presidency in 1840. The campaign slogan was "Tippecanoe and Tyler, too," which meant Harrison for president and John Tyler for vice president.
This was another ship on which a slave revolt occurred in 1841. The Creole was based out of Virginia and carried slaves from that state to other states in the Union. A cargo of slaves revolted, two people were killed, and the ship's crew forced to sail to the Bahamas. The slaves deliberately chose a British port knowing that the British had outlawed slavery. The British ruled in favor of the slaves, with the exception of those involved in the murder, and freed them.
This territory was jointly occupied by mutual agreement between Great Britain and the U.S. for ten-year periods. Joint occupation ended in 1842.
Oregon Treaty, 1846
This treaty ended the joint occupation of Oregon. The U.S. received the portion of the Oregon Territory south of the 49th parallel and Great Britain received the portion north.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty, 1842
This treaty settled some boundary issues between Canada and the U.S. and granted the U.S. the Arrowhead region of Minnesota.
This is a phrase coined to describe the justification of westward expansion in the U.S. It suggested that it was God's design that the U.S. occupy Texas, the lands taken from Mexico in the Mexican-American War, and the Oregon territories. Some applied Manifest Destiny to justify a U.S. that would occupy all of North America.
James K. Polk
President Polk was a Democrat who oversaw the Mexican-American War and the expansion of the U.S. into the lands that now comprise the American Southwest and the Oregon Territory, to include the present states of Washington and Oregon.
This party, created in 1839, was the first single issue party that sought to abolish slavery. James. K. Birney was its first candidate.
Annexation of Texas
Although efforts to purchase Texas or acquire it through a treaty were made, they were unsuccessful. President John Tyler proposed a Joint Resolution of Congress, which would require a simple majority vote, as the vehicle for annexation. It was successfully passed on 28 February 1845. Texas formally joined the Union on 29 December 1845.
Mexican-American War, 1846-1848
President Polk provoked this war by ordering U.S. troops into disputed territory between Texas and Mexico. The U.S. won the war and vastly increased its territory.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
This is the treaty that ended the war with Mexico. Nicholas Trist negotiated it on behalf of the U.S. and was able to take a huge amount of land. Trist violated his instructions and earned President Polk's anger. Polk prevented Trist from being reimbursed for his expenses and he died broke.
Congressman David Wilmot of Pennsylvania sponsored an amendment that would have prevented slavery in any territory that the U.S. took from Mexico as a result of victory in the Mexican-American War. The proviso never passed both house of Congress and division over it was almost entirely sectional.
A concept credited to Lewis Cass that would allow Citizens of a territory to decide whether slavery would be legal
State, local, and federal government provide tax incentives and land grants to private railroads to encourage them to build. This type of subsidy is sometimes called corporate welfare. The network of national railroads likely could not have been built in the time it was without this type of government support.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Stanton was one of the early leaders of the women's movement who endorsed equality and suffrage. She attended the Seneca Falls Convention.
Mott was one of the early leaders of the women's movement who endorsed equality and suffrage. She attended the Seneca Falls Convention.
Seneca Falls Convention
This convention, held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, was the first convention of the women's rights movement and featured such prominent leaders as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott.
The Compromise of 1850
This was a series of compromises designed to maintain the Union. Henry Clay addressed issues about enforcing fugitive slave laws, a boundary dispute between Texas and New Mexico, the entrance of New Mexico, Utah, and California into the Union, abolishing the selling of slaves in the District of Columbia, and the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. The agreements were brought about largely due to the issue of whether slavery would be allowed in the territories and reflected debate about the concept of popular sovereignty and the Wilmot Proviso.
The Fugitive Slave Act, 1850
This act was passed to appease slave owners. It created a federal bureaucracy devoted to determining whether a person was a fugitive slave who should be returned to a master. Commissioners could accept a simple affidavit as evidence that the person was a slave; the alleged slave was not allowed to testify on his/her behalf; the commissioners could induct anyone into a posse to enforce the return of the slave; and the commissioner received a $10 dollar fee if he ruled in favor of the master as opposed to a $5 dollar fee if he ruled in favor of the alleged slave. This provided a financial incentive to rule in favor of the master.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Stowe was a prominent critic of slavery.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe's book, published in 1854, that served as a scathing indictment of slavery.
The Know Nothings
This was a knick-name for members of the American Party of the 1850s. It had begun as a secret society and when an outsider asked questions of a party member, he was to reply "I know nothing." This party was anti-immigration and sought restrictions on the naturalization process for immigrants to become citizens. The Republican Party subsumed it.
This was a movement that promoted White Anglo Saxon Protestant culture and feared the impact that German and Irish immigrants were having on the U.S.
This was an important fertilizer derived from bat droppings. Its presence in large quantities on certain Pacific islands generated interest in taking those lands.
Three U.S. ambassadors—John Mason, Pierre Soule, and James Buchanan—authored this document in 1854 claiming that Spain should sell Cuba to the U.S. and that if it did not, the U.S. would be justified in using any means to take Cuba from Spain. When the manifesto became public, it inflamed the debate over slavery, as it was presumed Cuba would be a slave state if it entered the Union. The Pierce Administration was forced to denounce the manifesto as an unauthorized document that did not represent administration policy when, in reality, it did.
This was an act that led to significant tensions in the U.S. in that it divided Nebraska into two territories. Pro and anti slavery forces began to immigrate to Kansas in order to influence its entry into the Union as either a slave or free state.
Anthony Burns Affair
Burns was an escaped slave living in Boston who was returned to his master in 1854 as a result of federal enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. This led to vigorous protest in Boston and the rest of Massachusetts. His supporters raised enough money to purchase Burns' freedom from his master. Another result was that no escaped slaves would be returned to their masters from Boston or Massachusetts again.
This party is usually considered to have formed in Ripon, Wisconsin in 1854 in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Republicans drew their support from former Whigs like Abraham Lincoln and were opposed the extending slavery into the territories, but were often willing to allow slavery to continue where it already existed. They were also the party of modernization.