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64 terms

IR final exam

STUDY
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Doha Round
a series of negotiations under the world trade organization that began in 2001. followed the uruguay round. has focused on agricultural subsidies, intellectual property, and other issues
Bretton-Woods System
a post world war 2 arrangement for managing the world economy. its main institutional components are the world bank and the imf
GATT
a world organization established in 1947 for freer trade on a multi-lateral basis, was more of a negotiating framework than an administrative institution
land reform
policies that aim to break up large land holdings and redistribute land to poor peasants for use in subsistence farming
Common Agriculture Policy
a European union policy based on the principle that a subsidy extended to farers in any member country should be extended to farmers in all member countries
Common Market
a zone in which labor and capital (as well as goods) flow freely across borders
Generalized System of Preferences
a mechanism by which some industrialized states began in the 1970s to give tariff concessions to third world states on certain imports, an exception to the most favored nation principle
Mercantilism
an economic theory and a political ideology opposed to free trade. it shares with realism the belief that each state must protect its own interests without seeking mutual gains through international organizations
Customs Union
a common external tariff adopted by members of a free trade area. that is, participating states adopt a unified set of tariffs with regard to goods coming in from outside
Euratom
an organization created by the treaty of rome in 1957 to coordinate nuclear power development by pooling research, investment, and management
cultural imperialism
term critical of US dominance of the emerging global culture
Single European Act
An act that set a target date of the end of 1992 for the creation of a true common market (free cross-border movement of goods capital people and services) in the european community
IMF
an IGO that coordinates international currency exchange, the balance of international payments, and national accounts
Treaty of Rome
the founding document of the european economic community or common market, now subsumed by the european union
special drawing right
a world currency created by the IMF to replace gold as a world standard valued by a basket of national currencies, it has been called the paper gold
security community
a situation in which low expectations of violence permit a high degree of political cooperation (NATO)
managed float
a system of occasional multinational government interventions in currency markets to manage otherwise free floating currency rates
ethnocentrism
the tendency to see one's own group (in group) in favorable terms, and an outgroup in unfavorable terms
enclosure
splitting of a common area or good into privately owned pieces, giving individual owners and incentive to manage resources responsibly
Transitional economies
countries in Russia and Eastern Europe that are trying to convert from communism to capitalism, with various degrees of success
Dumping
the sale of products in foreign markets at prices below the minimum level necessary to make a profit (or below cost)
neo-colonialism
the continuation, in a former colony, of colonial exploitation without formal political control
Millenium Development Goals
UN targets for basic needs measures such as reducing poverty and hunger, adopted in 2000 with a target date of 2015
World System
a view of the world in terms of regional class divisions, with industrialized countries as the periphery and other areas as the semiperiphery
discount rate
the interest rate charged by governments when they lend money to private banks. its set by countries central banks
digital divide
the gap in access to information technologies between rich and poore people, between the global north and south
international integration
the process by which supranational institutions come to replace national ones. the gradual shifting upward of some sovereignty from the state to regional or global structures
mixed economies
economies such as those in the industrialized west that contain both some government control and some private ownership
world bank
formally the international bank for reconstruction and development, an organization that was established in 1944 as a source of loans to help reconstruct the european economies, later, the main borrowers were third world countries, and in the 1990s, eastern european countries
intellectual property rights
the legal protection of the original works of inventors, authors, creators, and performers under patent, copyright, and trademark law, such rights became a contentious area of trade negotiations in the 1990s
economic surplus
surplus created by investing money in productive capital rather than using it for consumption
central bank
an institution common in industrialized countries whose major tasks are to maintain the value of the state's currency and to control inflation
most favored nation
a principle by which one state, by granting another state MFN status promises to give it the same treatment given to the first state's most favored trading partner
imperialism
the acquisition of colonies by conquest or otherwise. Lenin's theory of this argued that European capitalists were investing in colonies then using part of those profits to buy off part of the working class back home
Uruguay Round
a series of negotiations under the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade that lasted from 1986-1994 with agreement to create the world trade organization. followed the kennedy round and tokyo round
Service Sector
the part of an economy that concerns services (as opposed to production of tangible goods) the key focus in international trade negotiations is on banking, insurance, and related financial services
Lisbon Treaty
a European Union agreement, not yet approved in 2009, that would replace a failed attempt at an EU constitution with a similar set of reforms strengthening central EU authority and modifying voting procedures among the EU's expanded membership
Cycle Theories
an effort to explain tendencies toward war in the international system as cyclical, for example, by linking wars with long waves in the world economy
Industrial policy
the strategies by which a government works actively with industries to promote their growth and tailor trade policy to their needs
Truth commisions
governmental bodies established in several countries after internal wars to hear honest testimony and bring to light what really happened during those wards and in exchange to offer most of the participants asylum for punishment
supranational
larger institutions and groupings such as the EU to which state authority or national identity is subordinated
irredentism
a form of nationalism, whose goal is to regain territory lose to another state. it can lead directly to violent interstate conflict
montreal protocol
an agreement on protection of the ozone layer in which states pledged to reduce and then eliminate the use of CFCs. it is the most successful environmental treaty to date
council of the EU
a EU institution in which the relevent ministers (foreign, economic, agriculture, etc). of each member state meet to enact legislation and reconcile national interests. formerly known as the council of ministrers. when the meeting takes place among the state leaders, it is called the European Council
European Court of Justice
a judicial arm of the European union, based in luxembourg. the court has actively established its jurisdiction and its right to overrule national law when it conflicts with EU
Balance of payments
a summary of all the flows of money into and out of a country. it includes three types of international transactions: the current account, flows of capital, and changes in reserve
Maastricht Treaty
commits the EU to monetary union and to a common foreign policy
Free Trade area
a zone in which there are no tariffs, or other restrictions, in principle (if not always in practice) was a key aspect of britains policy after 1846 and of US policy after 1945
autarky
a policy of self-reliance, avoiding or minimizing trade and trying to produce everything one needs (or the most vital things) by oneself
pronatalist
a government policy that encourages or forces child bearing and outlows or limits access to contraception
industrialization
the use of fossil-fuel energy to drive machinery and the accumulation of such machinery along with the products created by it
centrally planned economy
an economy in which political authorities set policies and decide on quotas for production and consumption of each commodity according to a long term plan
Kyoto Protocol
the main international treaty on global warming which entered into effect in 2005 and madates cuts in carbon emissions in 2008-2012. almost all the world major countries except the US are participants
European Commission
a European UNion body whose members, while appointed by states, are supposed to represent EU interests, supported by a multinational civil service in Brussels, the commision's role is to identify problems and propose solutions to the council of ministers
balance of trade
the value of a state's exports relative to its imports
state owned industries
industries such as oil-production companies and airlines that are owned wholly or partially by the state because they are thought to be vital to the national economy
world trade organization
an organization begun in 1995 that expanded the GATT's traditional focus and manufactured goods and created monitoring and enforcement mechanisms
resource curse
the difficulties faced by resource-rich developing countries, including dependence on exporting one or a few commodities whose prices fluctuate, as well as potentials for corruption and inequality
cartel
an association of producers or consumers or both, of a certain product, formed for the purpose of manipulating its price on the world market
demographic transition
the pattern of falling death rates, followed by falling birth rates, that generally accompanies industrialiation and economic development
neo functionalism
a theory that holds that economic integration (functionalism) creates a spillover effect, resulting in increased political integration
devaluation
a unilateral move to reduce the value of a currency by changing a fixed or official exchange rate
economic liberalism
in the context of IPE, an approach that generally shares the assumption of anarchy, but does not see this condition as precluding extensive cooperation to realize common gains from economic exchanges. it emphasizes absolute over relative gains and, in practice, a commitment to free trade free capital flows, and an open world economy
GATT
a world organization established in 1947 to work for freer trade on a multilateral basis, was more of a negotiating framework than an administrative institution