94 terms

Greek/Roman Art Terms

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Krater
vessel to mix water + wine
Kouros
male grave marker sculpture
Archaic Smile
not emotional, increase life-like qualities
Encaustic Paint
greek paint method, mix paint + melted wax (lasts longer)
Korai
female grave marker sculpture
Symposium
greek parties, men only
Niobides
mortal woman w/ children (she thinks are perfect)
Leto
goddess, mother of Artemis and Apollo
Composition of Krater
random, no registers
Polykleitos
creates Doryphoros, sets new canon, creates Contrapposto/ natural stance
HAIR
Heroic Aloof Ideal Restrained, best qualities a person/statue can have
Contrapposto
relaxed, natural stance, weight shift, ex: hips shift w/ body (unlike Egyptians)
Chiastic Balance
right leg + left arm = weight bearing
left leg + right arm= non weight bearing
Polykleitos' new canon (X)
Women in Athens
second class citizens (couldn't own property)
Plasters
columns
Pediment
roof
Trireme
greek ship
Pilgrimage
religious journey (sailors + merchants would pray to ensure safe journey)
boxing
greeks ancient olympic sport
Perecles
elected as "Defender" of Athens, rebuilds Acropolis
acropolis
highest point in a town (temples at top)
Doric Order
MOST favored, simple, not extravagant
Stylobate
no base, merges into ground
Ionic Order
more flashy, ornate, capitol has scrolls, entablature is one continuous Frieze
Frieze
sculptures on pediment
Corinthian Order
very flashy, very rare, leaf like capitols
Acanthus
leaves at top of Corinthian capitols
Iktinos + Kallikrates
architects of the Acropolis
4 main buildings of Acropolis
1) propylea
2) Erechtheion
3) The Parthenon
4) The Temple of Athena Nike
caryatid
column in shape of woman
y=2x+1
perfect proportions for buildings
ex: 2 times the # of front columns plus 1= perfect amount on side
Peripteral
greek temple surrounded with columns
Cella
interior of room inside temple, dedicated to specific gods
Chryselephantine
made of gold + ivory
Phidias
made Athena Parthenos
4 main frieze stories
-Gigantomachy
-Centauromachy
-Amazonomachy
-Trojanomachy
Gigantomachy
Titans vs Gods
Amazonomachy
Amazons vs Greeks
Centauromachy
story of Greeks vs centaurs
Trojanomachy
Greeks vs Trojans
Lord Elgin
wealthy British Lord that takes Greeks sculptures back to UK ("Elgin marbles")
Panathenaic Procession
festival that had athelete competitions, dancing, beauty, parade through city
Amphiprostyle
columns in front + back, walls on side
Peripteral
columns surrounding building
chain folds
bunching up fabric in sections in sculpture
Pergamon
Modern day Turkey
Portico
porch in front of building
Buon Fresco
painted on wet plaster
Fresco Secco
painted on dry plaster
Triclinium
three couches surrounding table for sining
Patrician
upper class of Rome, based on heritage
bust
sculptures of someone from shoulders up
Veristic
truth, realistic, true
Gravitas
stern expression, serious
fauces-entrance
entrance ti house w/ mosaic on floor wait to be admitted inside
Atrium
center of house, foyer, grand room
Compluvium
hole in ceiling, lets in sunlight + rain
Impluvium
catches rain
Peristyle courtyard
garden surrounded with columns
foreshortening
make something pop up (light/dark, shadow/highlight)
Concrete
romans invented, sturdiest material
Vespian
emperor who built Colosseum, took after Nero
Nero
evil leader, builds himself palace
Domus Aurea
Nero's palace, "the Golden House"
Flavian Amphitheater
initial name of Colosseum
Velarium
retractible roof, shade audience
Roman Arch
technique used to hold up buildings (Colosseum), bear all weight
Levels of Orders on Colosseum
(Top)
Tuscan Doric
Ionic
Doric
Corinthian
(bottom)
Pilasters
square columns
engaged columns
give vertical element to structure, decoration
Kallikrates
architect of Acropolis
Perecles
builder of Acropolis
three elements of Arch
consist of keystone, voussoirs and springing stones
Keystone
bears all weight in arch
Voussoirs
curved stone in arch
springing stones
holds arch in place
barrel vault
extends arch (one way)
groin vault
intersecting arch
fenestrated groin vaults
groin vault that ends in window
annual vault
arch that goes in complete circle
Archaic
-smile
-stylized
-clothed
-disproportionate
Classical
-no smile, no emotion
-proportional
-contraposto
-idealized form
Hellenistic
-emotion
-action, lots of movement
-idealized form
Apollodorus of Damascus
architect of Form of Trajan, Pantheon
Trajan
most favored Roman Emperor
Forum
Roman city center (similar to Agora in Athens)
Hadrian
Pantheon attributed to this emperor
Portico
typical roman building front of Pantheon
Rotunda
Pantheon's cylindrical space, capped with dome, holds a perfect sphere
coffers
square sections taken out of ceiling to eliminate portion of weight
Oculus
hole in top of Pantheon, intense beam of sunlight
Latin on Front of Pantheon
"Marcus Agrippa made this", not true because he ruled 100 years earlier
Entasis
Intentional optical illusion (ex: columns not straight )
Stowa/Stella
Frieze is at bottom, not too, and much bigger
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