The Estates
1st Estate- Clergy 2nd Estate- Nobility 3rd Estate- everyone else. the French social class system whose unfairness triggered the French Revolution.
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
Continental System
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
Louis XVI
King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Reign of Terror
the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Tennis Court Oath
Declaration mainly by members of the Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789).
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat, Located in Belgium, the place where the british army and the prussian army forces attacked the french. Napoleon's final defeat against the British and Prussians
James Watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
Why I.R. in Britain
Britain had the advantage of natural resources such as natural ports and navigable rivers. Britain also had skilled mechanics who were eager to meet the growing demands for new, practical inventions
the theory that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Abraham Darby
In 1709, ___ used coal to smelt iron, or separate iron from its ore. When he discovered that coal gave off impurities that damaged the iron, __ found a way to remove the impurities from coal, leading to better quality/ cheaper iron.
the growth of cities and the migration of people into them
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
Eli Whitney
an American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy
An economic system in which all wealth and property is owned by the community as a whole
The idea that governments should obtain what they need in a realistic, non-Utopian manner. Bismark was the ideal practioner of this.
Kaiser William II
Shocked Europe by asking the dominating Bismark to resign.
(1815-1898) Prussian chancellor who engineered the unification of Germany under his rule. Delivers "blood and iron" speech.
The prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia during the movement toward Italian unification. He is considered the architect of the Italian Unification.
Bismark's policy to make Catholics put loyalty in the state rather than in the Church
Italian nationalist
recruits 1,000 Red Shirt volunteers who conquer Sicily and Napels
gives his won land to Cavour
Rotten Burroughs
rural town in England that sent members to Parliament despite having few or no voters
Irish Home Rule
Ireland was ruled by britain, The desire for a self rule/goverment
Dreyfus Affair
A Jewish captain was falsely accused and convicted of comitting treason, really done by Catholic. Family and leading intellectual individuals and republicans like Zola wanted to reopen the case. Split in two, first army who are antisemetic and Catholic, and other side the civil libertarians and more radical republicans. Result is government severed all ties with church, no longer priests in state schools, catholicism loses a lot of power of indoctrination.
Suez Canal
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882. (p. 726)
King Leopold II
the Belgian king who opened up the African interior to European trade along the Congo River and by 1884 controlled the area known as the Congo Free State
Sepoy Rebellion
(1857) The Sepoys were a military group allied with the British in India. They were Hindu and Muslim. The British made gun caps that had to be bitten off that contained animal fat (pork AND cow) which went against both religions. The soldiers rebelled and fought against the British, which led to reforms in the army and distribution of different religions throughout the army.
Armenian Genocide
the Muslim Turks distrusted the Christian Armenians and accused them of supporting Russian plans against the Ottoman Empire and when the Armenians protested repressive Ottoman policies, the sultan had tens of thousands of them slaughtered
Alsace and Lorraine
Border regions of France with German speaking peoples; Bismark annexed them following Franco-Prussian war.
A deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other.
Fourteen Points
a series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.
the policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war
Western Front
A line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other. (p. 757)
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was the product of the Paris Peace Conference, although none of the Allies was happy with it. Germany was forced to sign the treaty, which was very harsh. Germany had to accept all responsibility for the war, pay the Allies huge reparations; including pensions, severely weaken the size of her army, return Alsace-Lorraine to France, and give up overseas colonies.
Franz Ferdinand
archduke of Austria Hungary who was assassinated at Sarajevo by a Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hand; his death was a main cause for World War I
New Weapons of WWI
Poison Gas, Gas powered engine, Armored Tank, Zeppelins, U -Boats, Rapid Fire machine Gun, Long Range Artillery
"Father of the Turks" who helped to create Republic of Turkey and wanted to modernize [westernize] Turkey as well as separate religion and government
Indian nationalist and spiritual leader who developed the practice of nonviolent disobedience that forced Great Britain to grant independence to India (1947). He was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic.
Balfour Declaration
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.
Hindu belief in nonviolence & reverence for all
Reform movement that banned the sale and consumption of alcohol. It also increased organized crime.
Kellogg- Briand Pact
international treaty "providing for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy." It failed in its purpose but was significant for later developments in international law.
any centralized, authoritarian government that is not communist whose policies glorify the state over the individual and are destructive to basic human rights
Terror Famine
Stalin's use of fear tactics. When peasents refused to give up crops he had the government seize all of their grain to meet industrial goals, purposely leaving the peasants to starve.
Nuremburg Laws
laws approved by the Nazi Party in 1935, depriving Jews of German citizenship and taking some rights away from them
Harlem Renaissance
Period of artistic development of african american writers, artists, actors, and musicians in the 1920s
Great Depression
The economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
leader of Nazi's, organize his supporters into fighting squads, had an obsession with extreme nationalism, racism and antisemitism, promised to end reparations, create jobs and defy the Versailles treaty
Mein Kampf
Book writen by Hitler where he outlines his beliefs: Germans are a superior race, The Treaty of Versailles treated Germany unfairly and that a crowed Germany needed the lands of Eastern Europe and Russia
The prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. He established a repressive fascist regime that valued nationalism, militarism, anti-liberalism and anti-communism combined with strict censorship and state propaganda. Mussolini became a close ally of German dictator Adolf Hitler, whom he influenced. Mussolini entered World War II in June, 1940 on the side of Nazi Germany. Three years later, the Allies invaded Italy. In April 1945 Mussolini attempted to escape to German-controlled Austria, only to be captured and killed near Lake Como by Communist Resistance units.
Great Purge
The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.
The ideology and practice of the Nazis, especially the policy of racist nationalism, national expansion, and state control of the economy.
Munich Conference
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
El Alamein
Turning point of the war in North Africa. German General Rommel's forces were defeated by General Bernard Montgomery in Oct 1942 in Egypt and as a result retreated to Tunasia.
site of a meeting between the Big Three—Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill; decided that Eastern European countries could have freely elected governments, but these governments had to be friendly towards Russia; this agreement was impossible in places such as Poland; also decided that Germany would be divided into 4 occupational zones
United Nations
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations. (p. 833)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Nazi Soviet Pact
nonaggression treaty between russia( Stalin) and germany(Hitler) This was done so that germany did not have to fight a two front war. Once Germany was no longer in fear of a two front war they broke the treaty.
Final Solution
'The Final Solution for the Jewish Question' was the cover name for Hitler's plan to destroy all the Jews in Europe, It began in December 1941
Manhattan Project
Code name given to the development of the US atomic bomb during World War II. Work on the bomb was carried out in great secrecy by a team including US physicists Enrico Fermi and J. Robert Oppenheimer. The first test took place on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico, and the next month the US Air Force dropped bombs on Japan.
Marshall Plan
Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism. - Stalin Refused
Warsaw Pact
To counter the NATO buildup, the Soviets formed this military organization with the nations of Eastern Europe. Also gave Russia an excuse for garrisoning troops in these countries.
Hitler's use of "lightening warfare" in which he used aerial bombardment first followed by ground troops to surprise his enemies
D Day
June 6, 1944....the date the Allied drive to liberate France began, with the largest invasion by sea in history. On this day, British, Canadian, and US forces under the command of General Eisenhower secured several beachheads on the Normandy coast.
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II. 70,000 instantly dead
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology. If you dont become Communist, we will give you aid.
Berlin Airlift
In 1948, in response to a Soviet land blockade of Berlin, the United States carried out a more massive effort to supply the two million Berlin citizens with food, fuel, and other goods by air for more than six months. The airlift forced the Soviets to end the blockade in 1949.
Cold War
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
Berlin Wall
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Cuban Missile Crisis??
In October 1962, the United States and the Soviet Union came close to nuclear war when President Kennedy insisted that Nikita Khrushchev remove the 42 missiles he had secretly deployed in Cuba. The Soviets eventually did so, nuclear war was averted, and the crisisended.
Slobodan Milosevic
President of Serbia; oppressed all non- serbs; responsible for genocide
Saddam Hussein
(1937-2006) President of Iraq from 1979 to 2003; he established a brutal dictatorship, suppressed all dissent, and led Iraq into wars with Iran (1980-1990) and Kuwait (1991). He was removed from power in 2003 by U. S.-led forces.
Nelson Mandela
leader of the African National Congress who was jailed for his opposition to apartheid in South Africa. He was later elected president in 1994 when free elections were established, and was instrumental in a new democratic constitution being written in 1996.
FW de Klerk
White President of South Africa who ended apartheid and lifted the ban on ANC. Also freed Nelson Mandella
Green Revolution
the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity
Tienanmen Square
1989, Chinesse students protested in Tienanmen square against the government and China ordered a slaughter that killed thousands. Importaint because it shocked the world and created anti-china sentiments.
One-Child Policy
China's solution to decrease the overpopulation, limiting each family to one child
European Union
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
biological,nuclear or chemical weapons;imposed economic sanctions
Vladimir Putin
elected president of Russia in 2000, launched reforms aimed at boosting growth and budget revenues and keeping Russia on a strong economic track.
Al Qaeda
international group formed by Osama bin Laden. late 1980's that has vowed to fight against US and over throw what he calls corrupted muslim overnments
Sending work to the developing world in order to save money or increase efficiency