28 terms

Miller Living in the Environment 17ed chapter 10 vocabulary Hug

Miller LITE 17ed chapter 10 vocabulary on sustaining biodiversity the ecosystem approach
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Wangari Maathai
In the mid-1970s, this Kenyan woman organized the Green Belt Movement that organizes women in rural Kenya to plant trees, combat deforestation, restore their main source of fuel for cooking, generate income, and stop soil erosion. Since she started the movement, over 40 million trees have been planted. Over 30,000 women have been trained in forestry, food processing, bee-keeping, and other trades that help them earn income while preserving their lands and resources. Communities in Kenya (both men and women) have been motivated and organized to both prevent further environmental destruction and restore that which has been damaged. In 2004, she received the Nobel Peace Prize.
old-growth or primary forest
this is an uncut or regenerated forest that has not been seriously disturbed by human activities or natural disasters for several hundred years or more.
second-growth forest
this is a stand of trees resulting from secondary ecological succession. These forests develop after the trees in an area have been removed by human activities, such as clear-cutting for timber or cropland, or by natural forces such as fire, hurricanes, or volcanic eruption.
tree plantation or farm or commercial forest
this is a managed forest containing one or two species of trees that are all of the same age.
clear cutting
a method where loggers remove all of the trees from an area.
strip cutting
a method where clear-cutting is done on a strip of trees along a contour of the land within a corridor narrow enough to allow natural forest regeneration within a few years.
selective cutting
a method where intermediate-aged or mature trees in a forest are cut singly or in small groups.
surface fires
fires that usually burn only undergrowth and leaf litter on the forest floor. They may kill seedlings and small trees, but spare most mature trees and allow most animals to escape.
crown fire
fires that are extremely hot and leap from treetop to treetop, burning whole trees. They destroy most vegetation, kill wildlife, increase soil erosion, and burn or damage human structures in their paths.
prescribed burn
this is intentionally setting a small, contained fire to remove flammable small trees and underbrush in the highest-risk forest areas.
deforestation
this is the temporary or permanent removal of large expanses of forest for agriculture, settlements, or other uses.
bagasse
this is a waste product from sugar cane processing that MIT is working on to make into charcoal.
fuelwood
this is any wooden material that is gathered and used for fuel. It is a renewable resource, however, demand for this fuel can outpace its ability to regenerate on local and regional level. In some places in the world and through history, the demand has led to desertification.
debt-for-nature swaps
this is where participating countries act as custodians of protected forest reserves in return for foreign aid or debt relief.
rangelands
these are unfenced grasslands in temperate and tropical climates that supply forage, or vegetation for grazing (grass-eating) and browsing (shrub-eating) animals.
pastures
these are managed grasslands or fenced meadows usually planted with domesticated grasses or other forage crops such as alfalfa and clover for livestock to graze.
rotational grazing
this is a method in which cattle are confined by portable fencing to one area for a short time (1-2 days) and then moved to a new location.
overgrazing
this occurs when too many animals graze for too long, damaging the grasses and their roots, and exceeding the carrying capacity of a rangeland area.
gray wolf
after becoming almost extinct in much of the western US, this animal was listed as an endangered species in 1974. 31 members of this keystone species were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park in 1995 and 1996. By the end of 2009, there were 116 of them in the park.
buffer zone concept
this is a way to design and manage nature reserves. It means strictly protecting an inner core of a reserve and allowing public access to the outsides.
habitat corridors
this is a strip of land that aids in the movement of species between disconnected areas of their natural habitat. Urbanization can split up such areas, causing animals to lose both their natural habitat and the ability to move between regions to use all of the resources they need to survive. It is a possible solution to habitat fragmentation.
wilderness
this is land officially designated as an area where natural communities have not been seriously disturbed by humans and where human activities are limited by law. Theodore Roosevelt was the 1st U.S. president to set aside protected areas as these.
Wilderness Act (WA)
this act allowed the government to protect some 9 million acres of undeveloped tracts of public land from development. The act was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964.
ecosystem approach
the idea that we must focus more on protecting and sustaining ecosystems, and the biodiversity contained within them, than on saving individual species.
biodiversity hotspots
these are areas especially rich in plant species that are found nowhere else and are in great danger of extinction.
ecological restoration
this is the process of repairing damage caused by humans to the biodiversity and dynamics of natural ecosystems. Ex.: replanting trees
life raft ecosystems
these are highly stressed areas where poverty levels are high and where a large part of the economy depends on various ecosystem services that are being degraded severely enough to threaten the well-being of people and other forms of life.
reconciliation ecology
a type of conservation biology that focuses on inventing, establishing, and maintaining new habitats to conserve species diversity in places where people work, live, and play. (Sharing the spaces we dominate with other species)

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