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2017 - Fall - Urban Planning 120 Midterm
Terms in this set (103)
What is Urban Planning?
A field that examines the challenenges and problems faces by cities and regions
What are the two types of boundaries we discussed in class?
Administrative / Political Practical / Functional
What are political boundaries?
Boundaries that are created by people and politicians and do not have any connection to the scale of problems
What are functional boundaries?
Boundaries that relate to meaningful scales of problems
What are 5 concepts/topics Urban Planning deals with?
Affordable Housing, poverty, air quality, urban sprawl, Transportation/Congestion
What is the County government body?
Board of Supervisors
What is the LA City supervisory body?
Give an example of a practical / functional border?
Metropolitan Los Angeles
Give an example of a political/admin border
What is the main issue with borders and jurisdictions?
Problems don't occur just inside city limits but across large areas/regions
Do cities and counties always work well together?
No, sometimes they work at cross purposes for their own benefit
How much of the US population lived in cities in 1800?
less than 10%
What 2 words describe how the majority of the population of the US was like
Agrarian and Rural
How much of the US Population lives in cities today?
Is Urbanization a local or global trend?
What has been the biggest cause of the population shift to urbanization?
What are 2 of the biggest issues with population growth in cities?
Traffic CongestionInformal Housing
What is informal housing?
shanty towns/favellas - poor displaced from rural to urban but not enough housing so they have to build non-regulated housing on periphery.
What are the 3 major issues when planning for change and growth?
Where will people live?Where will they work?Will there be enough roads to support commuters?
When making decisions about planning for change, what are the 4 major implications he discussed?
Amount of carbonHealth/WalkingTime CommutingAffordable Housing
What are the two main concerns when cities decline, and give an example of a city that did decline?
Cities overspend on infrastructure and servicesExcess capactity of unused spaceDetroit
When did humanity shift from rural to urban?
19th century / Industrial Revolution
"""As people move into cities, societies problems are city problems.""List 4"
PovertyHomelessnessEnergy ConsumptionPublic Health
What role do cities play in Economies of countries?
Driver of Economic Development and Activity Engines of Prosperity
What is the definition of a city?
The absence of physical space between people and companies
Why do cities exist according to Glaeser?
Cities exist because success depends on physical connections between humans and firms
Do we still need cities in an age of technology?
Yes, people are still moving to cities because information flows from face to face relationships
What are the 2 definitions of a city?
Technical - admin boundariesPractical - collection of people and firms in close proximity
What is Urban Form?
dimensions and physical layout of cities
List two urban forms of cities
Monocentric and Polycentric
What is a monocentric city and give an example
When you have 1 single area with most of the commerce/jobs such as NY, Boston, or London
What is a polycentric city?
No major hub where the majoirty of people work, such as the Metro LA area
Atlanta and Chicago are very different in what way and how are they similar?
Have different urban forms but serve same purpose
What are the 3 major reasons for the existence of cities?
Overcome high cost of infrastructureIndustrial specialization to be more efficientEntertainment and Consumption preferences of people
What is the benefit of a large city/region over remote location in regards to infrastructure
Large cities/regions allow you to spread the cost over a greater number of people to support major infrastructure projects like airports, bridges, mass transit, and museums
What was Measure M?
raise sales tax by 1/2 cent to fund light rail and green transportation projects
List 4 transit ballot intiatives for the LA area
Prop AProp CMeasure RMeasure M
Why doesn't every city produce the all of the goods its residents consume?
That'd be Ineffecient
Why can't the LA or any region be completely self sufficient?
Natural geography limits in commodities and raw materials
What is economies of scale?
The more you produce of something, the cheaper it becomes - Cost perr unit
How does specialization give cities a reason to exist?
Most efficient place for firms to do business
What is the main savings benefit of cities?
Conglomeration - workers, suppliers, and ideas clustered together
What are 4 reasons that make cities desirable places to live?
Cities are cleaner than beforeHave less crime than beforepeople are tired of drivingpeople are getting married later in life
How does consumption give cities a reason to exist?
People prefer consumption and entertainment opportunities offered by cities compared to rural
What are the 4 disadvantages of cities?
High price of landTraffic congestionLaw and OrderPollution
Why is land rents higher in a city?
Supply/demand - more people demanding scarce land
Why do cities shrink?
Cities shrink when disadvantages outweigh advantages
What are 3 examples for city disadvantages outweighing advantages?
Infrastructure becomes old/costly Decline of an industryAir Pollution is greater than benefits of consumption
Does the worlds population cover a majority of the total land?
No, majority lives on a small fraction / clustered
Cities are the ___ of people and firms per Glaeser
3 main reasons cities exist
Are cities stable or unstable over time?
why has population growth exploded over the past 300 years?
Decrease in Infant mortality rate and increase in US Life expectancy due to public awareness and medicine
What are 3 major issues if we don't adequately plan for population growth?
Congestionlack of housingPollution/environmental impact
What are 3 major planning issues in southern california about where we build houses and create jobs?
What is the major infrastructure issue when you have population growth without planning?
public health issues - sanitation, access to clean water, access to schools
What is urban planning ultimately about?
Accommodating population growth and providing development in an orderly and sustainable way
What was the industrial revolution?
Transition from an era of animal and hand production to production by mechanized machinery
What two main effects did the industrial revolution have on industries?
Agriculture - People were free from working the landManufacturing - Cottage industries could not compete with output of industrial machines
Why did people move from rural to cities in Industrial revolution times?
Searching for employment especially in textiles
What is a cottage industry?
Home based production of clothes and other goods
As cities grew in the 19th century, what 6 things were they ill equipped to provide?
ill equipped to provide shelter and basic services such as water, waste disposal, healthcare, public safety, and transportation
What was one of the primary reasons urban planning emerged at this time?
Reduce negative externalities associated with incompatible land uses
What were the two major public health issues in the industrial revolution that urban planning tackled?
Polluting industries and Lack of Public sanitation
What is a negative externality?
When an action creates a cost for a third party.
What are the externalities of a polluting factory?
neighbor costs - health, clean upPrivate benefit/social cost
Why is government intervention needed to reduce negative externalities of polluting plants?
Because the plan isn't affected negatively by the pollution (paying any costs), it has no incentive to reduce or clean it up
Why are environmental issues state/federal?
Stop cities from engaging in a race to the bottom and undercutting each other
What is the primary purpose of Land use?
segregate industries from residents
What is the basic definition of Land Use planning?
what gets built and where
What 5 things does the type of housing we build determine?
Auto dependencyAbility to provide public transportationenergy useurban sprawlCommute times
What are the two features of land that lead to disagreements about how it's used?
Land is exhaustible/scarceLand is a commodity
Is land an exhaustible resource and what do california laws say about it?
Yes and that we should insure it's preservation and use in ways that are economically and socially desirable
What are the 5 major groups that disagree about land use decisions?
What is the main concern of homeowners when it comes to land use decisions?
Protecting the price of the house
What is the main concern of Developers when it comes to land use decisions?
Profitting from building in the most expensive parts of the region while keeping their costs the same
What is the main concern of Environmentalists when it comes to land use decisions?
Protect and preserve land
What is the main concern of homeowners when it comes to land use decisions?
What is the main concern of city councils when it comes to land use decisions?
develop as much as possible to increase the tax base
What is the main concern of planners when it comes to land use decisions?
balancing the different public goals of planning and the private goals of each group
What was measure HHH?
measure to issue 1.2bn in bonds to build housing for the homeless
Is the federal governments role in land use direct or indirect?
On land that the Federal government manages, what are the two main functions?
Preservation & Resource Management
What 2 things are the Federal Governments biggest tools in influencing land use decisions?
Regulations and Funding
What are 3 main regulations/legislations federal government uses to influence land use decisions?
Federal Air, Water, and Environment quality lawsProtection of Endagered Species & WetlandsRestrictions on Mining and Drilling
How does the federal government influence land use decision through funding?
DOT - Provides major funding for highway and transit projects such as the interstate highway systemHousing/HUD - funds for redevelopment and public housing
What 3 things do state govts do in regards to land use planning?
Manage state owned landpass regulationsFund programs
What is the States macrolegislative role when it comes to land use planning?
State law requires each city and county to plan for new housing and meet pop growth projections
Why did the state mandated plans for each community to meet growth not succeed?
Plans were not implemented and state has no enforcement mechanism
Does the federal government or the state enact environmental regulation in regard to land use policy?
Which State Bill told local governments to build housing developments more sustainably?
Which amendment gives states authority for land use decisions?
10th Amendment - Reserved Powers Doctrine / Police powers
What is reserved powers doctrine/police power?
States have authority over health, safety, welfare of population
What are counties?
subdivisions of the state
Are counties creations of people within them or the state?
Creations of the state
What is the primary purpose of a county?
implement state policy on a regional basis
What are the 3 primary responsibilities of a county and the 1 by default?
health, welfare, criminal justice and land use
What is an unincoporated area?
Land within a county that doesn't fall under the jurisdiction of a city government
Are cities created by people or the state?
Created by local citizens to serve local purposes
What is the government agency that incorporates cities?
Local Agency Formation Commission - LAFCO
Why not let the federal goverment make land use decisions for everyone?
it cannot cater to the diverse prefences of each community
Why are some areas so fragmented?
Overcome difference in opinion and keep like minded people living together
List 2 main abuses of fragmentation
Racial and Income segregation
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