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life science 1 final exam review questions
firt part ecology
Terms in this set (82)
When primary producers expend energy to build new tissue, this is:
A. net primary productivity
B. the amount of energy available to consumers
C. maintenance costs
D. both A and B
E. both B and C
Which of the following most often controls the rate of nutrient cycling in ecosystems?
A. rate of decomposition of detritus
B. primary productivity
C. secondary productivity
D. both B and C
Write the formula describing the relationship between gross primary productivity, net primary productivity and respiration.
GPP - R = NPP
Which of the following could be a cause of eutrophication?
A) adding a large amount of a limiting resource to an aquatic ecosystem
B) removing a limiting resource from a terrestrial ecosystem
C) removing a limiting resource from an aquatic ecosystem
Devegetation has what effect on ecosystem dynamics?
A) It increases belowground biomass.
B) It increases the pool of soil organic matter.
C) It increases rates of groundwater recharge (penetration of precipitation to the water table).
D) It increases nutrient export.
Based on the following figure, what is a true statement?
a. Cultivated lands have exceptionally high productivity.
b. Tropical wet forest and the open ocean are the ecosystems with the two highest percent total NPP.
c. Algal beds and reefs have the largest total percent NPP.
d. The open ocean has very high NPP per unit area.
Several of the major human impacts on ecosystems are farming, logging, burning, and soil erosion. These processes all result in accelerated nutrient loss by what common mechanism?
a. soil compaction
b. loss of animal habitat
c. vegetation removal
d. environmental pollution
Which of the following is a good way to reduce your ecological footprint?
a. eating more dairy products
b. eating mainly primary producers
c. living in large homes
d. eating foods transported from other countries
The global carbon cycle involves the movement of carbon among ecosystems. Which of the following represents the largest pool of carbon?
a. human-induced changes
b. terrestrial ecosystems
c. the atmosphere
d. the ocean
how quickly can fishing to deplete fish and shellfish populations that have accumulated over decades?
within 1 to 2 years
what activites are usually allowed in marine reserves?
scuba diving and scientific monitoring
all species respond in the same way to protection.
fish responses in marine reserves had a _______ greater abundance.
__________ fishes and invertebrates in marine reserves reproduce more young than _________ fishes and invertabrates outside of the reserves.
marine reserves receive ________ protection.
a network of many small marine reserves is a potential alternative to one large reserve.
within a species of fish or invertebrate why is it important for bigger individuals to survive?
larger animals produce exponentially more young than smaller animals produce
on averag diversity has decreased 21% and biomass has decreased 446% inside marine reserves
through agriculture humans have actually increased the number of plant species
environmental sequencing has brought to light what crucial finding?
ecen the world's simplest ecosystems contain an enomous amount of genetic diversity
the main factor that leads to the loss of biodiversity is
which of the following is not a step in studying biodiversity>
measuring general physiology of the species
which of the following criteria have to be met in order for a species to qualigy as invasive?
introduced to a new area, spreads rapidly and displaces native species
based on how you would go about measuing biodiversiy which of the following is true?
the most intensively studied lineages are vertebrates
a model that estimates the likelihood that a population will avoid extinction for a given period of time is called
population viability analysis
approximately how many species have we described out of the species alive today?
we have described only a small fraction of the speceis on earth
only certain speceis are imune from extinction.
which of the following is characterized by keratinous scales that prevent water loss?
the ancestors to extant catilaginous fishes had cartilaginous bones.
Birds would be considered
which of the following is the sister taxa to terrestrial tetrapods?
amphibian eggs need water to develop
the first tetrapod vertabrates were
teeth that are continually replaced as they wear out
monotremes are mammals. they lay amniotic eggs and young feed from mammary glands even though they lack nipples.
tetrapod are the only vertebrate group to invade land
which of the following are chordates but not vertebrates?
refer to figure 56.13 in your text book
after looking at the experiment in figure 56.13 what can be said about nutrient export in ecosystems?
Nutrient export is typically 10 times higher in a clear cut watershed
when primary producers expend energy to build new tissue, this is
net primary productivity and the amout of energy availiable to consumers
considering the global carbon cycle, where are humans having a large impact?
in both terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere
which of the following is not a source of human-fixed nitrogen?
which of the following consume other living organisms?
both herbivores and carnivores
what is the main reason for using food webs instead of food chains in analyzing ecosystems?
most organisms ear more than one type of food and feed at several trophic levels
refer to figure 56.13 in your textbook
affter looking at the experiment in figure 56.13 all of the following are plausible reasons for the result excpet____?
nutrients evaporate now that vegetation is absent
which of the following human activities is impacting the water cycle the least?
increased processing of salt water to freshwater
Refer to figure 56.16 in your textbook. considering the global nitrogen cycle depicted in figure 54.9 what is the limiting portion fo the cycle for plants?
nitrogen fixation by bacteria
why is energy lost when herbivores eat primary producers?
primary producers have energy stored in indigestible substances
the skeleton of echinoderms is internal
you find a new species of marine creature. which of the following characters would help you decide if the animal was most closely related to crabs or spiders?
the presence of chelicerae
which of the following is not a predator?
arthropod bodies are fully enclosed within a
phylum athropoda includes which of the following animals
millipedes lobsters and spiders
horseshoe crabs are crustaceans
barnacles filter feed with modified
the phylum athropoda is dominated by the class insects
what is true about the phylum echimodermata?
they are deuterostomes and have tube feet.
the maximum population size that a particular enviorment can support
exponential growth of a population is represented by dN/dt=
in biology an arms race occurs when
a pair of species influences eachother's evolution
in models of logistics growth
the population growth rate slows dramatically as N apporoaches K
population ecologists are primarily interested in
understanding how biotic and abiotic factors influence the density, distribution, size, age structure of populations
Recall that Clements's view of biological communities is that of a highly predictable and interrelated structure, while Gleason's view of biological communities is that individual species operate
independently. If we set up many identical sterilized ponds in the same area and allowed them to be colonized, what should we predict if Gleason's hypothesis is the one we believe is correct?
different plankton communities will develop in all ponds.
the definition of a generation is
the average time between a mother's first offspring and her daughter's first offspring
the study of factors that determine the size and structure of populations through time is called_____
which hypothesis supports the observation that hebicores do not generally eat all of the availiable plants?
plant defense hypothesis
top-down control hypothesis
poor nutrition hypothesis
(basically a combination of all of the above)
which of the following is not an example of mutualism
birds eating insects jumping out of the path of army ants
which of the following animals would most likely be defined as a keystone species?
which of the following organisms is likely to have the widest geographic distribution?
the specific abiotic factors defining a biome
average annual temp, moisture levels, and annual variation in temp and percipitation
what is the main reason that climatic condiitons on mercury differ from those on earth?
average distance from the sun
wetlands are standing bodies of freshwater, just like lakes and ponds. however wetlands are diferent from lakes and ponds because
wetlands have shallow water and emergent vegetation
which animal is best known for migration using chemotaxis>
in red winged blackbirds which of the following stimuli elicited the greatest territorial defense response?
presenting both the model and playing the recording
the mollusks lack species with complex nervous systems and problem soving skills
in bivalves gills funciton as
respitory and feedign structures
a sea anemone is
which o the following lacks mesodrm as an embryonic tissue
which of the following is the feeding stuctrue on a mollusk
acoelomates lack mesoderm as an embryonic tissue
dikaryotic mycelia can produce
fruiting body such as a mushroom
the phylum mollusca includes a large number of species that are marine freshwater and terrestrial
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