Bio 224 Lab 8 Digestive Physiology
Terms in this set (53)
Includes grinding food by the teeth and small muscle contractions in the stomach.
a series of chemical reactions, catalyzed by enzymes
break down the large ingested food molecules (polymers), such as starch, fats, and proteins into their smaller component molecules (monomers).
glucose, fatty acids, amino acids
T/F Enzymes are proteins
starch, fats, proteins
What is the dietary source of carbohydrates?
a large glucose polymer found in bread, pasta, potatoes
What enzyme digests starch into maltose?
Salivary amylase is an enzyme secreted by what?
the salivary glands
a glucose disaccharide
Where is carbohydrate digestion completed?
In the small intestine with additional amylase from the pancreas.
What are two disaccharides that are a dietary source of carbohydrates?
Lactose (milk sugar) and sucrose (table sugar)
Lactose, sucrose, and maltose are broken down into
monosaccharides: glucose, galactose, fructose
monosaccharides are absorbed into
the bloodstream across the GI tract wall.
Carbohydrate digestion starts at the
What two indicators were used in carbohydrate digestion ?
Lugol's iodine solution and Benedict's solution
Lugol's iodine solution
tests for the presence of starch
tests for the presence of monosaccharides
If there is starch present, the test tube will be
+ (dark blue/black color)
If there is no starch present, the test tube will be
- (light- brown color)
In the Benedict's solution, if maltose is present,
it is a positive color control, it will turn a cloudy green-orange color
In the Benedict's solution, if maltose is not present
it is a negative color control, it will be a bright blue color.
Protein is the nutrient molecule that can be found in what foods?
meats, eggs, legumes
Digestion of proteins begins in the ___________ by __________
Pepsinogen is an
Pepsinogen is secreted by
an active protein digesting enzyme
pepsinogen is converted to pepsin in
the acidic environment of the stomach
Protein digestion is completed in _____________ with the help of ___________
the small intestine, pancreatic proteases
The protein digesting enzymes secreted from the pancreas, the brush border of the small intestine, and epithelial cells of the GI tract for protein digestion are ...
proteases and peptidases
A protease secreted by the pancreas and added to the small intestine
a protein found in human blood plasma and eggs.
what substate is used in Protein digestion?
The Biuret's reagent is used in
used to test for changes in the amount of peptide bonds exposed
When proteins have not been broken down,
the reagent will react with the small peptide bonds on the outer walls of the protein.
If proteins have not been broken down,
solution will remain blue- purple
When proteins are broken down,
more of their peptide bonds are exposed to the chemical reagent and solution will turn a purple- reddish color
Fats are _________
What is the primary fat digestive enzyme?
Bile salts from the liver
are the first to mix with fat globules to disperse them into smaller droplets (emulsification)
pancreatic enzyme added to the small intestine
solution of enzymes from the pancreas, including lipase.
Fat substrate for fat digestion
A pH indicator
As the fat in the cream is digested,
free fatty acid chains are released
are acidic and lower the pH of the solution
blue in alkaline and neutral pH solutions, and a red color in acidic pH solutions
No fat digestion
blue solution (-)
solution that turns red or light pink (+)
Proteins have not been broken down
proteins have been broken down -digestion
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