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Prelim 2, Lecture 19: Sexual and Social Behaviors
10/18-10/23, Chapter 12
Terms in this set (72)
What are the 4 stages of reproductive behavior?
1) Sexual attraction: animals emit stimuli that attract members of the opposite sex; females attracted to males that display the best species-specific traits
2) Appetitive behavior: helps establish/maintain sexual interest--approaching males, remaining close, alternating retreat and approach behavior--ear wiggling in female rats
3) Copulation: the sexual act
4) Postcopulatory behavior: vary across species--copulatory lock, extensive parental behaviors; temporary decrease in the sexual attractiveness of the partner
a durable and exclusive relationship between a male and a female
Which two phases stages of reproductive behavior encompass the postcopulatory phase?
Postcopulatory behavior and sexual attraction
a female receptive posture in quadrupeds in which the hindquarters are raised and the tail is turned to one side, facilitating intromission by the male
Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)
a hypothalamic region involved in eating and sexual behaviors
Lesions where in the brain abolish lordosis? (Hint: two areas)
the neuronal body-rich region of the midbrain
surrounding the cerebral aqueduct that connects the third and fourth ventricles
The ___ sends axons to the ___ ___ region of the ___. Its neurons project to the ___ ___ ___, which in turn projects to the spinal cord via the ___ ___, where it gets integrated with sensory inputs from the flanks and rump, which are stimulated by the ___ and ___ behaviors of the male, resulting in a motor activity pattern in the female that produces ___.
VMH, periaqueductal gray, midbrain; medullary reticular formation, reticulospinal tract, mounting, grasping; lordosis
What is the role of the VMH?
monitor steroid hormone concentrations
and, at the right time in the ovulatory cycle, activate a multisynaptic pathway that induces spinal motor neurons to contract back muscles, producing lordosis in response to male mounting.
Basically, monitor hormonal levels according to the females cycle, and produce lordosis.
medial preoptic area (mPOA)
a region of the anterior
implicated in control of many behaviors, including thermoregulation, sexual behavior, and gonadotropin secretion
Lesions of the mPOA (medial preoptic area) abolish male ___ behavior in a wide variety of vertebrate species, but can be reinstated in castrated males by small implants of ___ placed directly in it. Lesions here do not interfere with ___ for ___, but with commencing ___.
copulatory, testosterone; motivation, copulation, mounting
The ___ coordinates copulatory behavior by sending axons to the ___ ___, which in turn projects 1) to the ___ ___ to coordinate ___ behaviors (since they are key regulators of ___ behavior) and 2) to the ___ __, via several ___ ___ that regulate various reflexes of copulation.
mPOA, ventral midbrain, basal ganglia, mounting, motor, spinal cord, brainstem nuclei
See Figure 12.9 (page 380) and talk yourself through it.
some things to note: only one pattern for males, while three for women (what three are possible for women)
men have that refractory period
A willingness to become ____ interacts with ___ ___. A combination of ___ stimuli and ___ factors result in feelings of __ and ___. A variety of factors, including rewarding ___ ___ and/or ___ gratification from this encounter, provide ___ that affects levels of ___ for subsequent ___ behavior in females.
In addition, the effects of ___ ___, ___, and __ __ (what does the sex mean, or what do you want after it) have an effect in humans and animals.
; sexual, biological, arousal, desire; nonsexual intimacy, sexual,
, motivation, sexual
, context, future intentions/secondary desires
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
any of several genetic mutations that can result in exposure of a female fetus to adrenal androgen, which results in a clitoris that is larger than typical at birth
In CAH, the __ ___ fail to produce sufficient ___, producing instead considerable amounts of ____. In (XX/XY) individuals with this condition, the ___ levels are intermediate between those of typical males and females, and the newborn has an intersex appearance: a phallus intermediate in size between a typical clitoris and a typical penis, and skin folds that resemble both labia and scrotum, or in severe cases, the appearance of a well-formed penis and scrotum but no testes.
, androgens; XX, androgen
Despite the many androgens, those with ____ still have __ __, and so their external appearance is female.
CAH, XX chromosomes
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)
a syndrome caused by a
mutation of the androgen receptor gene that renders tissues insensitive to androgenic hormones
like testosterone; affected XY individuals are phenotypic females, but they have internal testes and regressed internal genital structures
In AIS, the gene for the ___ receptor on the ___ chromosome is dysfunctional. Normal ___ that secrete ___ will develop (such that ___ are still being produced), but without working receptors, the ___ ducts fail to sense ___ and so they ___, so ___ and a ___ form. Lacking ___ and a ___, women with AIS don't start ____, but physically appear like other women.
androgen, X; testes, testosterone, androgens,
, testosterone, regress, labia, clitoris;
, uterus, menstruating
literally, "eggs at 12" in Spanish; a nickname for individuals who are raised as girls but at puberty change appearance and begin behaving as boys do
In guevedoces, ___ come with puberty, leading to high levels of ___, but this ___ still acts on ___ receptors. Since guevedoces were in utero, ___ receptors have been being activated by ____, so their brains are ____, causing them to feel and act as ___.
testes, testosterone, testosterone, estrogen; estrogen, testosterone, masculinized, males
What is 5alpha-reductase? What would happen to an XY individual who was deficient in it?
An enzyme that converts testosterone into DHT. When they were born, they'd
look intermediate between the "two" sexes
. They'd have normal testosterone, so testes and normal male internal reproductive structures would develop, but the
external genitalia would not masculinize fully, looking like a large clitoris.
Female ___ have high testosterone, so they still may show external male physiology, but have ovum on the inside.
Successful reproduction follows many physiological, neural and behavioral patterns. Differential ___ and probability of ___ (which were once summarized as r vs K selection) can be seen in the differences between whales and rats in terms of ___ and ___ number.
investment, return, investment, offspring
Which two aspects of sexual and social behavior need to be explained?
Development (of two sexes) and adult patterns (the organization of behavior within individuals, and between two adult sexes in reproduction)
___ ___ are small, ___ molecules derived from ____. They cannot be ____, and so are ___ as soon as they are synthesized.
They easily move between ___ and ___, so they can easily pass from circulation and into the ___, or vice versa. They are able to cross the ___-___ ___.
Steroid hormones, lipophilic, cholesterol; stored, released; cells, tissues, brain; blood-brain barrier
An early part of synthesis pathway in both males and females is the creation of ___. In males, it more often becomes ___, but can actually also become ___, depending on the ___ in use.
progesterone; androgens/testosterone, cortisol, enzymes
Testosterone can be changed into ___, an androgen, but ___ cannot be change back into something that acts on ____ ____, like the ___, ___. Is this the case in both sexes?
DHT, DHT, non-androgen receptors, estrogen, E2
___, an ___, cannot be changed back into something that acts on ____ ___; this same rule applies to ___. Is this the case in both sexes?
E2, estrogen, non-estrogen receptors, DHT
True or false: high levels of a hormone can have a partial effect on receptors that aren't necessarily specific to them, such that a high level of testosterone could act on an estrogen receptor.
Describe the permanence, timing, and function of organizational and activational effects.
O: permanent/long-term behavioral effects; happens during critical period; establishes substrates in the brain that encode future behavior
diminish as hormones are metabolized
; happens during adulthood;
circulation of hormones
to act on already-established substrates
Unusually high and low levels of a hormone can happen at anytime in life. Give two examples from Timmy D's office hours.
Lots of conversion to androgens
in a female baby who is XX in her genes would cause her to have a penis, because of her hormones.
2) A male may have the gene for male pattern baldness in adulthood, so if he had high levels of testosterone he would be bald, but if he had no testosterone from testes damage, he would not be bald.
Think about the motor cycle revving appetitive behavior discussed in lecture. What was the takeaway? What was a more controversial example that reflected this same takeaway?
"Any behavior we see substantially across individuals has to have had a positive function at some point, or else these guys would be total losers (evolutionarily and socially)."
Perhaps sexual assault wouldn't happen if it wasn't at some point functional.
What are the two possible products of sexual attraction? (Hint: they vary in investment species-wise)
Pregnancy and parental behavior
In ___, about 90% of species are monogamous, with ___ ___ ___ or ___ ___--very few have ___ and ___. In mammals, that minority pattern is the dominant one; also common is ___ ___, and the ___ ___ and the ___ being left to do what?
birds, male parental investment, mate protection, polyandry, polygyny; casual sex, male leaving, female (
being left to care for the young
Even when pairing does occur, it may vary from being purely ___ to being both ___ and ___.
social, social, reproductive
Discuss the great reed warbler story from lecture.
On the slide, male territories were mapped out on a lake. This species of bird is a migratory one, going to Africa for the winter and Sweden in the spring--males get back first to establish territory and to sing.
In a study, females were brought back a week early and tracked. Dots on the map show where their location was every ten minutes--if there were many dots in a particular place, it means they stayed there for a long time--such places ere those where they could hear multiple males. At the end of the day, they would show up at the territory of the male who had the fanciest song--
not necessarily the fanciest song overall, but the fanciest of what she had heard THAT DAY.
They'll hanky-panky, but since the male didn't know she was there until she came back, the interaction was a result of the female's choice. They build a nest and then they have babies.
Without the manipulation of migration, the study was run again--they waited for nesting and took DNA samples from the mom, dad, and the babies to work out their parentage. The genetic mom took care of all of the babies, but 5% had different biological fathers than social fathers. In those 5% of cases, the biological father had a fancier song than the social father--as was alluded to before, the female chose who to nest with on incomplete information--in one day, she can't complete her survey of all the males' songs. Once she's able to do this, she can lay her eggs, but she needs someone else to build a nest with in preparation for all that.
Discuss the white-throated sparrow example from lecture.
Those sparrows with white throats and stripes tended to be more aggressive overall, compared to those with tan throats and stripes. Coloration is not tied to one sex, so either color morph can be either male or female, leading to four possible pairing patterns.
3 or 4 out of every 1,000 pairs was white-white--in this case, both partners were aggressive and territorial--they had the nicest, biggest territory, but they built crummy nests because neither was interested in it. They laid eggs, but in several cases the eggs never hatched because they didn't get sat on in, and in other cases, they were born but starved to death because the parents were too busy defending the territory to feed the kids.
With tan-tan, the couple was too affectionate--they built a gorgeous nest, but they never defended it. They were in contention over who got to sit on the eggs and take care of the kids. They were unable to find food to feed their kids, because if they went too far off their small territory, they would be fought, and weren't aggressive enough to fight back, so their children also starved.
A white male and tan female represent the expected, prototypic relationship--this pairing works out and the babies grow. With a tan male and a white female, tasks are shared--the female patrols and sings, while the male actually enjoy sitting on the eggs.
In white-throated sparrows, how can females with white coloration sing?
With sex aside, white white-throated sparrows produce high levels of testosterone, which stimulates song areas in the brain--these areas are also larger in white birds.
What is the general takeaway of the white-throated sparrow example, and what implications does it hold for the offspring of the different pairs described?
Different social systems work and don't work, even within the same species. The color gene is on the autosome, so half of their offspring will be each color that their parents are, so the offspring of each pair will probably follow the mating pattern of their parents.
Discuss the laysan albatross story from lecture.
Laysan albatross mate for life and lay ONE egg--parents take turns flying for food and incubating and feeding the baby.
Researchers noticed some nests had two eggs, which is odd, and predicted that there was egg dumping--maybe one female was in trouble and found a nest, and just laid her egg in there.
BUT DNA "finger printing" of the different birds on the island showed that the chicks hatched from both of those eggs each had one of the two females as their biological mother. Both adult females had mated with a male--they learned that two females can mate for life with a social pairing, and that reproductive pairing occurred elsewhere.
The laysan albatross example shows that there are a variety of __ behaviors, even within species of ___ animals.
Animal differences can be paralleled to human differences; research has shown that hormones and receptors play a large role in parental style, investment, and behavior. Give an example of an animal that illustrates this.
Prairie voles/montane voles--within prairie voles, you can find individuals who are more parental and more dedicated to their partner, relating to individual differences in vasopressin and oxytocin receptors.
True or false: men are nearly twice as likely to swipe "like" on Tinder than women.
FALSE! They are almost THREE times as likely (46% vs 14% of cases)
We participate in partner selection and females are more choosy--why might this be?
Sketchiness of males; differential investment; vantage point of relationship length (what they're looking for, what they see themselves getting of the relationship and where they see it going)
The brain is a major hormone target. There are gonadal steroid receptors in the hypothalamus. Why might this be? In what four other areas are there many gonadal steroid receptors, and what is the function of those areas?
Feedback loops here that regulate hormone secretion, but also the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is critical for female sexual behavior.
AMYGDALA: fear, happiness, positive/negative emotional learning
SEPTUM: aggressive interactions
episodic memories--creating memories without major emotions attached to them (like spatial memories... this is kind of surprising)
MEDIAL PREOPTIC AREA (mPOA): critical for male sexual behavior in animals
True or false: estrogen receptors are found throughout the cortex.
Receptors can go unused, if they are in a less directly implicated area related to sexual behavior.
FALSE! No receptors sits unused, no matter their location.
In rats of both sexes, there are clusters of ___ neurons in the lower __ ___ that are stimulated by ___. They are not much stimulated in ___, so those neurons regress and die, such that certain cells are present in ___ only. They receive input from ___ and ___ ___ areas of the brain, responsible for the ___ and __ of movement. ___ in the bloodstream is converted into ___--there is stimulation of neurons that go to the ___, where there are neurons that project down to the ___ ___ (in ___, not ___), and are involved in ___, ___ and ___ in rats.
motor, spinal cord, testosterone; females, males; cortical, basal ganglial, context, initiation; Testosterone, estrogen,
, spinal cord, males, females, intercourse, mounting, thrusting
In female rats, ___ acts in the ___ and travel to the ___ ___. Neurons that allow her to move into a __-___ position are stimulated given correct ___ levels and according to her ___, which may lead to ___ behavior. Give two examples of such behavior.
*estrogen*, hypothalamus (ventromedial), *spinal cord*; sex-permitting,
ypothalamus (ventromedial), *spinal cord*; sex-permitting,
, cycle, appetitive
Ear flicking to get the male's attention, and darting (flitting away and checking to see if the male is with it) which will lead to sex.
Phasic hormone levels determine when pregnancy is possible. They may follow an __ ___ as in humans and rats, or an ___ one, or even by ___. Give examples of the last two blanks.
endogenous rhythm, external, stimulation
External: day length in deer--as there are decreases in day length
Stimulation: in rabbits, sex will lead to egg release
Receptivity to ___ for females may be tightly associated to ___ patterns, as in dogs and horses, or only loosely linked, as in great apes.
___ stimulation, in addition to gonadal steroids, are associated with sex. What implications does this have for people with autism?
Oxytocin; those with autism have low oxytocin, so perhaps this is why it is hard for them to feel satisfied from being touched.
Embryos begin with undifferentiated ___. You can't tell ___ from the ___ and ___ ducts.
gonads; sex, Wolffian, Mullerian
In mammals, what begins sexual differentiation? What's the default? Discuss how it does so.
A hormonal signal.
Without androgens, the embryo develops female morphology. This is the default sex. Wolffian ducts regress and Mullerian ducts grow into the fallopian tubes and the uterus.
With androgens, male morphology develops. The Mullerian ducts regress and tubes for carrying sperm grow.
Since stimulating brain ___ receptors is not enough to become male-like, what explains the masculinization of the brain? Define it.
the fetus produces testosterone, which goes everywhere in the brain. The enzyme aromatase turns it into estrogen, which acts on estrogen receptors, turning the brain male-like.
The essence of the aromatization theory is that feminine structures are caused by a ___ of ___, not necessarily just the ___ of ____. In female babies, since ___ ___ grab ___, but not ___, no ___ is being taken up to the brain, so the brain is not ___.
lack, androgens, presence, estrogen; alpha feto-proteins, estrogen, androgens, estrogen, masculinized
What is the paradox of the aromatization hypothesis? What happens in the bloodstream that debunks this paradox?
The mother is producing estrogens, so why don't her estrogens have the same effect (on female embryos) since steroids can travel wherever, through cells and tissues? Why is aromatase not turning her estrogen into testosterone? Why are female babies not becoming male-like?
In the bloodstream, alpha feto-protein grabs estrogens, but not androgens, estrogens are not getting to the female baby's brain. In males, it does grab estrogen and takes it to the brain, where it acts on estrogen receptors and turns the brain male-like.
The ___ gene is activated in the fetus, causing differentiation of ___ from the undifferentiated __, which enables the production of ___, leading directly to ___ body changes and indirectly the ____ of the brain (since it must first turn into ___ for this to happen).
In females, a lack of early ____ leads to the development of female ___, ____, and ___ ___.
At any of these stages, ___ or ___ factors can shift the process.
SRY, testes, gonad, testosterone, peripheral, masculinization, estrogen
testosterone, gonads, genitalia, brain circuits
Sex determined by ___ leads to ___ sex which determines ___ sex.
genes, gonadal, phenotypic
The production of testosterone without or with too few (estrogen/androgen) receptors has (brain/bodily) effects--a person would appear externally (male/female)--it doesn't matter whether you have (estrogen/androgen) receptors in the brain because you don't need them for testosterone to have its effect--why is this?
androgen, brain, female, androgen
The testosterone in the brain is turned into estrogen by aromatase, and then works on estrogen receptors, not androgen ones.
True or false: physical appearances always matches the genotype (XX/XY).
Female ducts remain in tact not just because of a ___ of ___, but also because genes on the __ ___ can cause the regression of ___/___ ducts--it's not an entirely passive process.
lack, androgens, X chromosome, male/Wolffian
Our classification of man and woman is categorical, but reality is not. Slightly related to this, what may be influencing the increasingly early onset of puberty for girls?
Exposure to environmental androgens--birth control is not properly disposed of, and is instead flushed down toilets, and when that toilet water is cleaned and refiltered, they consume it as drinking water.
The science shows that "male" and "female" are part of a ____. ___ and ___ traditions assign ___ roles to men and women based on ___, not biology.
continuum; Religious, social, absolute, culture
In adult humans, the brain tends to be ___ in ___ than ___ by about 3-5%.
larger, males, females
Consistently, areas around the ___ are larger in males than in females. Some areas are larger in females than in males, including the __ ___ (involved in ___ cognition--understanding and relating ___ to other cognitions) and a chunk of ___ cortex, as well as the ___ ___ cortex.
hypothalamus; cingulate cortex, emotional, emotion, frontal, parietal association
Generally and consistently, ___ areas tend to be larger in females, and ____ areas, including the ____, tend to be larger in males. These differences are small, and it's not clear whether these differences lead to different ___ capacities or are merely associated with males having ___ ___ __ ___.
cortical, subcortical, hippocampus; functional, larger brains on average
In more recent tests, there were no differences between ___ and ___ skills of men and women. Some differences shift across the woman's __ __, like ___ ___ skills and ___ ___. This shows a difference in capacities, but not ___ the differences __ ___--you can't draw implications from this by saying a certain ___ is ____.
perceptual, computational; hormonal cycle, fine motor, mental rotation; where, come from, structure, larger/smaller
In a study, experimenters measured the size of the subdivisions of the ___, namely the subdivision ___. That area tends to be smaller in ___, larger in ___, and intermediate in ___. The directionality here is unclear.
(anterior) hypothalamus, INAH-3; heterosexual females, heterosexual males, gay males
Multiple categories of signaling molecules exist in the body that affect sexual and social behaviors--give some examples of those molecules, and note that they interact with the brain in ___ and ___ ways. Also note that there is no clear dividing line between these categories.
neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones, etc.; organizational, activational
There is bidirectional causality between ___ and ___.
There are ___ ___ at all levels between hormone sites in the ___ and brain, and ___ sites and hormonal sites (for example, there are parts of the cortex and ___ with ___ receptors).
feedback loops, periphery, cognitive, hippocampus, gonadosteroid
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