TFM 160 exam#2


Terms in this set (...)

Voice-over Narration
-narration heard concurrently and over a scene but not synchronized to any character who may be talking on screen. it can come from many sources.
-when we hear a character's voice over the picture without actually seeing the character speak words
Direct Address Narration
-an on-screen character looks and speaks directly to the audience
-breaks the "fourth wall" that traditionally separates the viewer from the two-dimensional fiction on-screen. It goes beyond the first-person narrative and voice-over narration. This is when the first-person narrator character interrupts the narrative.
Omniscient Narration
providing a third person view of all aspects of a movie's action or characters
Restricted Narration
reveals information to the audience only as a specific character learns of it
Round Characters
complex character possessing numerous, subtle, repressed, or contradictory traits that can change significantly over the course of the story—sometimes surprisingly so. Seem more lifelike due to the complexness.
Flat Characters
a relatively uncomplicated character exhibiting few distinct traits. they do not change significantly as the story progresses

This doesn't mean they are less legitimate that other characters; different types of stories call for different approaches to character traits, behaviors, and development.
-primary character whose pursuit of the goal provides the structural foundation of a movie's story
-character who pursues the goal
the character, creature or force that obstructs or resists the protagonist's pursuit of his or her goal.
an unsympathetic protagonist pursuing a morally objectionable or otherwise undesirable goal.
Ex: Holden from Catcher in the Rye
Inciting Incident (Catalyst)
-the event or situation during the exposition stage of the narrative that sets the rest of the narrative in motion
-presents the character with the goal that will drive the rest of the narrative.
Rising Action
development of the action of the narrative toward a climax
a critical turning point in a story when the protagonist must engage a seemingly insurmountable obstacle
the highest point of conflict in a conventional narrative; the protagonist's ultimate attempt to attain the goal
the concluding narrative events that follow the climax and celebrate, or otherwise reflect upon, story outcomes(goal is either lost or attained). also, the capacity of the camera lens, film stock, and processing to provide fine detail in an image.
all the events we see or hear on the screen, as well as all the events that are implicit or infer to have happened but are not explicitly presented
specific actions and events that filmmakers select, and the order in which they arrange those events and actions to effectively convey on-screen the movie's narrative to a viewer.
the total world of the story
the total compilation of a story--events, characters, objects, settings, and sound--that form the world in which the story occurs.
Diegetic Element
an element--event, character, object, setting, and sound--that helps form the world in which the story occurs.
Nondiegetic element
something that we see and hear on the screen that comes from outside the world of the story, such as background music, titles and credits, and voice-over narration
Story Duration
The amount of time that the implied story takes to occur
-implied amount of time taken by the entire narrative arc of a movie's story--whether or not explicitly presented on-screen
Plot Duration
elapsed time of the events within a story that a film chooses to tell.
-the elapsed time of those events within the story that the film explicitly presents (in other words, the elapsed time of the plot).
Screen Duration
the movie's running time on screen
What are the differences between omniscient and restricted narration?
Omniscient narration knows all and can tell us whatever it wants us to know. It has unrestricted access to all aspects of the narrative. It can provide any character's experiences and perceptions, as well as information that no character knows. It shows the audience whatever it needs in order to best tell the story.

Restricted narration limits the information it provides to only things already known to a single character. This approach allows the audience to identify with the character's singular perspective and allows us to participate in the unlocking of secrets
How (and why) do we distinguish between the story and plot of a movie?
A movie's story consists of (1) all the narrative elements that are explicitly presented on-screen plus (2) all the events that are implicit or that we infer to have happened but are not explicitly presented.

The plot consists of the specific actions and events the filmmakers select and the order in which they arrange those events to effectively convey the narrative to the viewer.
What is meant by the diegesis of a story?
What is the difference between diegetic and nondiegetic elements in the plot?
(see video tutorial "Diegetic and Nondiegetic Elements")
Diegesis and diegetic elements of the story means all of the elements you see on-screen that make up the story's world (not to be confused with mise-en-scène). The difference in nondiegetic is that they are not a part of the story's interacting world.
Which of the following is the most common relationship of screen duration to plot duration: summary relationship, real time, or stretch relationship? Define each one.
Summary Duration is most common and occurs when the screen duration is shorter than the plot duration.
Real time is when the screen duration corresponds directly to plot duration
and a
Stretch relationship is when screen duration exceeds plot duration.
As presented in lecture, explore the Narrative Structures of Spirited Away and Rear Window. For each film, which specific plot events would best match with the following:
What is mise-en-scène? What is the literal meaning of the phrase? What do we mean by this phrase more generally when we discuss movies?
Mise-en-Scène translates from French as "staging" and means the arrangement of all things seen on screen. In film it generally refers to the overall look and feel of a movie.
-literally means, "staging or putting an action or scene" and is thus sometimes called staging. Everything you see on screen was put there to help tell a story.
What are the two major visual components of mise-en-scène?
Design- design of the three-dimensional space
Composition- composition of the two-dimensional frame
What are the principal responsibilities of the production designer, and when is the production designer usually brought into the film production (during pre-production, production, or post-production?)
-The production designer on a movie is entirely responsible for all things seen on screen. Their job is to work closely with the director and director of photography to visualize and design from top to bottom
what will appear on screen. They are usually brought in during preproduction to collaborate and plan for shooting.

-Generally one of the first collaborators that a director hires is the production designer who works closely with the director as well as the director of photography in visualizing the movie that will appear on the screen. The PD is both an artist and an executive, responsible for the overall design concept, the look of the movie—and for supervising the heads of the many departments involved in creating that look.
What are the major elements of cinematic design? (see "Elements of Design" in your textbook)
Setting, Décor, Props, Lighting, Costumes, Hair, Makeup.
What is composition?
What are the two major elements of composition?
Composition is the organization or balance of the general relationship of actors and objects within the space of each shot.
Framing and Kinesis.
process by which the cinematographer determines what will appear within the boarders of the moving image (the frame) during a shot
-the aspect of composition that takes into account everything that moves on the screen
-movement on screen
-the movement of objects and characters within the frame
-the apparent movement of the frame itself
What are the two basic types of movement we see on-screen?
-The movement of objects and characters within the frame
-The apparent movement of the frame itself
Properties (props)
Objects used to enhance a movie's mise-en-scene by providing physical tokens of narrative information.
Sound Stage
A windowless, soundproofed, professional shooting environment that is usually several stories high and can cover an acre or more of floorspace.
High contrast style of lighting where the lights are super bright and the shadows are quite exaggerated. Filmmakers use this style of lighting in order to increase the tension of a scene
Familiar Image
any image that a director periodically repeats in a movie (with or without variations) to help stabilize the narrative
the actual physical relationships among figures and settings. Also, the process during rehearsal of establishing those relationships.
Deep Space Composition
an approach to composition within the frame that places figures in three planes (back, middle, and foreground) of the the frame, thus creating an illusion of depth. it is often, though not always, shot with deep focus cinematography
compositional stress
occurs when the filmmaker intentionally breaks the rule of thirds, which then denies the viewer their expectation of balance.
rule of thirds
principle of composition that enables filmmakers to maximize the potential of the image, balance its elements, and create the illusion of depth. a grid pattern, when superimposed on the image, divides the image into horizontal thirds representing the foreground, middle ground, and background planes, and into vertical thirds that break up those planes into additional elements.
What are the differences among a set up, a shot, and a take?
-one camera position and everything associated with is
-the basic component of the film's production process
-one uninterrupted run of the camera
-the recording on film, video, or other medium resulting from that run
-the basic building block of the film
-the number of times a particular shot is taken
Who is the Director of Photography? What are their general duties?
The director of photography, also known as the DP or the cinematographer, assists the film director by establishing the visual look of the movie. As a DP, you'll help tell the story through the artistic and technical decisions you make regarding lighting, film stock, shot selection, camera operation and other elements. A DP's duties and responsibilities include the work he does before, during and after film production.

-Visual Style
The director of photography works with production designers, art directors, set dressers and even wardrobe crew and hairstylists to help establish the look of the film and its individual scenes. The decisions made in this area should support the script and the director's vision and result in imagery that the camera can capture.

-Film Stock Selection
The selection of film stock can dramatically influence the look of the film. The varying concentration of light-sensitive emulsions on film stock determines the color tones and the degree of graininess viewers see. The decisions made primarily in pre-production -- but also including methods of printing the film in post-production -- help set the mood and advance the film's plot. For instance, an urban crime drama might use a grainy stock to reflect the gritty setting and mood, while a more upbeat feature might be shot on a film stock that supports a lighter, airier palette.

In lighting the film, the director of photography might settle on an icy blue look to suggest a physically or emotionally cold environment, or warm shades to set a nostalgic or heartwarming tone. Gordon Willis, the Academy Award-winning cinematographer who worked on "The Godfather" and its sequels, earned the nickname "The Prince of Darkness" for his dramatic and starkly lit compositions.

-Camera Operation
In rare cases, the director of photography actually operates the movie camera. More typically, he oversees the camera crew and makes sure the director gets the film he envisioned through the way it's shot. This involves choosing the number of cameras involved, and their placement and movement. It also involves framing of the scene, overseeing the use of camera filters and aperture settings, and selecting special equipment. For example, David Lean's cinematographer on his sprawling epics "Lawrence of Arabia" and "Doctor Zhivago" was Freddie Young, an early British devotee of the wide-screen CinemaScope lens -- ideal for his director's vast, panoramic landscapes.
How the lighting for any movie looks is determined, in part, by its source and direction. Explain these terms and the effect each has on the overall lighting. (see video tutorial "Lighting")
-There are two sources of light: natural and artificial. Daylight is the most convenient and economical source, and in fact the movie industry made Hollywood the center of American movie production in part because of its almost constant sunshine.
- Artificial lights are called instruments to distinguish them from the light they produce. Among many kinds of these instruments, the two most basic are focusable spotlights and floodlights, which produce, respectively, hard (mirror like) and soft (diffuse) light.
-Direction: Light can be thrown onto a movie actor or setting (exterior or interior) from virtually any direction: front, side, back, below, or above. By direction, we also mean the angle of that throw, for the angle helps produce the contrasts and shadows that suggest eh location of the scene, its mood, and the time of the day. (The best-known lighting convention in feature filmmaking is the three-point system).
What are the names of the most commonly used shots used in a movie? Be able to describe them based on proximity. (see video tutorial "Shot Types and Implied Proximity")
Shot type depends on the implied distance between the camera lens and the subject

Close Up
-full head, sometimes shoulders, of character
-can provide view of character's emotions of state of mind

Long Shot
- generally contains the full body of one or more characters
-almost filling the frame but also shows some surrounding area above below and to the side

Medium Shot
-between long shot and close up
-waist up
-most frequently used because it replicates our human experience of proximity without intimacy
-several characters
What is the rule of thirds? (review the video tutorial "Composing the Frame" from Chapter 5)
The image, divides it in horizontal thirds representing the foreground, middleground, and background planes and into vertical thirds that break up those planes into further elements. The grid assists the designer and cinematographer in visualizing the overall potential of the height, width, and depth of any cinematic space.
The movie camera can shoot from various angles. What are they? What meaning does each imply? Do these implications always hold true? (see video tutorial "Camera Angles")
-Eye-Level Shot: Made from the observer's eye level and usually implies that the camera's attitude toward the subject being photographed is neutral.
-High-Angle Shot: (also called high shot or down shot) is made with the camera above the action and typically implies the observer's sense of superiority to the subject being photographed.
-Low-Angle Shot: (or low shot) is made with the camera below the action and typically places the observer in the position of feeling helpless in the presence of an obviously superior force.
-Dutch-Angle Shot: (also called a Dutch-tilt shot or oblique-angle shot), the camera is tilted from its normal horizontal and vertical position so that it is no longer straight, giving the viewer the impression that the world in the frame is out of balance.
-Aerial-View Shot: (or birds'-eye-view shot), an extreme type of point-of-view shot, is taken from an aircraft or very high crane and implies the observer's omniscience.
What are the basic types of camera movement? (see video tutorial "The Moving Camera")
Pan Shot, tilt Shot, dolly Shots, crane shot, handled camera, steadicam
Three-point Lighting
The best-known lighting convention in feature filmmaking, a system that employs three sources of light—key light, fill light, and backlight—each aimed from a different direction and position in relation to the subject.
key light
also known as main light or source light. the brightest light falling on an object
fill light
lighting, positioned at the opposite side of the camera from the key light, that can fill in the shadows by the brighter key light. they may also come from a reflector board.
Lighting,usually positioned behind and in line with the subject and the camera, used to create highlights on the subject as a means of separating it from the background and increasing its appearance of three-dimensionality.
lighting ratio
relationship and balance between illumination and shadow--the balance between key light and fill light. if the ratio is high, shadows are deep, and the result is low-key lighting. if the ratio is low, shadows are faint or non existent and illumination is even, and the result is high-key lighting.
low-key lighting
lighting that creates strong contrasts; sharp dark shadows, and an overall gloomy atmosphere. it contrasts between light and dark often imply ethical judgements.
High-Key Lighting
lighting that produces an image with very little contrast between darks and lights. its even, flat illumination expresses virtually no opinion about the subject.
halloween lighting
horror-genre light his sometimes cast from below, an angle of illumination not typical of our everyday experience. the result is the distorted facial features and looming cast shadows. light coming from underneath.
Deep-space composition
An approach to composition within the frame that places figures in all three planes (background, foreground, middle ground) of the frame, thus creating an illusion of depth
Deep-focus cinematography
The process of rendering the figures on all planes (background, middleground, and foreground) of a deep-space composition in focus.
Shooting Angle
The level and height of the camera in relation to the subject being photographed. The five basic camera angles produced are:
aerial-view shots,
Dutch-angle shots,
eye- level shots,
high-angle shots,
and low-angle shots.
Eye-level Shot
shot made from the observer's eye level and usually implies that the observer's attitude is neutral toward the subject being photographed.
Low-angle shot
shot made with the camera below the action, and typically places the observer in a position of inferiority
Dutch-angle shot
shot in which the camera is tilted from its normal horizontal and vertical positions so that it is no longer straight, giving the viewer the impression that the world in the frame is out of balance.

Also known as Dutch shot or oblique-angle shot.
Aerial-view Shot (Bird's Eye View)
Also known as bird's-eye-view shot. An omniscient point-of-view shot that is taken from an aircraft or extremely high crane and implies that the observer can see all.
pan shot
horizontal movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod. like the tilt shot, the pan shot is a simple movement with dynamic
tilt shot
vertical movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod. like the pan shot, the tilt shot is a simple movement with dynamic possibilities for creating meaning.
Dolly shot
A shot taken by a camera fixed to a wheeled support called a dolly. When the dolly runs on tracks.

shot taken by a camera fixed to a wheeled support called a dolly.
dolly in: zoom in
dolly out: zoom out
Dolly in
Slow movement of the camera toward a subject making the subject appear larger and more significant. Such gradual intensification is commonly used at moments of a character's realization and/or decision, or as a point- of-view shot to indicate the reason for the character's realization. See also zoom in.
Dolly out
Movement of the camera away from the subject,
often used for slow disclosure that occurs when an edited succession of images leads from shot A to B to C as they gradually reveal the elements of a scene. Each image expands on the one before, thereby changing its signifi- cance with new information.
Tracking shot
when the dolly runs on tracks (or when the camera is mounted to a crane or an aerial device such as an airplane, helicopter, or a balloon)
Crane Shot
A shot that is created by movement of a camera mounted on an elevating arm (crane) that in turn is mounted on a vehicle that, if shooting requires it, can move on its own power or be pushed along tracks.
Zoom (see video tutorial "Zoom and Moving Camera Effects")
A shot in which the image is magnified by movement of the camera's lens only, without the camera it- self moving. This magnification is the essential difference from the dolly in.
computer-generated imagery (CGI) The application of computer graphics to create special effects. Compare in-camera effect and laboratory effect.
Process Shot
Live shooting against a background that is front-
or rear-projected on a translucent screen.
Motion Capture
Also known as mocap, motion tracking, or performance capture. An elaborate process in which the movements of objects, or actors dressed in special suits, are recorded as data that computers subsequently use to render the motion of CGI characters on-screen.
What is persona?
The image of CHARACTER and PERSONALITY that we want TO SHOW the outside world
What are the differences between acting for screen and acting for the stage?
Depends on audience location, material, characters, director's vision

acting for screen--> screen/movie actors convey their interpretations of characters to a camera, have the advantage of technology, and only have to memorize the lines needed for the moment due to shooting schedules. small gestures are fundamental tools for the screen actor

acting for the stage--> stage actors convey their interpretations of characters directly to an audience plus they must memorize all their lines and project their voices. Stage actors must project vocally and physically
What are the four key types of actors presented early in your reading?

also explain all 4 of them??
Personality, Play against expectations, chameleon, nonprofessional actors


personality, against type, chameleon, cast as self

personality actor
This type of movie actor take their personae from role to role

against type actor
This type of movie actor plays the opposite role of what they are known for, playing against our expectations

chameleon actor
This type of movie actor seems to be different in every role they have

cast as self
This type of movie actor is nonprofessional, who has achieved success in another field like sports or music, and plays their self within a movie

Tom Cruise is an example of what type of movie actor?personality

Johnny Depp is an example of what type of movie actor?chameleon
Who was Lillian Gish and how did she serve in the evolution of screen acting?
She was an actress who was active for 75 years and is considered the First Lady of American Cinema. She inventing the art of screen acting, whose performance in Broken Blossoms (1919) is considered the first great film performance by an actor
What is method acting? And what was it based upon?
A naturalistic acting style adapted from Russian director Konstantin Stanislavsky by American directors Elia Kazan and Lee Strasberg, that encourages actors to speak, move and gesture not in a traditional stage manner, but in the same way they would in their own lives. An ideal technique for representing convincing human behavior, Method acting is used more frequently on the stage than on the screen.
What is "casting"?
The process of choosing and hiring actors for both leading and supporting roles
inciting incident/ catalyst - rear window
Rear Window: Jeff found one neighbor is arguing with his wife.
the rising action- rear window
Rear Window: Jeff wants to find out the truth by keeping watching the window, and he also try to convince others about his deduction.
crisis - rear window
Rear Window: Lisa goes to murderer Lars's room, to try and find evidence.
climax- rear window
Rear Window: Murderer came to Jeff, and Jeff tries to survive.
resolution- rear window
Rear Window:Jeff sit in front of the window, with Lisa.