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Bio 160 MB Chapter 26
Terms in this set (28)
Chemicals, secreted by soil fungi, which inhibit the growth of bacteria, are known as ............
What distinguishes bacteria from archaea?
Only bacteria have peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
To establish a link between a specific bacterium and a skin disease, researchers have shown that the bacterium was present in sick persons but not in healthy individuals. They isolated the bacterium in a pure culture and demonstrated that experimental healthy animals injected with this culture became sick. What other experiment do researchers need to perform to be absolutely sure that the bacterium is responsible for the disease?
Isolate bacterium from an infected sick animal and demonstrate that it is the same bacterium as the one used for infection.
Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains. What are the domains ?
Bacteria and Archaea
A water sample from a hot thermal vent contained a single-called organism that had a cell wall but lacked a nucleus. What is its most likely classification?
What method would you use to best identify the diversity of bacterial and archaeal species in the soil present on your campus?
An organic solvent widely used in industrial processes, 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (TCA), is a major environmental pollutants affecting human health and damaging the ozone layer. Recently, researchers isolated the first bacteria able to degrade TCA. They found that the bacteria use hydrogen as an electron donor, TCA as an electron acceptor, and acetate as a carbon source. Based on the preceding information, deduce the method used to isolate these bacteria.
Broad-spectrum antibiotics inhibit the growth of most intestinal bacteria. Consequently, assuming that nothing is done to counter the reduction of intestinal bacteria, a hospital patient who is receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics is most likely to become ................
Deficient in certain vitamins and nutrients
Carl Worse and my collaborators identified two major branches of prokaryotic evolution. What was the basis for dividing prokaryotes into two domains?
Genetic characteristics such as ribosomal RNA sequences.
Which group was not described in Woese's tree of life analysis?
What characteristics were used to classify organisms before Woese's tree of life analysis?
Presence of a membrane-bound nucleus.
Data showing that the Bacteria were the first lineage to diverge from the common ancestor of all living organisms suggests that the Archaea and Eukarya are more likely closely related to each other than they are to the Bacteria.
Which of the following statements about phylogenetic trees is true?
A paraphyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.
Which molecule did Carl Woese study to produce his tree of life?
What is lateral gene transfer?
Physical transfer of a gene from a species in one lineage to a species in another lineage.
Approximately how many times larger is the diameter of Thiomargarita than Mycoplasma?
500 times as large
Microbiologists use the Gram stain to aid in the identification of bacteria. What is the major difference between Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteria?
Presence or absence of outer plasma membrane
Biologists sometimes divide living organisms into two groups: autotrophs and heterotrophs. These two groups differ in ...........
Their mode of nutrition
Imagine that you are given some chemoorganotrophic bacteria to grow. What should you use as a source of energy for this type of bacteria?
A prokaryote that obtains energy and carbon as it decomposes dead organisms is a(n) ..............
Heterotroph and chemotroph
A prokaryote that obtains energy from light is a(n) ............
Which of the following obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic substances to obtain energy that is used, in part, to fix carbon dioxide?
When some bacteria use lactose as a source of energy, they produce propionic acid and carbon dioxide. What is the name for this process?
Multicellularity and large body size of eukaryotic organisms require high metabolic rates and efficient ATP production by aerobic respiration. How did bacteria change Earth's atmosphere to enable aerobic respiration?
Oxygenic photosynthesis by Cyanobacteria significantly increased the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere.
The Gram stain, commonly used to classify a bacterial isolate into one of two groups, is based upon the characteristics of which of the following structures?
The cell wall
Cyanobacteria are thought to be the first organisms to evolve..........
You have found a new prokaryote. What line of evidence would support your hypothesis that the organism is a cyanobacterium?
It is able to form colonies and produce oxygen.
Which of the following groups is characterized by unusual flagella contained within a structure called the outer sheath?
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