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Nutrition ch 8
Terms in this set (101)
naturally ocurring, inorganic substances
essential nutrients needed greater than 100 mg/day
essential nutrients needed less than 100 mg/day
What percent of a person's weight is water?
substance that dissolves a solute
medical treatment for failing kidneys in which a person's blood is circulated through a machine that filters out toxins and waste
7 functions of water
4. chemical reactions
6. shock absorber
7. maintains temp.
transport vehicle for all nutrients and wastes
dissolves amino acids, glucose, minerals
nitrogen waste dissolves in water and is excreted in urine
cushion for joints, digestive tract, respiratory tract and tissues moistened with mucous
protects sensitive tissues such as eyes, spinal chord, and joints from shock
sweat is the body's coolant
water equilibrium: balance between water intake and water excretion
imbalances of water
dehydration: loss of water
water intoxication: excess water intake
What governs water intake?
thirst and satiety
compound, usually a medication, that increases urinary water excretion
What regulates water intake?
What regulates water excretion?
brain and kidneys
Water needs for men and women
Men: about 13 cups
Women: about 9 cups
water generated in tissues during chemical breakdown of energy- yielding nutrients in foods
Factors that influence fluid needs
diseases (diabetes or kidney diseases)
forced-air environments (airplanes)
hot weather (humidity)
increased protein, salt, or sugar intakes
pregnancy and breastfeeding
prolonged diarrhea, vomiting, or fever
surgery, blood loss, or burns
very young or old age
What is hard water?
high calcium and magnesium concentrates
What is soft water?
high sodium concentration
high blood pressure
What are the four sources of water?
1. surface water
4. bottled water
*comes from lakes, rivers, and reservoirs
*exposed to contamination from acid rain, petroleum products, pesticides, fertilizer, and human, animal, and industrial wastes
*cleansed through aeration, sunlight, and plants/ microorganisms
*comes from aquifers and wells
*contaminated by hazardous waste sites, dumps, oil and gas pipelines, and landfills
*conversion of salt or brackish water into fresh water
*process creates high concentrated salty brine waste toxic to plants and animals
*tested yearly for chemical contamination
*tested weekly for disease-causing bacteria
What does all drinking water come from?
surface water or ground water
What do the minerals help balance?
*fluid and electrolyte balance: maintains proper amounts of fluids/minerals
*acid-base balance: maintenance of the proper degree of acidity in the body's fluids
What is the most abundant mineral in the body?
What are the 2 functions of calcium?
1. bone structure
2. calcium in body fluids
Calcium in bone structure and formation
Calcium phosphate crystallizes on the protein collagen
The chief crystal of bone, formed from calcium and phosphorous
What percent of calcium is in body fluids?
Blood calcium regulates...
the transport of ions across cell membranes
Blood calcium is particularly important in...
Blood calcium plays an essential role in...
clotting of blood
Blood calcium is essential for...
muscle contraction and heartbeat
Blood calcium allows secretion of...
hormones, digestive enzymes, and neurotransmitters
Blood calcium activates...
cellular enzymes that regulate many processes
What is calcium balance directed by?
system of hormones and Vitamin D
reduction of bone mass in which bones become fragile- adults
Peak bone mass
highest attainable bone density developed during first three decades of life
What are toxicities of calcium?
elevated blood calcium
kidney stone formation
What are good sources of calcium?
sardines, milk, tofu, yogurt, cheese, turnip greens
Magnesium is needed for the release and use of...
energy from the energy yielding nutrients
Magnesium directly affects...
the metabolism of potassium, calcium, and Vitamin D
Magnesium is critical to normal...
Magnesium and calcium work together for proper functioning of...
muscles. Calcium promotes contraction and magnesium relaxes muscles afterward
What are the food sources for magnesium?
spinach, black beans, soy milk, ban cereal, sunflower seeds, yogurt
What are the functions of magnesium?
bone mineralization, protein synthesis, enzyme action, muscle contraction, nerve function, tooth maintenance, and immune function
What are the roles of sodium?
fluid and electrolyte balance system
maintains acid base balance
essential to muscle contraction and nerve transmission
Amount of sodium excreted in a day equals...
the amount of sodium ingested that day
too little sodium in blood
What are toxicities of sodium?
hypertension, heart disease, strokes
What is the population most affected by hypertension because of high sodium intakes?
1/3 of US adults
42% African Americans
Where is sodium the main positively charged ion?
Outside the body's cells
Where is potassium the main positively charged ion?
Inside the body's cells
What are the functions of potassium?
maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance
nerve functioning and muscle contractions
What are the sources of potassium?
bananas, orange juice, butternut squash, lima beans, salmon, baked potato, avocado
What are the trace minerals?
Iodine, Iron, Zinc, Selenium, Fluoride
What are the major minerals?
calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium
What are the roles of iodine?
makes up part of and synthesizes the hormone thyroxine which regulates the body's metabolic rate, temp., reproduction, growth, heart functioning
What are iodine deficiencies?
thyroid gland enlarges: goiter, retardation in children from iodine deficient mother: cretinism
What are the sources of iodine?
ocean, kelp, seafood, sea mist
most of the iron in the body is a component of two proteins
hemoglobin and myoglobin
What is hemoglobin?
oxygen carrying proteins found in red blood cells
What is myoglobin?
Oxygen holding protein of muscle cells
What are the functions of iron?
carries oxygen as part of hemoglobin in blood or myoglobin in muscles
required for cellular energy metabolism
What is hepcidin?
hormone secreted by the liver that regulates blood iron concentrations by limiting iron absorption from storage
More abundant iron in the blood...
triggers hepcidin secretion which reduces iron absorption
Less abundant iron in the blood...
suppresses hepcidin secretion which permits increased iron absorption
What are the two forms of iron in foods?
heme and non heme
What is heme?
Iron containing portion of the hemoglobin and myoglobin molecules- meat, poultry, fish
What is nonheme iron?
not associated with hemoglobin- plants
What are inhibitors of iron
What are deficiencies in iron?
anemia: inadequate red blood cells, fatigue, mental impairment, pica: craving non-food substances
Who should be concerned with their intake of iron?
women in reproductive years, pregnant women, infants/toddlers, adolescents and females, obese people
What populations are at risk for iron deficiencies?
urban, low income, and Hispanic families
What are iron toxicities?
GI distress, infections, fatigue, joint pain, skin pigmentation, organ damage, depression
What are the sources of iron?
clams, beef, beans, spinach, chard, liver
cell structures against damage from oxidation
part of the cell's genetic material
heme in hemoglobin
What are the functions of zinc?
activates enzymes, synthesis of genetic material and proteins, transport of Vitamin A, taste perception, wound healing, reproduction
What are the deficiencies of zinc?
growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, impaired immune function, hair loss, eye and skin lesions, loss of appetite
Where was zinc deficiencies first observed a half century ago?
children and adolescent boys in the middle East
What are the food sources for zinc?
meats, shellfish, poultry, and milk products
What are the functions of selenium?
works with enzyme system to protect body compounds from oxidation
What are the sources of selenium?
meats, shellfish, vegetables, nuts, grains
What are the functions of fluoride?
prevention of dental caries
What is fluorapatite?
crystal of bones and teeth, formed when fluoride displaces the "hydroxy" portion of hydroxyapatite
What are dental caries?
Cavities: decay of the teeth
What are the toxicities of fluoride?
fluorosis, bone malformations, hardened ligaments, weak bones
What is fluorosis?
discoloration of teeth due to ingestion of too much fluoride during development- irreversible
What are the sources of fluoride?
Nonmodifiable risk factors for osteoporosis
caucasian, asian, or hipanic/latino
family history of osteoporosis
personal history of fractures
Modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis
diet inadequate in calcium and vitamin D
diet excessive in protein, sodium, caffeine
low body weight
diet low in fruits and vegetables
Treatment for osteoporosis
slow-release forms of fluoride
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