AP World History Ways of the World Chapter 6 Margin Questions

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How would you describe the social hierarchy of classical China?
Elite of Officials: world's first professional civil service; high privilege, prestige, and authority
Landlord Class: accumulation of land; able to avoid paying taxes; own military forces
Peasants: vast majority of population; small households, several generations; vulnerable to natural environment and authorities; periodic rebellions
Merchants: poor reputation; seen as social threat; some quite wealthy
What class conflicts disrupted Chinese society?
Wang Mang usurped the emperor's throne in 8 CE; launched series of Confucian reforms
Yellow Turban Rebellion: landless and poverty-stricken peasants rebelled, unified by Daoism, looked forward to the "Great Peace" of equality
Emperor vs. wealthy landowners
• Emperor worked to limit the the accumulation of estates by large landowners to limit their power
• Elite and landowners vs. peasants
• Landowners extracted high rents - up to 2/3 of the harvest from the peasants
• State required payment of taxes & a months labor each year
What set of ideas underlies India's caste-based society?
- religious and cultural traditions
- grew out of the interactions of many culturally different peoples
- more economic/cultural than racial
What is the difference between varna and jati as expressions of classical India's caste system?
- Varna Theory - the four segments were formed from the body of the god Purusha and were immutable - unchanging
- Jatis were occupationally based groups
- Split the varnas and untouchables into thousands of small social groupings based on occupation
- Jatis became the primary cells of social life in India beyond the family
- Marriage and eating together was only permitted in each owns jati
How did India's caste system differ from China's class system?
-India's caste system gave priority to religious status and ritual purity, China elevates political officials to the highest of elited positions
-The caste system divided Indian society into a vast number of distinctive social groups compared to the broader categories of Chinese Society
-The caste system defined social groups far more rigidly and with even less opportunity for social mobility than China's class system
How did the inequalities of slavery differ from those of caste?
- still considered a human and member of society in caste system
- slaves bought and sold; lacked rights and personal identity
How did Greco-Roman slavery differ from that of other classical civilizations?
- Greco-Roman depended more on slaves than others
- more slaves
- had more occupational opportunities
In what ways did the expression of Chinese patriarchy change over time, and why did it change?
yang: superior and masculine; heaven, rulers, strength, rationality, and light
yin: inferior and feminine; earth, subjects, weakness, emotion, and darkness
-Thinkers emphasized the distinction between the public and political roles of men and the private domain of women
- Three obediences: A women was subordinate to her father, husband, then son
How did the patriarchies of Athens and Sparta differ from each other?
-Athene places increasing limitations on women
-Athens completely excluded women form public life
- Athens required that women be represented by a guardian in legal matters, women were not even reffered to by name in court proceeding
-Athens restricted women to the home, where they lived separetedly from men
-In athens, marriage usually between a woman in her mid-teens to a man 10-15 years older than her
-In Athens land passed through male heirs
-Spartan women has more freedom
-Sparta's fear of helot rebellion meant that great value was places on male warriors
-Spartan women's role in society was to reproduce (specifically to strong healthy sons)
-Spartan women were ecouraged to strengthen their bodies through participating in public sporting events
-Spartan women were not secluded or segregates
-Spartan women married men of about their own age (couple was on a more equal basis)
Spartan men were often engages in/preparing for war so women ahd more authority in the household
-As in Athens, Women in sparta lacked any formal public roles