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MCAT Psych/Sociology from 132 Scorer
Terms in this set (822)
Biopsychosocial approach to health and illness
Illness is determined by a variety of influences, rather than a single cause. The causes and effects of illness can be examined at multiple levels in the life of an individual, and no single level provides the whole picture. Collecting info about psychosocial context is key to the understanding of physical health and illness.
Biomedical approach to health and illness
Disease is studied by examining only the biological factors of illness, neglecting contributing factors of psychological life and sociological context.
Provide an approximation (physical/conceptual representation) of a scientific phenomenon that cannot be observed directly
Provides the conceptual framework for understanding objects of study
Human actors actively construct their "reality", rather than discovering a reality that has inherent validity, through their social interactions. The beliefs and shared understandings of individuals create social realities.
In the context of illness, there is a gap b/t the biological reality of a medical condition and the societally created meaning of the condition. (ex. changing conceptualizations of mental illness results in changes to the DSM). It is a dynamic, ongoing process.
Brute facts vs Institutional Facts
-Part of WEAK social constructionism
-Brute facts are physical realities that exist outside of human input
-Institutional facts only exist as a function of society's structures and beliefs
Micro social perspective. Focuses on the smaller scale interactions between individuals in small groups. Through social interactions, individuals develop shared meanings and labels for various symbols. Allows for human agency in creating and changing meaning in society, rather than society acting upon the individual. Meaning can change with a single interaction, so addresses subjective meanings. Humans ascribe meaning to things, act based on those meanings, use language to generate meaning through social interaction, and modify meanings through thought processes. However, ignores larger societal forces that shape people's lives.
Terms, concepts, or items that represent specific meanings by accepted convention. Meanings ascribed to symbols are determined by social norms and cultural values.
Founder: Emile Durkheim
-Factions of society work together to maintain stability. Society is a system that consists of different components working together, with distinct institutions that contribute to functioning. Seeks to understand what different structures in society contribute to society at large. When disruptions occur, the interacting systems respond to get back to a stable state. Explains societal stability but NOT societal change (assumes stability is the ideal)
Founder: Karl Marx
Views society in terms of competing groups that act according to their own self-interests, rather than according to the need for societal equilibrium. Society is a competition for limited resources. Explains societal changes but NOT societal societal stability (assumes stability is undesirable to societal groups that are oppressed) Views human actions in terms of larger forces of inequality, but leaves motivations choices of individuals unexamined. Ignores the non-forceful ways in which people reach agreement, and approaches society more from those who lack power. Tends to be too economically focused.
All of the beliefs, assumptions, objects, behaviors, and processes that make up a shared way of life. Has a pervasive effect on worldview.
The discomfort and ensuring reevaluation of personal cultural assumptions when an individual experiences a culture different from her own
Objects involved in a certain way of life
Encompasses the elements of cultures that are not physical. Includes shared ideas, knowledge, assumptions, values, and beliefs that unify a group of people.
Expectations that govern what behavior is acceptable within a group. Social interactions help define a culture by establishing these
A subset of a population that maintains social interactions. Alternatively, includes a collection of shared experiences that create a g