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Exam 1: Chapter 3

A radiation inversion is most commonly observed:

Just above the ground

Although the polar regions radiate away more heat energy than they receive by insolation in the course of a year, they are prevented from becoming progressively colder each year by the:

Circulation of heat by the atmosphere and oceans

An important reason for the large daily temperature range over deserts is that:

There is little water vapor in the air to absorb and re-radiate infrared radiation

At the North Pole the sun will rise above the horizon on ____ and set below the horizon on ____.

March 21, September 23

At what time during a 24-hour day would a radiation temperature inversion best be developed?

Near sunrise

Considering each hemisphere as a whole, seasonal temperature variation in the Southern Hemisphere is ____ that in the Northern Hemisphere.


During an equinox,

The sun is directly above the equator, 0 degrees latitude

During summer near the North Pole, the sun is above the horizon ____ in the mid-latitudes.

On March 20

During the afternoon, the greatest temperature difference between the surface air and the air several meters above occurs on a:

Clear, calm afternoon

During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere, the "land of the midnight sun" would be found:

At high latitudes

During the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere,

All of these

Ideal conditions for a strong radiation inversion are:

Clear, calm, dry, winter night

In July, at middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, the day is ____ long and is ____ with each passing day.

More than 12 hours; getting shorter

In clear weather, the air next to the ground is usually ____ than the air above during the night and ____ than the air above during the day.

Colder; warmer

In meteorology, the word insolation refers to:

Incoming solar radiation

In most areas, the warmest time of the day about 5 feet above the ground occurs:

In the afternoon between 2 and 5 pm

In summer, humid regions typically have ____ daily temperature ranges and ____ maximum temperatures than drier regions.

Smaller, lower

In the Northern Hemisphere, which of the following days has the fewest hours of daylight?

Winter solstice

In the northern hemisphere, the number of hours of daylight begins to shorten after the:

Summer solstice

Incoming solar radiation in middle latitudes is less in winter than in summer because:

A and b only

Lines connecting points of equal temperature are called:


Longer days are generally associated with:

More rain fall

More solar radiation is received at the:

At the surface

On a clear, calm night, the ground and air above cool mainly by which process?


On the summer solstice, the altitude of the noonday sun is highest:

231/2o north latitude (tropic of cancer)

Over the earth as a whole, one would expect to observe the smallest variation in temperature from day to day and from month to month:

On a small island near the equator

Radiational cooling typically occurs:

At night

Suppose yesterday morning you noticed ice crystals (frost) on the grass, yet the minimum temperature reported in the newspaper was only 35°F. The most likely reason for this apparent discrepancy is that:

Temperature readings are taken in instrument shelters more than 5 feet above the ground

The deepest radiation inversion would be observed:

In polar regions in winter

The earth is tilted at an angle of 23.5° with respect to the plane of its orbit around the sun. If the amount of tilt were increased to 40°, we would expect in middle latitudes:

Hotter summers and colder winters than at present

The lag in daily temperature refers to the time lag between the:

Time of maximum solar radiation and the time of maximum temperature

The largest annual ranges of temperatures are found:

At polar latitudes over land

The latitude at which there is a yearly balance between incoming and outgoing radiation is about ____.

37 degrees

The lowest temperature is usually observed:

Around sunrise

The main reason(s) for warm summers in middle latitudes is that:

The sun is higher in the sky and we receive more direct solar radiation, The days are longer

The maximum in daytime surface temperature typically occurs ____ the earth receives its most intense solar radiation.


The primary cause of a radiation inversion is:

Infrared radiation emitted by the earth's surface

The sun is directly overhead at Mexico City (latitude 19°N):

Twice a year

The wind-chill factor:

Relates body heat loss with wind to an equivalent temperature with no wind

Two objects, A and B, have the same mass but the specific heat of A is larger than B. If both objects absorb equal amounts of energy,

B will become warmer than A

Water heats up ____ and cools off ____ than land.

More slowly, more slowly

When it is January and winter in the Northern Hemisphere, it is ____ and ____ in the Southern Hemisphere.

January; summer

Where are the days and nights of equal length all year long?

At the equator

Which latitude below would experience the fewest hours of daylight on Dec. 22?

60⁰ N

Which of the following can be used as a method of protecting an orchard from damaging low temperatures during a radiation inversion?

Orchard heaters, Wind machines, Irrigation (cover the area with water)

Which of the following is NOT a reason why water warms and cools much more slowly than land?

It takes more heat to raise the temperature of a given amount of soil 1oC than it does to raise the temperature of water 1oC

Which of the following latitudes is closer to the earth's axis?


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