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learners/learning environment section
Process of cognitive learning
Process information: learning & organizing information; problem solving; developing concepts and words to convey when they see.
Cognitive Learning
Problem solving intelligence conscious thought (enhance students' intrinsic nature to make sense of the world)
Erikson's social-emotional development
Trust (1 yr); Control (early); Initiative/Guilt (until school); Rules/Freeplay (until jr hi); Identity (late teens); Intimacy/Isolation (young adult); Cooperation (adult); Integrity vs Despair (later adult)
Learning Styles
Visual - seeing written direction
Oral - Read Aloud
Kinesthetic - hands on
Multiple Intelligences (Howard Gardner)
1. Linguistic; 2. Musical; 3. logical/math; 4. spacial; 5. bodily/kinestetic; 6. naturalistic; interpersonal; intrapersonal; existential
Gardner's Belief
Learn things in context; assessments tailored to different abilities
Gender Differences in the classroom
Metacognitive (planning learning tasks); monitor comprehension; evaluate progress towards completion of task
Cultural Difference affecting behavior
eye contact, hand movements, silence religious beliefs, loss of face
Special Needs Students
speech/language, impairments, mental retardation, emotional disturbance, multiple disabilities, hearing, visual, autism, deafness, blindness, brain injury
Handing needs of disabled students
assess abilities, find strengths/weaknesses, use resources to provide the best classroom learning experience for them.
Perception Disabilities
interruption in input process from eyes or ears to neurons in brain. (visual and auditory or sensory)
4 parts of brain affected by learning dis.
language, muscle, thinking, organization
Attention Deficit Disorder - careless mistakes; lack of sustained attention; disorganized; talk too much
Attention Deficit Hyperacitivity Disorder - inapp. amounts of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Fidgety, squirmy
ADHD Dignosis
DSM-IV - Diagnostic & Stratistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Two things to diagnosis mental retardation
Intellectual functioning (IQ test below 75); Adaptive behavior (live independently) use observation
Patterns of disordered behavior
externalizers and internalizers
Serious emotional disturbance - inability to learn, build interpersonal relationships, inappropriate behavior, depression/unhappiness, schizophrenic
Oppositional Defiant Disorder - negative, defiant, disobedient, hostile towards authority - must last 6 mo.
Conduct Disorder - early onset of sexual behavior, smoking, drinking, risk taking
Gifted Children
intellectual ability; academic aptitude; creative/productive thinking; leadership ability; visual/performing arts; psychomotor ability
Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) nondiscriminatory treatment (wheelchair access etc)
Individuals with Disabilities Education - access to a free public education. 13 categories of educational special needs
Least Restrictive Environment - mainstreaming education, inclusion
Oberti Test
3 considerations for determining placement - 1)steps to include, 2)benefits of inclusion; 3) neg effects of
IDEA sets steps - Individualize Education Plan - stpes for due process hearings and mediation
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
same rights; same benefits; equal education
Section 504 difference from IDEA
IDEA is remedial and requires more form the schools and provides schools with funding.
Differentiating task CONTENT
Pre-test to see who does not require direct instruction and can do independently guided learning
Differentiating task PROCESS
Students need a variety of learning activities and strategies in order to be able to explore the concepts in the best way possible.
Differentiating FINAL PRODUCT
Variety of products that students can produce - intrinsic motivation to do well at the task
Two steps that occur in learning 2nd language
Stage 1: Pre-production (repeart, copy, body lang); Stage 2: Early production (one or two word phrases)
ELL Students
transition with culture and language connections. Closed questions, whole class activities, pictures
3 types of bilingual education
submersion (learn or fail); immersion (teacher only speaks English but understands their lang); transitional
Lau vs Nichols Case 1974
paved the way for bilingual programs (US Office of Civil Right outlined ways that bilingual programs - students should be taught in their native lang until they benefit from English)
Cognitive view of motivation (4 things)
1.people need to make sense of their experiences; 2.know expectations for completing a task successfully; 3.Factors that one believes account for success/failure (education and perserverance). 4.Belief of own ability
What is control theory?
How our motivations, behaviors and actions are attempts to satisfy needs such as love, survival, power and freedom. (Cooperative learning)
BF Skinner's reinforcement
Behavior is a function of its consequences - students will repeat a certain behavior if consequences are desireable
BF Skinner's Operant Conditioning
Past experiences (like and hate certain subjects)
Motivation Ideas
1.students know what they are doing; 2. satisfy basic needs of students (esteem, safety, belongingness); 3.encourage risk taking and rewards of that; 4.learning experiences towards success; 5.development of self-confidence; 6.Relevant learning, social interaction, usefulness
Successful Classroom Management
Organized, positive environment, clear standards, student engagement, routines and rules, student participation, clear deadlines
Who is BF Skinner
Outlined behavior modification which originated from behavioral psychology. Best way to change student's behavior was to reward and punish
Carl Rogers
Socioemotional climate - positive interpersonal relationship between students and teachers foster positive classroom
Group process - teacher establishing and maintaining an effectively controlled classroom with cooperation be key skills to have groups work together
Classroom Management - establishing and enforcing classroom rules as a way of controlling student behavior, mainly by discipline
Types of classroom rewards
Competitive goal structures (grading on curve); Individual goal structures (work alone, earn rewards based on own performance); Cooperative goal structures (work together/group work)
Consequences vs punishment
natural and logical consequences results of wanting to use noninvasive consequences in order to deal with behavior
Natural consequences
natural reaction to an undesireable behavior Teachers don't have much control over this
Logical consequences
Implemented by teachers - clear link to student's behavior - reasonable and understood by student
Reasons for misbehavior
attention, power, revenge, inadequacy
Kolb's experiential learning - 4 stages
concrete experience, observation & reflection, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation
Reg Revan's Action Learning
small cooperative learning groups - meet to discuss real-life issues - learn from each other - action and learning must coincide for the other to exist
Constructivism and Behaviorism
CONSTR.Due to all of our experiences, we construct our own comprehension of the world we live - adjust our "rules" to include new experiences. BEH.new behavior we acquire through experiences (social interactions or physical exertions)
Piaget's Learning Theories
children build cognitive structures/concepts in order to respond to experiences in their environment (sucking thumb to reading)
Vygotsky's Learning Theories
Culture is the main influencing factor on human development - social cognition learning model
Piaget's four developmental stages
1.sensorimotor (birth-2) physical interaction, out of sight, out of mind; 2.preoperational (2-7) concrete situations, some abstract concepts; 3.concrete (7-11) solve abstract problems; 4. formal (11-15) like adult with conceptual reasoning.
Cooperative Learning Benefits
Qualitative and difficult to measure because often teh real-life experiences students gain by working with each other outweights all other benefits in the long run.
Sensory stimulation theory
When senses are stimulated, effective learning can take place. Seeing (most effective), Hearing (2nd), Other senses -- similar to multiple intelligences as it applies to teaching.
Gestalt holistic learning theory
Also known as the cognitive approach, gives experience the most importance. Believes that through active problem-solving are vital to learning because each student approaches tasks subjectively dna will devleop insights that make sense to them individually.
Humanistic approach to learning (Carl Rogers)
Classroom needs to be safe in order for new ideas to be explored and risks to be taken. Teachers question their own belief and values. Students are responsible for the content. Self-Evaluation is important
Persuasive Models - Social Learning Theory
Individuals pay attention to positive experiences - respect for teacher, please teacher
Ways to activate Prior Knowledge
Word Association Task (good way for formative assessment); Figures of speech as a theme of a unit
Blooms Taxonomy lower level thinking
Knowledge, Comprehension, Applications (focused on observations & summarization of ideas learned) - basic understanding
Blooms higher order thinking
Analysis, synthesis, evaluation - ability to see things figuratively, instead of literally.
List, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, where, when
summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss extend
apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate change, classify, experiment, discover
analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, infer
combine, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, compose, formulate, prepare, rewrite
4 ways to do cooperative learning
1. group must rely on each other for success; 2. doing real work; 3. individual and group accountability; small group skills in small doses
Madeline Hunter's Direct Instruction Model
1.Anticipatory Set, 2.Objectives, 3.Teaching (info and examples), 4.Guided practice, 5.checking understanding (ask questions), 6. independent practice (reinforcement), 7. Closure (make sense of what they have learned)
Discovery learning
based in inductive thinking - through one's own efforts - higher order thinking - active involvement - experimentation - student work individually to learn basic principles. 1. asking questions, 2. exploring, 3. gathering data, 4 concluding & making generaalizations
when students construct and apply their own meaning to knowledge based on their own subjective experiences and background knowledge of a topic. (real-life experiences, discovery-based learning - prior knowledge/experiences)
Reception Learning
receive and process structured information - from general to specific - 1.intro info, 2.key terms/concepts, 3.synthesis of new and old
Concept Mapping
knowledge, ideas or facts in graphs or visual organizers
Inquiry Method
finding solutions -- builds on prior knowledge -- part of multiple intelligences -- can work in groups -- key tools for constructivism (personal experiences are part of how we construct our idea of the world)
Advantages of Inquiry Method
How activities relate to other subjects -- making observations -- collecting, analyzing and synthesiing 00 higher order level thinking skills -- critical and creative thinking
Cons of Inquiry Method
Time consuming -- difficult to regulate -- different then just passing a test (sequenced curriculum tends to focus on facts and quantitative knowledge that is able to be assessed)
Questioning Method
IRE (initiate, respond, evaluate) -- follows Blooms (ask a question, allow student to respond, evaluate quality of responses)
Learning Centers
Choose topic carefully -- Planned - clear objective -- self-grading check sheet (student to record progress) -- complete an evaluation
Small group work
works on social skills, problem solving and communication skills -- lower and higher levels of thinking (summarize, apply, synthesize knowledge)
Ineffective groups
When they don't listen to each other. Labels (slacker, brain)
Successful Groups
Assign to appropriate groups, mix up social groups, be clear about purpose of the task and time limit.
Use board to summarize findings.
what is Project approach
guide through real-world topics in in-depth way.
How to create a project
1. Present info (story,video) that introduces the new idea to students; 2. They think of ideas they have about the topic; 3. They write questions they would like answered; 4. Field Work (research, interview, field trip)
What is service learning?
Method of teaching, learning and reflecting that fits into the experiential education category -- learning from experiences
Goals of experiential learning
real world activities, personal life skills build self-esteem - see how academic subject comes into play in real world
Disadvantages of experiential learning
Students may see the service as mandatory and not feel excited about their choice.
What is curriculum
set of courses and their contents offered which can be determined by an individual school, district or state.
How to build an effective curriculum
be familiar with the intricacies of subject matter. Goals and Objectives should be outlined and shared
What is a curriculum map
accumulation of all the goals, objectives and topics of curriculum in all areas of the school. (mapped to see where they intertwine)
Pros of curriculum map
Lets teacher see how skills develop over the course and when and where to scaffold the knowledge in order to focus on key skills
Curriculum Map and Assessment
having a map can be easiest way to determine which assessments would be an accurate test of skills learned. (tests, performances, portfolio) -- student choose assessments are best
Other pros of curr map
Effective parent guidebook -- analyze how instructional time is being spent and determine accountability
What is emergent curriculum
Builds upon the interests of students and focuses on what they already know and what they would like to know in the future. -- teacher is more of a faciliator
What is an Antibias Curriculum?
an approach that challenges preconceived notions and elminates sociologotial maladies such as sexism, homphobia, ageism, racism -- it addresses issues of diversity and equity in class (self-identity and interact with diverse backgrounds)
What are the 4 phases of the antibias curr
1. safe classrooms; 2&3. nonsystematic and systematic incorporating activities that teach antibias attitudes (role play); 4. Studnets evaluate whether or not certain aspects of the classroom are antibiased.