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President Nixon supported each of the following liberal programs EXCEPT
a. affirmative action.
b. the Environmental Protection Agency.
c. national health care.
d. the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
e. the Clean Air Act.
Nixon called his shifting of responsibility for many social programs from the federal to the state and local levels the
a. New Nationalism.
b. New Deal.
c. Great Society.
d. New Federalism.
e. New Frontier
Which of the following was NOT a domestic goal of the Nixon administration?
a. a focus on making the federal bureaucracy more efficient
b. a commitment to shift social problems to the federal government
c. governmental utilization of minorities and women in the work force
d. shifting responsibility for school desegregation to the courts
e. increased revenue sharing between federal, state, county and city governments
What was the main focus of the Nixon presidency?
a. foreign policy
c. civil rights
e. military build-up
Nixon's program to improve relations with the Soviet Union was known as
c. Arc Light.
What was the MAIN reason the United States wanted to resume relations with China?
a. The United States believed China could become an important ally.
b. China had asked that diplomatic relations resume.
c. The United States believed it would force better relations with the Soviet Union.
d. The United States wanted to thwart the growing economic power of Japan.
e. China's large population represented an important economic market.
The SALT treaties involved
a. the United States' withdrawal from Vietnam.
b. reductions in the number of offensive ballistic missiles.
c. removal of Soviet nuclear weapons from Cuba.
d. preventing war in the Middle East.
e. the collapse of the former Soviet Union.
As the 1972 Democratic presidential nominee, ________ was perceived as an anti-establishment candidate.
a. Hubert Humphrey
b. George McGovern
c. Edmund Muskie
d. George Wallace
e. Barry Goldwater
The Watergate Scandal
a. demonstrated the strength of America's basic governmental institutions.
b. allowed unchecked presidential authority.
c. involved a lust for money.
d. was conceived by Richard Nixon.
e. uncovered vast corruption in the U.S. Congress.
The greatest economic challenge faced by the Nixon administration involved
a. the collapse of the dollar.
b. dramatically increasing international oil prices.
c. the bankruptcy of the Federal Reserve System.
d. the crisis in American farming.
e. rampant unemployment.
The Arab oil boycott of 1973-1974 was precipitated by
a. the depression in China.
b. the U.S. invasion of Iran.
c. SALT II.
d. the SALT treaty.
e. the Yom Kippur War.
The international oil organization most responsible for raising petroleum prices in the 1970s was
The most grave consequence of the 1970s oil shock was
a. the collapse of several Arab states.
b. a glut of food world wide.
c. increased industrial growth.
d. initial failure of the fledgling computer industry.
e. inflation throughout America.
The Equal Rights Amendment
a. was ratified in 1982.
b. required unisex restrooms.
c. was opposed by the National Organization for Women.
d. fell three states short of being ratified.
e. guaranteed abortion on demand.
a. prosecuted former president Nixon to the full extent of the law.
b. was a graceful and articulate speaker.
c. endorsed control over federal strip mining.
d. was ultimately far more liberal than Nixon in the White House.
e. was the first president not elected to the office of either president or vice president.
The Camp David Accords provided a framework for peace negotiations between
a. the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
b. NATO and the Warsaw Pact.
c. Iran and Iraq.
d. Israel and Egypt.
e. the Soviet Union and China.
The Cold War remained dormant throughout the 1970s until
a. the United States invaded North Vietnam.
b. the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan.
c. the Chinese invaded South Korea.
d. the Soviet Union invaded China.
e. the Chinese invaded Pakistan.
In 1979 revolutionaries in ________ took U.S. diplomats hostage.
In 1981, the Reagan administration crushed a strike by the
a. truck drivers.
b. air traffic controllers.
c. airline pilots.
d. coal miners.
e. automobile assembly workers.
Jerry Falwell invited Catholics, Jews, Protestants, Mormons, and other conservatives to join his
a. Christian Coalition.
b. Anti-Gay Crusade.
c. Religious Right.
d. Moral Majority.
e. New Right Coalition.
The central tenet of Reagan's approach to foreign policy was the belief that
a. the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) represented a serious threat to the United States.
b. trading arms for hostages was an effective way to quietly negotiate with terrorists.
c. the Soviet Union was a deadly enemy that threatened the United States.
d. the Middle East needed United States intervention to achieve freedom.
e. Israel could not be trusted.
The Reagan administration's policies in the Middle East and Central America reached a tragic convergence in
b. El Salvador.
d. the Iran-Contra affair.
e. the Iranian hostage crisis.
In 1984, ________ became the first woman ever nominated for the vice presidency by a major party.
a. Sandra Day O'Connor
b. Paula Jones
c. Barbara Jordan
d. Geraldine Ferraro
e. Madeleine Albright
Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's new policies included
d. dos vedanya.
e. Both A and B.
The most difficult issue facing the first Bush administration was
a. the savings and loan disaster.
b. the fall of Red China in 1993.
c. the destruction of the Berlin Wall.
d. the federal budget deficit.
e. the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The only significant piece of social legislation to be enacted in the first Bush administration was the
a. Civil Rights Act of 1991.
b. National Health Insurance Act.
c. Social Security Privatization Act.
d. Americans with Disabilities Act.
e. Equal Rights Amendment.
Instead of reducing the deficit by $500 billion, the 1990 budget agreement had led to an increase of more than ________ in the national debt during Bush's presidency.
a. $600 billion
b. $1 trillion
c. $900 billion
d. $100 billion
e. $1.5 trillion
In 1989, communist regimes toppled in each of the following countries EXCEPT
b. East Germany.
d. North Korea.
Which of the following was NOT a result of the Persian Gulf War?
a. a great personal victory for George Bush
b. the imprisonment of Saddam Hussein
c. an atonement for the failure in Vietnam
d. cheaper gasoline
e. unprecedented approval ratings for the president
By 2002, ________ had become the nation's largest ethnic minority.
a. African Americans
b. Asian Americans
d. German Americans
e. Pacific Islanders
________ was the fastest growing ethnic group at the beginning of the twenty-first century.
a. African Americans
b. Asian Americans
c. Eastern Europeans
d. Hispanic Americans
e. Western Europeans
President Clinton's greatest achievement in domestic affairs was
a. the establishment of national health insurance.
b. approval of the North American Free Trade Agreement.
c. the Democratic sweep in the 1994 congressional elections.
d. the elimination of the Social Security system.
e. lowering taxes.
Which of the following was NOT a scandal of the Clinton years?
d. Paula Jones
e. Monica Lewinsky
Bill Clinton was impeached for
a. perjury and obstruction of justice.
b. making unwelcome sexual advances to Paula Jones.
c. having an affair with Monica Lewinsky.
d. selling missile technology to China for campaign contributions.
e. being involved in a crooked real estate scheme in Arkansas.
The outcome of the 2000 presidential election hung on legal battles over the vote count in
e. New Mexico.
The largest of several business scandals in the early 2000s was the collapse of
d. Tyco International.
e. Montgomery Ward.
The first move in the war on terror was the overthrow of a radical Islamist regime in
e. Saudi Arabia.
The terrorist attacks on the U.S. led the George W. Bush administration to initiate a new global strategy known to its critics as
Social issues which could be affected by a more conservative Supreme Court include each of the following EXCEPT
a. affirmative action.
c. black voting rights.
d. gay rights.
e. the teaching of "intelligent design."
John F. Kennedy's domestic program was known as the
a. Great Society.
b. New Deal.
c. Fair Deal.
d. New Frontier.
e. Age of Camelot.
Which of the following regions was NOT a foreign policy crisis for John F. Kennedy?
a. Southeast Asia
e. Soviet Union
John F. Kennedy's plan to balance out nuclear capability with conventional military strength was known as
a. the New Look.
b. the New Deal.
c. flexible response.
d. massive retaliation.
e. total coverage.
Under John F. Kennedy, the United States government
a. decided to support the Ho Chi Minh government.
b. reduced American involvement in Vietnam.
c. increased the number of military advisers in Vietnam.
d. maintained levels of support in Vietnam roughly equal to those established by Eisenhower.
e. began large-scale military operations in Southeast Asia.
The ________ was Kennedy's most obvious foreign policy disaster.
a. Bay of Pigs invasion
b. Cuban Missile Crisis
c. Vietnam War
d. Berlin Crisis of 1961
e. Monroe Affair
President Kennedy's most controversial Cabinet appointment involved his choice for
a. secretary of state.
b. attorney general.
c. secretary of defense.
d. secretary of transportation.
e. secretary of the interior.
John F. Kennedy played down civil rights legislation because he
a. feared alienating Southern Democrats.
b. was secretly a racist.
c. did not want to offend conservative African-American leaders.
d. did not really see the need for it.
e. was advised to do so by leading cabinet members.
The ________ was the most important stimulus for social change in the early 1960s.
a. Supreme Court
b. House of Representatives
e. televised reporting of civil rights abuses
The most far-reaching decisions of the Warren Court involved
a. business regulation.
c. legislative reapportionment.
d. the rights of victims.
e. racial equality.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
a. outlawed racial segregation in public facilities.
b. outlawed racial discrimination in employment.
c. protected the voting rights of African Americans.
d. included gender as an unacceptable basis for discrimination in hiring.
e. all of the above.
Lyndon Johnson's domestic program was called the
ç Fair Deal.
b. New Frontier.
c. Great Society.
d. New Deal.
e. War on Poverty.
In his program of health care, President Lyndon Johnson secured
a. free health care for all Americans.
b. establishment of the Medicare program for the elderly.
c. federal health care initiatives.
d. a restriction on health benefits for welfare recipients.
e. a free prescription drug program.
In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson sent American soldiers to ________ in order to prevent a Communist takeover there.
c. the Dominican Republic
Lyndon Johnson's political downfall resulted primarily from
a. his Latin American policy.
b. his obsession with the Vietnam War.
c. the failure of his Great Society.
d. his refusal to be a Cold Warrior.
e. his advocacy of welfare programs.
Lyndon Johnson sought the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
a. as a blank check for military escalation in Vietnam.
b. to jump-start the U.S. economy.
c. to place the blame for the war in Vietnam on the shoulders of North Vietnam.
d. to pacify the leadership of South Vietnam.
e. to demonstrate to the North Vietnamese, and his political opponents, his determination to take a tough stance in Vietnam.
American bombing of North Vietnam
a. proved an effective strategy in limiting North Vietnam's participation in the war.
b. destroyed North Vietnam's major port facilities at Haiphong.
c. demoralized the North Vietnamese people.
d. generally failed to accomplish anything.
e. impeded communist supply lines.
The main premise of General William Westmoreland's strategy in Vietnam was to
a. wage a war of attrition against the Communists.
b. fight a limited war.
c. rely heavily on U.S. naval forces against the Viet Cong.
d. keep the war contained in South Vietnam.
e. fight a defensive war.
The most prominent student protest organization was the
a. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
b. Students for a Democratic Society.
c. Yippie movement.
d. Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
e. Young Republicans.
For the United States, the turning point of the Vietnam War was the
a. Tet Offensive.
b. battle of Khe Sanh.
c. battle of Dien Bien Phu.
d. siege of Hue.
e. battle of Da Nang.
The fundamental disagreement at the beginning of the Cold War involved the question of
a. who would control postwar Europe.
b. sharing the secrets of atomic weapons.
c. free elections in Western Europe.
d. whether Truman or Stalin would lead postwar alliances.
e. who would control post-war Japan.
By 1946, Great Britain and the United States were refusing to permit
a. France to invade West Germany.
b. the Soviet Union to take reparations from the industrial western zones of Germany.
c. the nuclear arming of Japan.
d. the Greek invasion of Turkey.
e. the Soviet Union to send arms to Eastern Europe.
Soviet bitterness toward the United States immediately after World War II was primarily a result of
a. American threats to take military action against Eastern Europe.
b. broken American promises regarding the future of Berlin.
c. the United States' refusal to provide economic aid to the Soviet Union.
d. personal differences between Truman and Stalin.
e. the United States' presence in West Germany.
George Kennan's "containment" policy proposed
a. long-term neutrality for the United States with respect to European affairs.
b. a series of aggressive maneuvers toward the Soviet Union.
c. American vigilance regarding Soviet expansionist tendencies.
d. restrictions on American expansionist plans.
e. keeping nuclear weapons information a closely guarded secret.
The Truman Doctrine was developed as a response to problems in
a. Greece and Turkey.
b. Italy and France.
c. Syria and Lebanon.
d. Laos and Vietnam.
e. Hungary and Czechoslovakia.
The Marshall Plan proposed
a. the infusion of massive amounts of American capital in Western Europe.
b. the rearming of Germany.
c. a massive military buildup in Europe.
d. a series of Western military alliances.
e. the division of Germany.
Overall, the Marshall Plan
a. did little to halt Soviet encroachment in Western Europe.
b. failed as an economic measure.
c. received wholehearted support from the Soviets.
d. generated a broad industrial recovery in Western Europe.
e. had no effect on the U.S. economy.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
a. received little support from European nations.
b. represented a departure from traditional American isolationism.
c. was perceived as nonthreatening by the Soviets.
d. continued the old American tradition of involvement in European alliances.
e. was opposed by the United Nations secretary-general.
a. had the effect of easing U.S.-Soviet tensions.
b. intensified Soviet fears of the West.
c. involved only the United States and major West European powers.
d. failed to radically affect European military strategy.
e. relied exclusively on European forces.
The National Security Act of 1947 established the
a. Department of State.
b. Central Intelligence Agency.
c. Truman Doctrine.
d. Marshall Plan.
e. House Un-American Activities Committee.
A significant aspect of the American response to the Communist triumph in China was its
a. decision to focus on Japan as its major Asian ally.
b. decision to launch the Korean War.
c. failure to observe other Communist threats in the region.
d. quick recognition of the new regime in China.
e. cessation of diplomatic relations with the Soviets.
In the final analysis, the most significant result of the Korean War was
a. the final solution: the division of Korea.
b. the fact that it inhibited the Soviet Union's further expansionism.
c. that it reinforced Truman's popularity with the American people.
d. that it humiliated the United States in the eyes of the world.
e. that it brought about massive American rearmament.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
a. helped the CIA break a Soviet spy ring in the United States.
b. were executed for passing American atomic secrets to the Soviet Union.
c. opposed the Soviet attempt to blockade Berlin.
d. were responsible for exposing Alger Hiss as a communist.
e. admitted their guilt.
The leading figure of the Red Scare of the early 1950s was
a. Dwight D. Eisenhower.
b. Joseph McCarthy.
c. Dean Acheson.
d. Richard M. Nixon.
e. Roy Cohn.
President Eisenhower's first serious foreign policy crisis came when
a. communist China attacked Formosa.
b. North Korea attacked South Korea.
c. the Frenchasked the U.S. for assistance in Vietnam.
d. Egypt seized the Suez Canal.
e. the Soviet Union cut off land access to Berlin.
In 1954, what was the first test of Eisenhower's new policy to contain Chinese communism?
c. the Pacific Islands
d. Eastern Europe
e. the Formosa Straits
Supporters of the Kellogg-Briand Pact hoped it would
a. achieve immediate international disarmament.
b. establish a Franco-American mutual defense pact.
c. initiate the process of outlawing war.
d. establish a formal alliance between the United States and France.
e. achieve a quick military build-up.
During the 1920s, U.S.-Soviet relations were characterized by a combination of
a. diplomatic recognition and increased trade.
b. diplomatic recognition and a trade embargo.
c. diplomatic nonrecognition and increased trade.
d. a formal alliance and substantial trade.
e. a formal alliance and a trade embargo.
In 1920, United States forces occupied all of the following, EXCEPT
a. the Dominican Republic.
e. the Philippines.
The Good Neighbor Policy promised Latin American countries
a. more U.S. military involvement in their affairs.
b. less U.S. interest in Latin America.
c. easy U.S. loans with low rates of interest.
d. closer ties with each other.
e. a cooperative, rather than paternalistic, relationship with the United States.
In 1931, the illusion of peace was shattered by the Japanese invasion of
The naval armaments of the major world powers were significantly reduced
a. at the Washington Disarmament Conference of 1921.
b. in the Kellogg-Briand Pact.
c. by the Treaty of Versailles.
d. by the Eurasian Naval Agreement of 1926.
e. by the Pact of Paris.
The weakness of the League of Nations was revealed when Italy invaded
Britain and France responded to initial German aggression by
a. attempting to appease Hitler.
b. immediately threatening war.
c. establishing a military alliance with the Soviet Union.
d. seizing German territory.
e. blockading German ports.
With the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939, President Roosevelt
a. immediately declared war on Germany.
b. declared American neutrality.
c. loaned massive quantities of war supplies to France and England.
d. warned Germany that if France were attacked, the United States would declare war.
e. made a secret pact with the French.
In order to assist the Allies immediately after World War II began, President Roosevelt
a. gave fifty destroyers to the British.
b. placed a total embargo on trade to Nazi Germany.
c. provided lend-lease assistance to the Allies.
d. initiated the first peace time draft in U S. history.
e. gave the British and the French technologically advanced communications systems.
The Lend-Lease Act of 1941
a. ensured the British easier access to American war supplies.
b. placed restrictions on which materials the United States could ship to Great Britain.
c. encountered almost no opposition from American congressmen.
d. was proposed by American isolationists.
e. was approved but never implemented.
To get American war supplies across the Atlantic, Great Britain
a. relied on the American navy to escort their supply convoys.
b. greatly expanded the size of its merchant marine.
c. utilized American transport planes.
d. temporarily diverted some of its warships to transport duty.
e. used submarines to avoid detection by the Germans.
During 1940-1941, President Roosevelt attempted to halt Japanese aggression in Asia by
a. applying economic pressure on Japan through a trade embargo.
b. waging a clandestine, undeclared war against Japanese naval forces in the Pacific.
c. signing mutual defense pacts with other Asian nations.
d. securing legislation allowing him to send troops to China.
e. sending spies to Japan to gather tactical information.
In December 1941, the U.S. declared war on Germany because
a. the American people demanded it.
b. of the attack on Pearl Harbor.
c. Germany had invaded Britain.
d. Germany had declared war on the U.S.
e. it seemed like the thing to do.
For much of the war, the Allies differed vigorously over
a. whether the Soviet Union should enter the war against Japan.
b. when and where to open the second front against Germany.
c. whether Germany should be forced to surrender unconditionally.
d. which nation should be allowed to enter Berlin first.
e. whether the war with Japan or Germany should take precedent.
The so-called "zoot-suit" riots in Los Angeles in 1943 were targeted at
a. Mexican Americans.
b. Italian Americans.
c. African Americans.
d. Native Americans
e. German Americans.
The social and economic effects of the Depression
a. impacted only the wealthier classes.
b. hit the middle class especially hard.
c. lasted only a few months past 1929.
d. were harsh only in the case of the lower classes.
e. came to light only gradually.
Hoover believed that efforts to relieve human suffering
a. would be in accord with previous government policies during economic crises.
b. would bring about inflation.
c. could promote domestic unrest.
d. should come from private charities.
e. would be a sign of weakness.
The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was designed to
a. loan money to financial institutions to prevent bankruptcies.
b. stimulate the growth of new business.
c. give direct "doles" to the unemployed.
d. provide direct loans to homeowners
e. fund the construction of cheap housing for the growing number of homeless Americans.
Hoover's response to the Depression could best be described as
a. restrained and cautious.
b. innovative and adaptive.
c. humanitarian and pragmatic.
d. socialistically radical.
e. bumbling and uncertain.
The bonus army that came to Washington in 1932 was made up of
a. new volunteers.
b. young draftees.
c. WW I veterans who supported Hoover's policies.
d. WW I veterans who lobbied Congress.
e. Civil War veterans seeking
The "Hundred Days" was
a. the period between Roosevelt's election and his inauguration.
b. the period immediately after Roosevelt's first inauguration.
c. the last three months of the 1932 campaign.
d. the final days of the Hoover administration.
e. the worst period of the Great Depression.
Roosevelt's Hundred Days banking legislation was designed to
a. support strong banks and eliminate the weaker ones.
b. decrease government regulation of U.S. banks.
c. allow the government to take over the banking system.
d. give bankers a place in his government.
e. merge smaller banks with larger ones.
During the Hundred Days, Roosevelt did all of the following, except
a. propose government ownership of major industries.
b. close all the banks.
c. institute the Tennessee Valley Authority.
d. create the Agricultural Adjustment Act.
e. call a special session of Congress.
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was designed to
a. bring modernization and jobs to desolate areas of the upper rural South.
b. help support the continued control of electrical power by private companies.
c. alienate conservationists.
d. test the authority of the Supreme Court.
e. win votes in a largely Republican area.
The National Recovery Administration sought to promote economic recovery by
a. reducing corporate taxes.
b. restoring competition.
c. promoting cooperation between business and labor.
d. implementing classical economic theory.
e. eliminating all taxes.
The National Recovery Administration encountered each of the following problems EXCEPT
a. the trade codes were too complex to be enforced easily.
b. the trade codes favored big business over smaller competitors.
c. low minimum wages led to labor disenchantment.
d. companies could easily avoid the collective bargaining requirement.
e. the appeal for patriotic public support fell on deaf ears
Criticisms of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration included each of the following EXCEPT
a. its rushed implementation of farm products being destroyed while people in the cities were starving.
b. large farmers benefitting most.
c. millions of tenants and sharecroppers being forced off the land.
d. contributing to Dust Bowl conditions on the Great Plains
e. hastening the decline of the family farm and the rise of large-scale agribusiness.
Young men were hired to clear land, plant trees, build bridges, and fish ponds by the
By 1935, Roosevelt's severest critics were
a. members of the Supreme Court.
b. accusing him of turning the U.S. into a socialist state.
c. demanding more radical reforms.
d. accusing him of ignoring the rise of aggressive military dictatorships in Europe.
e. scolding him for not providing more aid to impoverished blacks.
Criticisms of the Social Security Act included each of the following EXCEPT
a. the pension payments were paltry and would not begin until 1942.
b. farmers and domestic servants were not covered.
c. the Social Security trust fund removed money from circulation.
d. it offered nothing to those already out of work.
e. it would transfer over half the national income to less than 10 percent of the population.
The National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act
a. guaranteed that all workers would be paid a nationally established minimum wage.
b. granted workers the right to organize and collectively bargain.
c. gave management the right to forbid the "closed shop."
d. gave the president the power to end strikes that
threatened the nation's welfare.
e. did not help workers who were not already unionized.
The Congress of Industrial Organizations
a. worked harmoniously with the American Federation of Labor in the 1930s.
b. was solely interested in trade unions.
c. fought hard to include women and African Americans.
d. was opposed by President Roosevelt.
e. promoted the organization of all workers, not just skilled labor, in a given industry.
By 1935, the New Deal coalition included support from all of the following EXCEPT
a. organized labor.
b. the urban masses.
c. big business.
d. African Americans.
e. Democrats in the South and West.
Roosevelt's "court packing" proposal
a. was perfectly legal.
b. outraged both conservatives and liberals.
c. was effectively blocked by Democratic opposition.
d. badly strained Roosevelt's relations with Congress.
e. all of the above
In his second term, Roosevelt was stung by each of the following EXCEPT
a. the failure of national health insurance and anti-lynching legislation.
b. the defeat of minimum wage and maximum hour legislation.
c. a very serious economic relapse known as the "Roosevelt recession."
d. a Republican resurgence in the 1938 elections.
e. the emergence of a conservative congressional coalition which blocked further New Deal legislation after 1938.
The German sinking of the ________ in 1915 cost 128 American lives and enraged the American public.
American foreign policy between 1901 and 1920
a.was aggressive and nationalistic.
b.was strongly influenced by isolationist tradition.
c.was relatively inactive.
d.did little to reflect the nation's new economic power.
e.was geared toward cooperation and peace.
In terms of foreign policy, Theodore Roosevelt
a. did little to foster American aims.
b. reflected the influence of isolationism.
c. sought to prepare the country for its role as a world power.
d. sought to further insulate the United States from foreign affairs
e. was supremely concerned with world peace.
The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
a. secured Colombia's permission for the building of the Panama Canal.
b. gave the United States control of the Panama Canal Zone.
c. transferred rights to the Panama Canal from France to the United States.
d. ended hostilities with Mexico in 1914.
e. gave the United States control of the Philippines.
The Roosevelt Corollary
a. reflected America's increasing trust in the motives of Europe.
b. indicated a new American spirit of cooperation with Latin America.
c. resulted from America's fear that Latin American debts to Europe invited intervention.
d. had relatively little influence on American foreign policy.
e. stated "speak softly and carry a big stick"
The Roosevelt Corollary was an extension of the
a. Lodge Corollary
b. Monroe Doctrine.
c. Open Door policy.
d. Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty.
e. Kansas-Nebraska Act
In the 1905 Taft-Katsura Agreement,
a. the US and Japan agreed not to attack each other for at least 50 years.
b. the US exchanged recognition of Japanese control of Korea for a Japanese pledge not to invade the Philippines.
c. Japan agreed to limit emigration to the US.
d. the US and Japan agreed to a policy of mutual free trade.
e. the US and Japan agreed to uphold the Open Door and support Chinese independence.
Taft's policy of "dollar diplomacy"
a. promoted American financial and business interests abroad.
b. was primarily aimed at helping underdeveloped countries.
c. resulted in less American influence in Latin America.
d. had little influence on American national security interests.
e. helped establish the prestige of the United States in Asia.
In his approach to foreign affairs, Wilson could be described as
a. a militarist.
b. a moralist.
c. being primarily concerned with economic matters.
d. a global strategist.
e. a pacifist.
In conducting foreign policy, Woodrow Wilson did each of the following EXCEPT
a. carry on major negotiations without informing the secretary of state.
b. compose important diplomatic notes on his own typewriter.
c. assign only experienced foreign service experts to major diplomatic posts.
d. bypass the state dept. and conduct diplomacy through personal emissaries.
e. base his foreign policy on idealism rather than reality.
With respect to Mexico, Wilson
a. intervened militarily.
b. showed little interest in the area.
c. refused to intervene in the region.
d. had congress declare war in 1913.
e. adopted a policy of shared wealth.
At the beginning of WWI, Americans
a. showed little interest in the conflict.
b. sided strongly with the British.
c. were eager to enter the conflict.
d. sided strongly with the Germans.
e. generally accepted neutrality.
American Progressives viewed WWI
a. as a potential threat to their reforms.
b. as an opportunity to help Germany.
c. with little concern.
d. as an opportunity to extend the scope of their movement.
e. as a great way to "jump start" the US economy.
President Wilson's initial reaction to the outbreak of war in Europe in 1914 was to
a. declare war on Germany.
b. come to the military assistance of Russia.
c. praise the assassination of the archduke of Austria.
d. declare United States neutrality.
e. begin construction of U-boats.
At the beginning of WWI, Great Britain
a. respected American neutrality.
b. made few attempts to influence American policy.
c. sought the military aid of the United States.
d. sought to restrict American trade with Germany.
e. briefly considered surrender.
The Zimmermann Telegram
a. announced Germany's European war aims.
b. pledged Germany's intention to end the war peacefully.
c. proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico.
d. had little effect on America's move toward war.
e. hinted at an alliance between Germany and Canada.
The American Expeditionary Force
a. was primarily made up of draftees.
b. consisted, for the most part, of the existing U.S. Army.
c. was primarily a volunteer army.
d. was initially well-prepared and trained for war.
e. was a spearhead of elite commandos.
During WWI, approximately ____ American soldiers died in Europe.
The American contribution in WWI
a. was mostly monetary.
b. was small but vital to Allied success.
c. played a relatively minor role in ending the war.
d. was much greater than that of the Allies.
e. came too late to offer any real assistance.
a. was disturbed by American vigilantism and superpatriotism.
b. actually encouraged repressive activities during World War I.
c. paid little attention to American propaganda efforts.
d. fought congressional actions against espionage.
e. personally shut down several newspapers because of their reluctance regarding self-censorship.
To finance the war effort, the US govt relied primarily on
a. higher income tax rates.
b. printing and spending large sums of paper money.
c. sale of "Liberty Bonds."
d. new discoveries of gold in Alaska.
e. loans from foreign governments.
When communist Bolsheviks gained control of the Russian govt in 1917, President Wilson did each of the following EXCEPT
a. Send American troops into the new Soviet Union.
b. join in an economic blockade of Russia.
c. try to block weapons shipments to contending revolutionary factions in Russia.
d. keep Russia out of the postwar peace negotiations.
e. refuse to recognize the new Soviet government.
The Fuel Administration did each of the following EXCEPT
a. ration coal and oil.
b. impose gasless days when motorists could not drive.
c. introduce daylight savings time
d. shut down nonessential factories one day each week to conserve coal.
e. encourage research to find alternatives to fossil fuels.
A major effect of the war labor shortage was
a. a dramatic rise in wages for all workers.
b. a great migration of southern African Americans to northern cities.
c. a worsening in government-labor relations.
d. a decrease in the number of working women.
e. the construction of more factories.
As a result of their participation in the war effort, African Americans
a. faced even worse discrimination in America.
b. became more accepting of the conditions they faced.
c. found greater acceptance of their place in American society.
d. were more and more inclined to fight discrimination.
e. generally were allowed to remain in Europe.
One of Wilson's major goals at Paris was
a. to punish Germany for starting the war.
b. to recompense the British and French for their great losses.
c. to found a League of Nations to enforce peace.
d. to bring the Russians to the peace table.
e. to see the Eiffel Tower.
Which of the following was NOT characteristic of progressivism?
a. It sought radical changes in American life.
b. It meant to humanize and regulate big business.
c. Its members were fundamentally optimistic about human nature.
d. Its members were willing to intervene in other people's lives.
e. It emphasized the role of the environment in human development.
The 18th Amendment to the Constitution provided for
a. women's suffrage.
c. a federal income tax.
d. direct election of senators.
e. extending the franchise to eighteen-year-olds.
The women's suffrage movement suffered from each of the following problems EXCEPT
b. male opposition.
c. resistance from the Catholic Church.
d. opposition from the prohibition movement.
e. indecision on whether to pursue remedies at the state or national level.
The 19th Amendment to the Constitution provided for
a. women's suffrage.
c. a federal income tax.
d. direct election of senators.
e. extending the franchise to eighteen-year-olds.
The most effective proponent of "sociological jurisprudence" was
a. William Howard Taft
b. Louis Brandeis
c. Clarence Darrow
d. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
e. Eugene V. Debs
The most influential educator of the Progressive Era was
b. Eugene V. Debs.
c. Robert M. La Follette.
d. John Dewey.
e. William James.
The most prominent American socialist during the Progressive Era
a. "Big Bill" Haywood.
b. Gifford Pinchot.
c. Eugene V. Debs.
d. Upton Sinclair.
e. Daniel DeLeon.
To Progressives, the commissions they championed offered a way to
a. increase their political power.
b. reduce the power of reformers.
c. end the corrupt alliance between business and politics.
d. provide employment for their supporters.
e. get regular citizens into political offices.
Which of the following states had the most progressive reform program in the early 1900's?
a. New York
Theodore Roosevelt angered southerners by inviting ______ to the White House.
a. Booker T. Washington
b. W. E. B. DuBois
c. George Washington Carver
d. Madam C. J. Walker
e. Scott Joplin
The Supreme Court's decision in the Northern Securities case
a. paved the way for several other antitrust actions.
b. had little effect on the problem of trusts overall.
c. was opposed by Roosevelt.
d. affected only the smaller American trusts.
e. was unanimous.
In the great coal strike of 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt
a. played no role at all in settling the dispute.
b. sympathized completely with the company owners.
c. decided to support the Pure Food and Drug Act.
d. invited both sides to a White House conference.
e. shut down the mines for two months.
The Hepburn Act of 1906
a. was aimed, primarily, at the mining industry.
b. lessened government regulation of industry.
c. strengthened the power of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
d. raised the tariff.
e. banned child labor.
Upton Sinclair's novel, The Jungle, led to passage of the
a. Hepburn Act.
b. Mann-Elkins Act.
c. Meat Inspection Act.
d. Elkins Act.
e. Clayton Antitrust Act.
The Mann-Elkins Act of 1910
a. displeased Theodore Roosevelt.
b. balanced progressive and conservative demands.
c. angered conservatives.
d. pleased no one.
e. angered the public.
Woodrow Wilson won the election of 1912 because
a. he was more popular than Roosevelt.
b. of the split in the Republican party.
c. of the support of Taft.
d. he won the support of the Socialists.
e. he won the support of Progressives.
In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt was the candidate of the
a. Bull Moose party.
b. Republican party.
c. Democratic party.
d. Know-nothing party.
e. Democratic-progressive party.
In 1912, Roosevelt's New Nationalism
a. demanded a stronger role for the president and govt.
b. called for tighter immigration laws.
c. represented a repudiation of progressivism.
d. was readily accepted by all Progressives.
e. was resolutely anti-trust.
Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom called for
a. the expansion of govt.
b. less govt regulation
c. business competition and small govt.
d. govt restraint of competition.
e. none of the above.
The 16th amendment
a. established civil rights guidelines.
b. authorized the direct election of senators.
c. gave women the vote.
d. authorized an income tax.
e. extended the franchise to 18-year-olds.
The most important domestic law of Wilson's administration was the
a. Underwood Tariff
b. Dingley Tariff.
c. Federal Reserve Act.
d. Pure Food and Drug Act.
e. Clayton Antitrust Act.
Theodore Roosevelt resigned from his position as ________ to organize the Rough Riders.
a. vice president
b. secretary of defense
c. assistant secretary of defense
d. secretary of the navy
e. assistant secretary of the navy
Why was American expansion of the 1890s different from earlier expansionist moves?
a. It was intended for settlement.
b. It was primarily for agricultural objectives.
c. It would create economic and military colonies overseas.
d. It would venture into uninhabited areas.
e. It was the result of war.
Which of the following was NOT a factor in fostering a change in American foreign policy by 1890?
a. the census report of 1890
b. concern over lack of natural resources
c. oversaturation of domestic markets
d. the rise of evolution-inspired notions of racial superiority
e. the perceived need for more foreign markets
In 1867, Secretary of State William Seward had the United States purchase Alaska from
The first territory outside the North American continent acquired by the United States was
c. the Philippines.
d. the Midway Islands.
e. Puerto Rico.
Why did American interest in Hawaii increase in the 1890s?
a. There was intense pressure by American missionaries.
b. There was a fear of German influence in the region.
c. The economic and military value of the islands increased.
d. American political leaders believed the islands could be a model for expansionism.
e. Native Hawaiians appealed to the United States for help.
Which of the following did NOT play any role in bringing on the Spanish-American War in 1898?
a. the annexation of Hawaii
b. the de Lome letter
c. the sinking of the Maine
d. yellow journalism
e. officer-led riots in Havana in January
To the publishers of yellow journalism,
a. quality articles were of primary importance in publishing.
b. newspapers should be the standard-bearers for the nation.
c. sensationalism was to be avoided.
d. sensational news articles would increase sales.
e. women should not be journalists.
At the outset of the Spanish-American War,
a. there was little public support for the war in the U.S.
b. the American military was well-prepared to fight a war.
c. it was difficult to find the necessary volunteers for the American military.
d. the American army was composed of soldiers well-trained in quelling Native American uprisings.
e. the American army was 200,000 strong.
Which of the following territories caused the most debate about the merits of acquiring an empire for the United States?
c. Puerto Rico
d. the Philippines
e. the Dominican Republic
Which of the following was NOT an argument opposing annexation of the Philippines?
a. The natives could not be Christianized.
b. Colonization was anti-American.
c. The Filipinos could never become Americans.
d. Cheap labor could be imported from the Philippines.
e. Trade could continue without annexation.
According to the Supreme Court,
a. U.S. possessions should be given formal privileges.
b. U.S. possessions should be given fundamental rights.
c. no rights should be given to U.S. possessions.
d. Congress should determine the rights of U.S. possessions.
e. "the Constitution followed the flag."
The Open Door notes
a. provided the United States with economic rights in China.
b. met with the approval of western Europe.
c. had little effect on American policy in the Far East.
d. provided the United States with a sphere of influence in China.
e. were publicly denounced in China.
The Boxer Rebellion took place in
a. the Philippines.
e. Puerto Rico.
For the first two-thirds of the nineteenth century, Americans believed the land west of the Mississippi River to be
c. part of Mexico.
d. too heavily forested for farming.
e. devoid of wildlife.
Which of the following best describe the Plains tribes?
a. sedentary and pacific
b. fishermen and farmers
c. nomadic and warlike
d. practitioners of human sacrifice
e. builders of great cities
The socioeconomic and religious life of the Plains tribes revolved around
a. the sun.
b. cereal cultivation.
c. the buffalo.
d. the elk.
In the 1850s, government policy toward the Plains tribes was to
a. exterminate them.
b. define boundaries for each tribe and sign treaties with them.
c. give each Native American "40 acres and a mule" for farming.
d. provoke intertribal warfare.
e. ignore them and hope they would eventually die out.
After 1851, the U.S. government abandoned the policy of one large reservation because of each of the following factors EXCEPT
a. wagon trains needed to cross the Great Plains.
b. prospectors kept finding more gold and silver in the West.
c. the Indians could not get along with each other and needed to be kept apart.
d. a transcontinental railroad was being planned.
e. the government wanted to clear the way for settlement.
Which of the following was NOT part of the national government's policy towards Native Americans from the early 1870s to the mid 1880s?
a. signing separate peace treaties with specific Indian tribes
b. trying Native Americans in federal courts
c. giving individual Native Americans parcels of land
d. assimilating Native Americans into urban life
e. establishing Native American schools
"Buffalo soldiers" were
a. Indian scouts serving with the U.S. cavalry
b. railroad detectives assigned to protect the declining buffalo herds.
c. African American cavalrymen.
d. bands of Indians who raided the camps of buffalo hunters.
e. Colorado state militiamen.
Beginning in 1871, the United States government
a. stopped dealing with Native American tribes as sovereign nations.
b. started dealing with Native American tribes as sovereign nations.
c. tried to restore lands to Native Americans.
d. rejected the Dawes Act.
e. began a systematic slaughter of all Native Americans still living in tribes.
Which of the following was NOT done by the Dawes Act?
a. It greatly increased the power of tribal chiefs.
b. It turned most Native Americans into private property owners.
c. It established the criteria for citizenship for Native Americans.
d. It attempted to destroy the remaining vestiges of Native American culture.
e. It increased revenues to Native American schools.
The final blow to Native American tribal life on the Plains was
a. the deaths of the major Native American leaders.
b. the extermination of the buffalo herds.
c. incessant tribal warfare.
d. the reservation system.
e. the introduction of crop farming.
The Homestead Act of 1862 failed because
a. it charged too much for government land.
b. the land allotments were insufficient for farming arid land.
c. it did not adequately convert the Native Americans to farmers.
d. gold was discovered on land set aside for farming.
e. too few settlers were willing to migrate west.
Who was the West's largest landowner?
a. railroad companies
c. eastern settlers
d. Asian immigrants
The 1902 federal law setting aside the proceeds from land sales to finance irrigation projects out West was
a. the National Reclamation Act.
b. the Timber Culture Act.
c. the Timber and Stone Act.
d. the Homestead Act.
e. the Western Watering Act.
California miners who moved eastward following new gold strikes were called
a. placer miners.
b. claim jumpers.
Which of the following did NOT make Great Plains agriculture more profitable in the late nineteenth century?
a. large-scale irrigation
b. the invention of barbed wire
c. dry farming
d. the chilled iron plow
e. European wheat varieties
Which of the following was NOT a source of discontent among farmers?
a. weather difficulties
b. increasing difficulties with Native Americans
c. rising railroad rates
d. heavy mortgages
e. declining crop prices
The 1890 census reported that the frontier line
a. had reached the Great Plains.
b. had reached the Rocky Mountains.
c. had reached the Pacific Coast.
d. had reached the Mexican border.
e. could no longer be found.
Delaying the equitable division of the Oregon Country was the reluctance of both the United States and Britain to surrender access to
a. the Pacific Coast.
b. the Columbia River basin.
c. the Mesabi iron ore range.
In 1830, California, Texas, and New Mexico were under the sovereignty of
b. the United States.
d. Great Britain.
Which one of the following states actually existed for ten years as an independent nation before its admission to the Union?
b. New Mexico
The leader of the Mormon trek to Utah was
a. Moses Austin.
b. Brigham Young.
c. Joseph Smith.
d. John C. Fremont.
e. Josiah Deseret.
Opposition to Tyler's plan for the annexation of Texas came, primarily, from
a. southern agricultural interests.
b. Great Britain.
c. northern antislavery Whigs.
d. New England merchants.
e. Mexican Catholics.
Manifest Destiny was based, in part, on
a. the belief that God was on the side of American expansionism.
b. the political needs of the Democratic party.
c. the desire for new territory for slavery.
d. the desire to drive Spain out of North America.
e. simple greed.
James Polk went to war with Mexico
a. to retaliate for the harsh Mexican treatment of Texans.
b. to protect the southern border of the United States.
c. to force the cession of New Mexico and California.
d. to prevent a Mexican attempt to reacquire Texas.
e. to distract Americans from other domestic issues.
Iron rails needed for the development of U.S. railroads initially came from
Shippers did not immediately shift to the railroads because
a. they distrusted the safety of the steam engine.
b. they received financial incentives to stay with canal routes.
c. canal boats were cheaper.
d. they were not convinced of their reliability.
e. they were satisfied with the service they were getting using the canals.
By the end of the 1850s, railroads had
a. run the canals completely out of business.
b. enabled nationwide marketing of almost anything.
c. tied the North and the South together.
d. transformed the American economy.
e. been extended all the way to the Pacific Coast.
Between the 1830s and 1840s, most of the immigrants to the United States came from
a. the Far East.
b. eastern Europe.
c. western Europe.
d. Latin America.
The major factor that pushed the Irish immigrant to the United States in the 1840s and 1850s was
a. the oppression of the British government.
b. the decline in the number of jobs in Ireland.
c. the overpopulation of Ireland.
d. the great potato famine.
e. the persecution of Catholics.
Which of the following southern states was the first to secede from the Union?
d. South Carolina
e. North Carolina
The Confederate constitution was
a. based on the model of the Articles of Confederation.
b. surprisingly similar to the U.S. Constitution.
c. based on the English Constitution.
d. a subject of ongoing debate throughout the war.
e. written by a radical faction and forced through by them.
Which of the following was NOT a provision of the Confederate constitution?
a. prohibition of protective tariffs
b. guarantee of slavery
c. protection of slavery in the territories
d. a strong central government
e. restrictions on the finance of internal improvements
The Crittenden Plan
a. extended the Missouri Compromise to the Pacific.
b. did not guarantee the protection of slavery in new territories.
c. recommended that popular sovereignty determine the status of states created from new territories.
d. abolished the national fugitive slave law.
e. denied federal compensation to the owners of escaped slaves.
Which of the following does NOT apply to Lincoln's initial policy toward the Confederacy?
a. a cautious and limited use of force
b. a strategy of inactivity to buy time to resolve the conflict
c. a strategy designed to make the Confederacy look like the aggressor if war occurred
d. a strategy designed to avoid any "hostile" action toward the South by the North
e. the deployment of troops along the "border states" to demonstrate a Union resolve to fight
In the beginning, the Civil War was
a. a struggle to free the slaves.
b. a struggle to preserve the Union.
c. a contest of sectional supremacy.
d. a personal struggle between Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis.
e. a struggle to preserve "King Cotton."
Southerners went to war in 1861 in a mood of
a. tension and anxiety.
b. pessimism and doubt.
c. optimism and jubilation.
d. passivity and resignation.
e. fear and loathing.
Which of the following was NOT a Union military advantage during the Civil War?
a. larger population
b. superior generals
c. stronger industrial base
d. a superior railroad system
e. no blockades
One of the South's greatest challenges during the war was
a. the reluctance of southern farmers to shift from cotton to foodstuffs.
b. strengthening its own naval blockade of northern ports.
c. breaking the military alliance between the North and Great Britain.
d. trying to find even a few qualified generals.
e. to keep slaves from escaping.
The first major battle of the war, at Bull Run, resulted in
a. a Union victory.
b. a Confederate victory.
c. a bloody stalemate.
d. the capture of Washington, D. C.
e. Sherman's capture of Savannah, Georgia.
The diplomatic objective of the Confederacy was to
a. gain control of Cuba.
b. forge alliances with Britain and France.
c. gain access to Canadian iron supplies.
d. secure the support of Mexico.
e. lure the Spanish into the war.
Confederate leaders were confident of British recognition, because
a. British textile mills were so dependent on southern cotton.
b. British financiers had invested in the South.
c. most members of Parliament were proslavery.
d. British capitalists stood to profit by selling war material to the South.
e. many of them had family ties to England.
The Emancipation Proclamation freed
a. all African Americans.
b. only slaves in the loyal border states.
c. only slaves in the Confederate-controlled areas.
d. only slaves in the military occupation zones of the Union army.
e. all slaves.
Many wealthy northerners avoided military service in the war by
a. bribing a draft official.
b. claiming to be conscientious objectors.
c. furnishing hired substitutes.
d. emigrating, temporarily, to Canada.
e. feigning disability.
In 1863, one of the bloodiest domestic riots in the United States occurred in ________ when 120 died as Irish-American laborers attacked African Americans and opposed the draft.
b. New York City
Lincoln's opponent in the presidential election of 1864 was
a. Jefferson Davis.
b. George McClellan.
c. Stephen Douglas.
d. John Bell.
e. Ulysses S. Grant.
Approximately ________ soldiers died in the Civil War.
During the 1840s, most northerners
a. disliked slavery.
b. were not abolitionists.
c. supported abolitionism.
d. both A and B
e. both A and C
The Free Soil movement supported the exclusion of slavery from the territories because of
a. its belief in racial justice.
b. its belief in the immorality of slavery.
c. its desire to dominate the political process.
d. racial prejudice and fear of labor competition from slaves.
e. the abundance of land that was unsuited for plantation agriculture.
Wilmot's Proviso would have
a. freed the slaves.
b. prohibited slavery in any territory gained from Mexico.
c. called for the shipment of blacks back to Africa.
d. abolished slavery in most northern states.
e. established the guidelines for popular sovereignty.
According to the principle of popular sovereignty,
a. Congress would determine whether a territory would have slavery.
b. territorial legislatures would determine whether a territory would have slavery.
c. settlers would determine whether a territory would have slavery.
d. the Supreme Court would determine whether a territory would have slavery.
e. the House of Representatives would determine whether a territory would have slavery.
The Compromise of 1850
a. abolished the slave trade in the District of Columbia.
b. served as the basis for lasting sectional peace.
c. prohibited slavery in the New Mexico territory.
d. drove the South to a new extremist position.
e. was revised in 1851.
The most outrageous component of the Compromise of 1850 was the
a. admission of California as a free state.
b. opening of New Mexico and Utah territories to slavery under popular sovereignty.
c. reduction of Texas to its present boundaries.
d. enactment of the new Fugitive Slave Law.
e. prohibition of slavery in the District of Columbia.
The political party known especially for its anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic philosophy was the
a. Free Soil Party.
b. Whig Party.
c. Know-Nothing Party.
d. Democratic Party.
e. Liberty Party.
The anticipated economic stimulus which would help the development of Kansas and Nebraska was
a. new industry.
c. the railroad.
d. the development of transportation on the Missouri River.
e. a new variety of cotton.
In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, Stephen Douglas attempted to set up territorial government on the basis of
a. the Compromise of 1850.
b. Free Soil ideology.
c. Congressional approval or disapproval of slavery.
d. presidential approval or disapproval of slavery.
e. popular sovereignty.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
a. was a catastrophe for sectional harmony.
b. solved the problem of slavery in the territories.
c. smoothed out North-South differences over slavery.
d. had little impact on the growing, sectional bitterness.
e. never got the congressional support it needed for passage.
What bothered nativists most about the Irish and German immigrants was that so many of them were
c. Roman Catholics.
Among the reasons why the Know-Nothings became popular was that
a. they appealed to native-born workers who feared competition from low-paid immigrants.
b. they developed a national platform that appealed to a broad cross-section of Americans.
c. they appealed to German and Irish immigrants.
d. they nominated well-known political figures to run for office.
e. they were unpretentious and not considered dishonest, like most politicians.
Underlying the rapid growth of the Republican Party was its
a. appeal to anti-immigrant elements.
b. support of agricultural expansion.
c. position on slavery in the territories.
d. excellent candidates.
e. support of the railroad and federal subsidies to finance it.
On the issue of slavery, Republicans defended the rights of
b. the South.
d. free labor.
e. slave owners.
A smaller civil war, which was a rehearsal for the later political disaster in the United States, was fought in which state during the late 1850s?
c. South Carolina
John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry
a. increased southern fears of northern hostility.
b. was condemned by most northerners.
c. had little effect on sectional tensions.
d. was intended as a statement against the government of the United States.
e. has been exaggerated by historians.
The U.S. Army colonel who defeated John Brown and his raiders was
a. Thaddeus Stevens.
b. Preston Brooks.
c. Andrew Johnson.
d. Robert E. Lee.
e. Ulysses S. Grant.
Thomas Jefferson's attitude toward Native Americans showed that he
a. considered them to be expendable.
b. believed their way of life to be worth protecting and preserving.
c. found them to be savages unworthy of serious concern.
d. respected them as people, but was not impressed by their culture.
e. wanted to try to assimilate them into the nascent culture of the United States.
American prosperity in the early 1800s was based on
a. an industrial economy.
c. monetary supplies.
d. agriculture and commerce.
e. the slave system.
The chief function of American cities during the Jeffersonian era was as
a. cultural centers.
b. depots for international trade.
c. agricultural marketplaces.
d. financial centers.
e. places to exchange ideas and keep up with news.
Which of the following statements is NOT true of President Thomas Jefferson?
a. He was a man of great intellectual ability.
b. He created the military academy at West Point.
c. He hated the national debt.
d. He wanted to cut government spending.
e. He loved the military and saw it as America's greatest asset.
Which of the following factors contributed to Thomas Jefferson's decision to make the Louisiana Purchase?
a. Spain closing the port of New Orleans to American commerce
b. Great Britain invading Cuba
c. the citizens of New Orleans petitioning him to do so
d. Napoleon sending troops to the Dominican Republic
e. Jefferson's realization that it would include Florida
What difficulty did Jefferson face in purchasing the Louisiana Territory?
a. possible confrontation with Great Britain
b. lack of support from the American people
c. the constitutionality of his actions
d. whether to accept foreign citizens on the land
e. finding $15 million in the federal budget
Chief Justice John Marshall believed in
a. states' rights.
b. a weak central government.
c. judicial review.
d. overturning the Articles of Confederation.
e. a broad interpretation of what constituted treason.
The decision in Marbury v. Madison was the first time the Supreme Court
a. ruled on the constitutionality of federal laws.
b. compelled federal officials.
c. discussed the powers of the judiciary.
d. had a unanimous ruling.
e. asserted its right to judge the constitutionality of congressional acts.
Samuel Chase's impeachment trial
a. destroyed the authority of the courts.
b. forced Marshall to resign.
c. maintained the independence of the judiciary.
d. showed Jefferson to be a conciliatory leader.
e. was a rather dull affair.
Aaron Burr was charged with treason for trying to
a. separate the West from the rest of the United States.
b. create a military rebellion.
c. force Jefferson to acknowledge his political power.
d. secure control over Cuba.
e. encouraging New Orleans to secede.
On the issue of slavery, Jefferson
a. supported the institution.
b. wanted the slave trade outlawed.
c. believed states should regulate it.
d. wanted to repeal the "three-fifths rule."
e. wanted the practice abolished in the United States.
The effect of the Embargo Act was
a. strong public support in the Northeast.
b. England agreed to respect American rights.
c. severe depression in France.
d. economic mayhem in the United States.
e. a severe shortage of food supplies for both the French and British armies.
The Chesapeake Affair of 1807
a. violated American sovereignty.
b. forced the French to rescind the Berlin Decree.
c. damaged the British navy.
d. had little effect on Anglo-American relations.
e. influenced the Americans to support the French.
The key to Madison's strategy against Great Britain was
a. the West Indies.
These congressmen believed it was imperative that the United States acquire Canada.
a. War Hawks
b. Status Quos
Which of the following groups opposed war with Great Britain?
e. New Englanders
At the Battle of New Orleans,
a. British forces retreated when they saw how strong American defenses were.
b. British forces won and forced the surrender of the city.
c. British forces were defeated by Andrew Jackson and his troops.
d. Andrew Jackson proved to be an ineffective political leader.
e. Andrew Jackson was briefly held as a prisoner.
The Treaty of Ghent
a. awarded part of Canada to the U.S.
b. did little more than end hostilities and postpone other issues for future negotiations.
c. gave the British navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
d. restored Quebec to France.
e. was negotiated quickly and quietly, since there were no real debates.
The first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court was
a. Alexander Hamilton.
b. Oliver Ellsworth.
c. John Jay.
d. Edmund Randolph.
e. Benjamin Franklin.
Which of the following did Hamilton and Jefferson have in common?
a. faith in a republican society
b. belief that the national government should be strong
c. faith in the common man
d. fears of the effect of the French Revolution on American society
e. great respect for the purity of the British constitution
Which of the following was NOT a Hamiltonian idea?
a. The government should try to foster commercial and industrial development.
b. The new central government would survive if the wealthiest people supported it.
c. France was the United States' most important ally.
d. A national bank was necessary for the country's economic health.
e. The development of cities was key to the success of the nation.
Federalists were very enthusiastic about capitalism but
a. doubted the United States would ever become a great commercial power.
b. admitted that the Jeffersonians probably had stronger public appeal.
c. would only be successful in the United States if the franchise was expanded.
d. were afraid power would become concentrated in cities.
e. did not trust the people or local government to make good decisions about financial matters.
The greatest challenge facing the first Washington administration was
a. foreign affairs.
b. war with Native Americans.
d. territorial expansion.
e. interstate trade.
Hamilton's Report On The Public Credit recommended
a. the renunciation of all old government debts.
b. that the federal government assume remaining state debts.
c. that the states fund most government activities.
d. that bankers be restricted in their dealings with the federal government.
e. that the federal government offer its creditors 80 percent of the face value of its obligations.
James Madison opposed Hamilton's proposal for the public debt because
a. he feared Hamilton's growing political power.
b. the powers of state government would be reduced.
c. he believed only a chosen few would benefit.
d. it did not foster the government of the Revolution.
e. many soldiers had lost the old loan certificates that entitled them to payment.
Opposition to Hamilton's proposed national bank
a. was led by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson.
b. reflected the fears of private bankers.
c. was justified because his plans so clearly favored a few "monied interests."
d. generally did not involve the general public.
e. resented that the enterprise would be wholly private, with no real ties to the federal government.
Which of the following would Alexander Hamilton have proposed?
a. strong diplomatic ties with France
b. the purchase of western lands
c. giving the common man the vote
d. providing government subsidies to manufacturers
e. modeling the banking system on the German model
The Bank of the United States was based on the doctrine of
a. strict construction.
b. states' rights.
c. implied powers.
d. judicial review.
e. checks and balances.
The Report On Manufacturers suggested
a. low tariffs on imported goods.
b. congressional taxes on industrial goods.
c. protective tariffs.
d. strict laissez faire.
e. a fluctuating tariff schedule.
Jeffersonians' fear of strong financial institutions was based on
a. the fact that most were simple farmers who did not understand banking policy.
b. their resentment of Federalists, who tended to have more money.
c. religious beliefs about the sin of greed.
d. anti-Semitism, because they thought banks were controlled by Jewish interests.
e. their belief that they were the root of corruption in the British government.
By the end of Washington's first term of office,
a. political harmony had unified the cabinet.
b. political squabbling threatened to divide the government.
c. political parties appeared in the campaigning.
d. the machinery of government had been brought to a standstill.
e. politicians understood the force of public opinion.
Members of the Federalist Party
a. advocated states' rights.
b. supported the French Revolution.
c. wanted Thomas Jefferson to be president.
d. supported a strong national government.
e. despised centralized economic planning.
When war broke out in Europe, Washington
a. used the war to foster new economic ties.
b. upheld the Treaty of 1778 and supported France.
c. steered a path of neutrality for the nation.
d. placed an embargo on all goods to Europe.
e. doubled the budget for the navy.
Thomas Jefferson felt it was important that the new government
a. foster strong ties with Great Britain.
b. support business and industrial development.
c. decrease the role agriculture played in the American economy.
d. lean toward France in the event it clashed with Britain.
e. expand the franchise.
Jay's Treaty succeeded in
a. getting British troops to withdraw from the northwest forts.
b. opening New Orleans to U.S. commerce.
c. pacifying southerners who had lost slaves during the war.
d. humiliating the French.
e. calming Washington's anxieties.
As a result of the Battle of Fallen Timbers,
a. Great Britain continued to dominate the western frontier.
b. the United States asserted its authority on the western frontier.
c. the Indians scored a decisive victory.
d. the inadequacy of the American army was made evident.
e. the British encouraged Native Americans in the Northwest Territory to give up their land without further violence.
Why did Spain agree to the terms of the Pinckney Treaty?
a. It mistook Jay's Treaty for an Anglo-American alliance.
b. It needed the additional sources of revenue.
c. It needed protection on its southwest borders.
d. The United States threatened direct military action.
e. It thought there was a secret agreement between the United States and France to take Spain's North American possessions.
Which treaty gave the United States access to the Mississippi River and New Orleans for trade?
a. Grenville's Treaty
b. Saratoga Treaty
c. Pinckney's Treaty
d. Jay's Treaty
e. Jefferson's Treaty
Why did the Sedition Act distress many Americans?
a. It threatened their political rights.
b. It kept the Federalists in power.
c. It suspended free elections.
d. It expanded the powers of Congress.
e. It allowed libel convictions without a jury trial.
In 1798, the Federalists sponsored a military buildup with the intention of
a. taking the French West Indies.
b. suppressing internal political dissent.
c. conquering Canada.
d. pacifying the Indian tribes of the Ohio Valley.
e. pumping federal dollars into a sagging economy.
Actual fighting in the American Revolution began when the
a. British army, sent to seize colonial arms, was interrupted by colonists at Lexington.
b. British navy shelled the colonial port of Norfolk, Virginia.
c. colonial army under Washington forced the British to evacuate Boston.
d. colonial Minutemen attacked a British camp guarding an arsenal in Concord.
During the first year of the Revolution in New England, the
a. British decided to evacuate Boston.
b. numbers and influence of Loyalists increased.
c. numbers of army recruits steadily declined.
d. residents experienced widespread loss of life and property.
Britain established its military headquarters in New York City in 1776 because of the city's
a. access to food supplies.
b. central location.
c. Loyalist sentiments.
d. All of the above.
George Washington's early military setbacks convinced him to
a. engage the British in frontal combat.
b. harass the British, making the war as costly for them as possible.
c. lead an assault on Canada.
d. seek a final attempt at reconciliation with the British.
Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress would NOT have the power to
a. mediate boundary disputes between the states.
b. declare war.
c. administer relations with Indians living outside state boundaries.
d. impose taxes.
Which of the following were problems experienced by the Continental army?
a. an over-abundance of troops
b. high morale
c. inadequate supplies
d. high salaries for enlisted men.
The ability of the Confederation Congress to function was limited by the stipulation that
a. all war powers belonged to the executive branch.
b. any proposed law required unanimous approval.
c. each state's delegation could cast but one vote.
d. it could not pass resolutions nor seek state support.
During the Revolutionary War, George Washington repeatedly criticized the Continental Congress for
a. blocking needed imports.
b. forming an alliance with France.
c. being soft on land speculators.
d. failing to support the army.
Intending on pushing further into the South, British commanders realized that
a. the distance was too far.
b. supply lines would be too long.
c. Loyalist sympathy was weak.
d. All of the above.
The British invasion of the southern states was complicated by the
a. absence of Loyalist supporters.
b. jagged coastline and numerous inland rivers.
c. colonial use of local knowledge and unconventional tactics.
d. presence of a large slave population.
In response to the Revolution, the Cherokee Indians
a. launched raids in eastern Tennessee.
b. joined Americans in a military alliance.
c. remained aloof from the conflict.
d. fled the fighting to lands west of the Mississippi River.
According to the Treaty of Paris (1783), ending the American Revolution,
a. Britain would retain only those territories they controlled at the war's end.
b. the United States would use the property of Loyalists to repay prewar debts owed to British merchants.
c. all British forces would evacuate American territory "with all convenient speed" once hostilities ceased.
d. the western boundary of the United States would be the crest of the Appalachian Mountains.
All of the following factors contributed to American victory in the Revolution EXCEPT the
a. administrative and organizational talents of George Washington.
b. American people's determination not to submit.
c. Dutch and French loans, war supplies, and military forces.
d. overwhelming support by Congress and the state governments for the continental army.
Britain lost the Revolutionary War because it
a. pursued overly aggressive military strategies.
b. failed to capitalize sufficiently on its advantages.
c. abandoned traditional European battlefield tactics.
d. proved economically inferior to the combined American states.
As the Revolutionary War lengthened and its costs increased, which of the following groups would have been LEAST likely to contribute soldiers for the cause?
a. men of wealth and influence
b. former indentured servants
c. recently arrived immigrants
d. unskilled manual laborers
The punishment of Loyalists during the Revolution
a. gained the support of the most conservative patriots.
b. raised concerns over the protection of individual liberty.
c. typically fell hardest upon members of the lower classes.
d. was tempered by feelings of kinship and affection.
American Loyalists during the Revolution
a. lived mostly in and around the city of Boston.
b. received generous compensation from England for their losses.
c. numbered fewer than 10,000 people.
d. were most numerous around New York City.
Many American black slaves sought their freedom during the Revolution by
a. attempting to take lands from western Indians.
b. seeking return passage to Africa.
c. fighting with the British.
d. fleeing to the maritime provinces of Canada.
Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688, England
a. tightened imperial controls over its American empire.
b. entered a political alliance with France.
c. forbade colonial merchants the right to engage in foreign trade.
d. relaxed customs regulations and reduced duties.
As a result of the Molasses Act of 1733,
a. New England rum had to be shipped to England before being exported to another country.
b. New England merchants and shippers gained new respect for royal authority.
c. trade between New England and the French West Indies collapsed.
d. many of New England's largest merchants and distillers resorted to smuggling.
England declared war on Spain in 1739 because of a desire to
a. win commercial privileges from its ally France.
b. avenge Spanish piracy of English merchant ships.
c. end Spanish involvement in smuggling activities.
d. dominate trade in the Atlantic basin.
The underlying cause of the Seven Years' War in America was the
a. French takeover of the western fur trade.
b. English colonial penetration of the Ohio Valley.
c. French attack on the western forces of George Washington.
d. English retaliation against western Indian attacks.
The British Proclamation of 1763
a. ordered colonial governors to reserve lands west of the Appalachian Mountains for Indian nations.
b. allowed western Indians the right to trade with any European merchants.
c. successfully ended an attempt by Ottawa Indians to drive the British out of the Ohio Valley.
d. ended reckless speculation in western lands by eastern investors.
The end of the Seven Years' War left the American colonies
a. economically prosperous.
b. reluctant to pursue western settlements.
c. more dependent upon British support and leadership.
d. debt-ridden and weakened in manpower.
Perhaps the most immediately effective protest against the Stamp Act was the
a. organization of mob riots by the Sons of Liberty.
b. passage of formal resolutions by the Virginia House of Burgesses.
c. boycott of British goods by American merchants.
d. formation of an intercolonial Stamp Act Congress.
Passage of the Declaratory Act by Parliament
a. asserted Parliament's power to enact laws for the colonies in "all cases whatsoever."
b. politicized the American resistance movement.
c. demonstrated British desire to reach a compromise solution with the colonies on matters of taxation.
d. resolved the problems that had created the Stamp Act crisis.
As a result of the Townshend Acts of 1767, Parliament
a. sent a circular letter to each colony explaining England's need for revenue.
b. raised customs duties on American imports of paper, lead, paint, and tea.
c. required colonial assemblies to pay the salaries of royal officials from local property taxes.
d. permanently suspended New York's rebellious assembly for noncompliance with British regulations.
By early 1770, Parliament decided to repeal the Townshend duties except for one on tea because the
a. employment of troops had restored colonial order and respect for the mother country.
b. Americans had promised to drop objections to parliamentary regulations of trade.
c. colonial boycott of British goods had severely hurt British merchants.
d. colonial ports had erupted in violent demonstrations.
e. Native American population threatened retaliation.
The Boston Massacre, in which five townspeople were killed by British redcoats,
a. resulted in a speedy conviction and execution of the soldiers.
b. demonstrated the calculated desire of the British to crush colonial rebellion.
c. convinced Governor Hutchinson to order British troops out of town.
d. galvanized the colonies into further resistance to English policies.
Americans objected to the Tea Act of 1773 because it would
a. raise the price of tea in America.
b. make it difficult for American merchants to compete with British merchants.
c. increase Parliament's taxation of tea.
d. bankrupt the popular East India Company.
The Intolerable Acts provided for all of the following EXCEPT the
a. immunity of British soldiers involved in suppressing civil disturbances from local court trials.
b. individual punishment of participants in the Boston Tea Party.
c. replacement of Hutchinson as governor by the commander-in-chief of British forces in America.
d. closing of Boston's port until Massachusetts paid for tea destroyed in the Boston Tea Party.
The call for the meeting of a Continental Congress in 1774 came in response to the
a. Quartering Act.
b. Townshend Acts.
c. Stamp Act.
d. Intolerable Acts.
Discussions at the First Continental Congress were LEAST concerned with
a. overcoming sectional hostilities and jealousies.
b. determining a colonial plan of resistance.
c. defining and justifying American grievances against England.
d. preparing financially and militarily for war.
Even before the Second Continental Congress assembled in May 1775, most colonies had created extralegal, revolutionary governments that
a. created and armed militia units.
b. operated the courts.
c. levied taxes.
d. All of the above.
Americans viewed English policies after 1763 as
a. threats to their economic interests.
b. evidence of English corruption.
c. a systematic attack on their constitutional liberties.
d. All of the above.
In the republican worldview, governmental power
a. promoted public virtue.
b. controlled factionalism.
c. maintained order.
d. threatened liberty.
Much of the colonial clergy
a. supported the revolutionary movement against English rule.
b. denounced the revolutionary pamphleteers.
c. saw the revolutionary movement as dangerously immoral.
d. urged their congregations to obey British laws.
The struggle with England over colonial rights between 1764 and 1776 revealed that
a. newer immigrants held more conservative views.
b. over time people tend to grow tired of politics.
c. colonial society was not unified.
d. colonial merchants sided with their British counterparts.
Who replaced Thomas Hutchinson as governor of Massachusetts in 1774?
a. General George Washington
b. General Thomas Gage
c. Benjamin Franklin
d. King George III
How many wars for empire in the eighteenth century had England fought by 1763?
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