Intro to Psych: 1. Introduction to Psychology & Research Methods
Dr. Stockstill Introduction to Psychology 13th edition
Terms in this set (85)
In research, an animal whose behavior is used to derive principles that may apply to human behavior.
The error of attributing human thoughts, feelings, or motives to animals, especially as a way of explaining their behavior.
The tendency to consider a personal description accurate if it is stated in very general terms.
School of psychology that emphasizes the study of overt, observable behavior.
A subpart of a larger population that does not accurately reflect characteristics of the whole population.
The attempt to explain behavior in terms of underlying biological principles
An in-depth focus on all aspects of a single person.
The act of causing some effect.
Studying psychological problems and therapies in clinical settings.
A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological and behavioral disturbances or who does research on such disturbances.
Coefficient of correlation
A statistical index ranging from -1.00 to +1.00 that indicates the direction and degree of correlation.
An approach that combines behavioral principles with cognition (perception, thinking, anticipation) to explain behavior.
The tendency to remember or notice information that fits one's expectations but to forget discrepancies
Altering conditions that influence behavior.
In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to all experimental conditions or variables except the independent variable.
The existence of a consistent, systematic relationship between two events, measures, or variables.
Making measurements to discover relationships between events.
A nonexperimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measures, or variables.
A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional and behavioral disturbances.
A mental health professional who specializes in helping people with problems not involving serious mental disorder; for example, marriage counselors, career counselors, or school counselors.
An ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize information.
In an experiment, the condition (usually a behavior) that is affected by the independent variable.
In scientific research, the process of naming and classifying.
The idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices and actions if all such causes were known.
The study of how human evolution and genetics might explain our current behavior
A formal trial undertaken to confirm or disconfirm a fact or principle.
In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to the independent variable or experimental condition.
Investigating behavior through controlled experimentation.
Humans or animals whose behavior is investigated in an experiment.
Changes in subjects' behavior caused by the unintended influence of an experimenter's actions.
Conditions or factors excluded from influencing the outcome of an experiment.
The idea that human beings are capable of freely making choices or decisions.
School of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their environments.
Gender bias (in research)
A tendency for females and female issues to be under-represented in research, psychological or otherwise.
A school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts.
An approach to psychology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals.
The predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationship between variables.
In an experiment, the condition being investigated as a possible cause of some change in behavior. The values that this variable takes are chosen by the experimenter.
To look within; to examine one's own thoughts, feelings, or sensations.
A statistical technique for combining the results of many studies on the same subject.
Natural clinical test
An accident or other natural event that allows the gathering of data on a psychological phenomenon of interest.
Darwin's theory that evolution favors those plants and animals best suited to their living conditions.
Observing behavior as it unfolds in natural settings.
A statistical relationship in which increases in one measure are matched by decreases in the other.
A psychologist who accepts the broad features of Freud's theory but has revised the theory to fit his or her own concepts.
The broader field of biopsychologists and others who study the brain and nervous system, such as biologist and biochemists
A detailed summary of observed events or a videotape of observed behavior.
The tendency of an observer to distort observations or perceptions to match his or her expectations.
Changes in a person's behavior brought about by an awareness of being observed.
Defining a scientific concept by stating the specific actions or procedures used to measure it. For example, "hunger" might be defined as "the number of hours of food deprivation."
An inactive substance given in the place of a drug in psychological research or by physicians who wish to treat a complaint by suggestion.
Changes in behavior due to expectations that a drug (or other treatment) will have some effect.
An entire group of animals or people belonging to a particular category (for example, all college students or all married women).
A statistical relationship in which increases in one measure are matched by increases in the other (or decreases correspond with decreases).
The study of human strengths, virtues, and effective functioning.
An ability to accurately forecast behavior.
Any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior.
Psychiatric social worker
A mental health professional trained to apply social science principles to help patients in clinics and hospitals.
A medical doctor with additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional disorders.
A Freudian approach to psychotherapy emphasizing the exploration of unconscious conflicts.
Any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces.
A person highly trained in the methods, factual knowledge, and theories of psychology.
The traditional view that behavior is shaped by psychological processes occurring at the level of the individual
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
The use of chance (for example, flipping a coin) to assign subjects to experimental and control groups.
A small, randomly selected part of a larger population that accurately reflects characteristics of the whole population.
The unconscious process by which memories, thoughts, or impulses are held out of awareness.
A systematic approach to answering scientific questions.
Any muscular action, glandular activity, or other identifiable aspect of behavior.
Testing the truth of a proposition by careful measurement and controlled observation.
An empirical investigation that is structured so that it answers questions about the world.
The ongoing process of fully developing one's personal potential.
An arrangement in which subjects remain unaware of whether they are in the experimental group or the control group.
The focus on the importance of social and cultural contexts in influencing the behavior of individuals.
Unspoken rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of a group.
Experimental results that would rarely occur by chance alone.
Any physical energy sensed by an organism.
The school of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements.
Unfounded belief held without evidence or in spite of falsifying evidence
The use of public polling techniques to answer psychological questions.
A system of ideas designed to interrelate concepts and facts in a way that summarizes existing data and predicts future observations.
Contents of the mind that are beyond awareness, especially impulses and desires not directly known to a person.
The tendency to believe generally positive or flattering descriptions of oneself.
In psychology, understanding is achieved when the causes of a behavior can be stated.
Any condition that changes or can be made to change; a measure, event, or state that may vary.