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Cognitive Development Test 2
Terms in this set (91)
Is Infant's hearing good?
yes, but not as sensitive to adults
what is infant hearing sensitive to?
more sensitive to higher frequencies early, sensitivity to lower frequencies develops later. They are most responsive to sounds in the range of human speech (1,000 - 3,000 Hz)
When do infants start hearing? what fact proves this?
infants begin hearing before birth, we know this because infants can be habituated to specific sounds while in utero
what did the hepper study show about infant hearing with music?
music that was played in utero before 30-36 weeks was preferred by infants in tests after birth
what did the hepper study show about infant hearing with stories?
infants prefer to listen to a story that was read to them in utero versus a novel story
are infants learning/remembering in utero?
yes, but the recognition may be based on rhythm not really words
how does fetal heart rate change in response to novel information?
heart rate decelerates in response to novel stimuli
What question did the Decasper and Fifer study ask?
Do newborns recognize their mother's voice
which study did the Kisilevsky study build off of?
The Decasper study that looked into infantile recognition of their mother's voice
What was the main question of the Kisilevsky study?
is the mother's voice recognized prenatally by the fetus?
What did piaget think about how infants process information from multiple senses?
piaget thought infants must learn to integrate information from different modalities.
what did Eleanor and J.J Gibson think about how infants process information from multiple senses?
Eleanor and JJ thought that infants are biologically prepared to integrate information across the senses.
What is the Mcgurk effect?
a perceptual phenomenon that demonstrates an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. The illusion occurs when the auditory component of one sound is paired with the visual component of another sound, leading to the perception of a third sound
What main question did the Sann and Streri study ask?
Can newborns coordinate tactile and visual modalities?
What main question did the Meltzoff and Moore study ask?
can/do infants imitate actions that they see?
What did the Bahrick study show about infants ability to determine who is talking based on temporal synchrony?
Infants can match spoken words to a face based on temporal synchrony at 2 months
What did the Bahrick study show about infants ability to determine who is talking based on gender?
infants can match speaker voice and face based on gender at 4 months
how do infants spontaneously look at the correct speaker?
infants look at the correct speaker based on amodal information
What did the walker study say about infants matching ability with emotional expressions and tone of voice
at 5-7 months, infants can match happy v angry facial expressions with tone of voice
according to Kuhl and Meltzoff, when can infants match the shape of mouth and vowel sounds
infants match the shape of mouth with vowel sounds at 2 months
when doe infants show the McGurk effect?
infants show the McGurk effect at 5 months
what is amodal learning?
information that is redundant across modalities
how does amodal information guide learning arbitrary relations?
attention to amodal information can facilitate learning arbitrary cross-modal relations. Amodal perception guides learning about more arbitrary features of events
What is phonology?
sounds present in a language, and sound combinations
what three things do you know when you know a langauge?
phonology, lexicon, and grammar
how soon do infants prefer IDS?
2-day olds prefer IDS
what are the characteristics of IDS?
higher pitch, rising contours, simplified, commonalities across language and culture
when can infants distinguish between sounds from different phoneme categories (speech sounds that make meaningful distinctions)?
within first 2 months, infants can distinguish between sounds from different phoneme categories
What is the main question that the Eimas study asked?
when do infants habituate to changes in VOT
initially, what can babies discriminate from?
babies can discriminate sounds from languages they have never heard
is there biological specialization for language processing?
no, it is not specific to humans
What is the main question asked by Werker and Tees
when do we lose the ability to discriminate between phoneme contrasts not present in our language?
what method did the Werker and Tees study use? (study looked at ability to discriminate between phoneme contrasts not present in our language)
Werker and Tees used conditioned head turn procedure and visually reinforced infant speech discrimination
Early on, what do infants perceive in regards to phoneme contrasts across languages?
early on, infants perceive phoneme contrasts across languages
when do infants lose the ability to discriminate non-native phonemes?
between 8 and 10 months, infants lose the ability to discriminate non-native phonemes
What question did the Pat Kuhl study look at in regards to native-language speech perception?
what is the role of neural commitment in language learning?
is there a tradeoff in native-language experience and foreign-language perception?
yes, as experience of native-language increases, the ability to perceive foreign-language decreases.
what does increases narrowing of native-language versus foreign-language indicate?
increased narrowing predicts better word learning in 2nd year
is there similar narrowing in perception of other auditory stimuli (not speech)?
yes, we see similar narrowing in perception of other auditory stimuli
how would you describe 6 mos ability to discriminate among different rhythmic patterns across music type?
6 mos are very good at discriminating among different rhythmic patterns across music types
what did the Hannon and Trehub study look at?
infantile ability to discriminate among different types of rhythmic patterns and muical structure
what happens to 12 mos in regards to ability to discriminate musical structure not common in their own language?
by 12 months, infants lose the ability to discriminate musical structure not common in their own language
how can one increase a 12 mos ability to discriminate musical structure not common in their own language?
by giving them additional exposure
recap infant speech perception
infants speech sounding discrimination ability undergoes narrowing as a function of experience, this happens somewhere between 8 and 10 months. The experience is especially social, social context is extremely important
when do infants speak their first words? what is this like for the infant?
around 10-15 months, it is effortful and hard to understand
what is the vocabulary growth like for infants?
vocab growth for infants starts as slow growth but is followed by a vocab burst around 18 months
at age 6, how big is the vocabulary of a child?
how big is the vocabulary of a high school grad? what about for big readers?
60,000 words, and more than twice that for big readers
what is the mapping problem?
when one is not sure what the novel word is referring to (gavagai= rabbit?)
how do infants learn so many words, and so quickly?
many solutions have been proposed, and many suggest that learning words is constrained in some way and may not be like learning other kinds of things
(possible solution to mapping problem) how do children use social clues to learn words
around 9 months, infants are paying attention to when someone is pointing and looking at something. humans are extremely good at reading others' intentions and they use cues to guide word learning.
what did bergelson and swingley think about the idea that infants begin word learning around 12 months?
they were not convinced that word learning begins at 12 months
what did the bergelson and swingley study ask to help solve the mapping problem?
how sophisticated intention-readers do infants need to be to begin learning words, and is 12 months too later?
What idea did Yurovsky implement to solve the mapping problem?
they looked at the child's point of view that showed what that baby was looking at.
what did Yurovsky's first person view experiment reveal about what babies see?
babies occasionally get a good view of an object while the parent talks about it and that is some of how they learn.
what is the result of babies having short arms?
when a baby holds something, it dominates the visual field. They don't have a congested view of the world, rather they have 1 thing that dominates the visual field. Therefore, only a small number of things are salient to the baby.
how does parental sensitivity support word learning?
following infants' attention helps learning. Moms who follow child's focus and expand on it and have lots of joint attention help children's vocab learning. But this may not be the entire explanation for their word learning skill.
when are children most likely to learn words?
when the infant is holding the object and the parents provide a label.
(possible solution to mapping problem) word learning is special and constrained by human biology; what does this idea use as it's primary agent for word learning?
mutual exclusivity, which is the bias to accept one name per object
how does mutual exclusivity help infants learn words?
children have a tendency to want to map a new word to an object that they don't have a word for. This tendency leads them to think that objects will get one name that refers to it.
what is whole object constraint?
this is the concept that children will think an object name refers to the entire object and they will extend the name to something with the same functional appearance.
what are the two biases with word learning?
mutual exclusivity and who object constraint
what types of words do infants tend to learn first?
labels for objects that apply to instances that have common shapes. For babies with small vocabularies, the words are mostly nouns
Summarily, how do children learn words?
children are equipped with learning mechanisms that help them to quickly and accurately identify word meanings. These mechanisms are shaped by experience in important ways
what is perception necessary for?
perception is necessary to guide actions
what does action generate?
action generates perceptual information, therefore the ability to perform new actions means new input for perception
what are exploratory movements?
movements that are produced to generate perceptual information
what did Adolph's study of infant action show?
Infants at the top of slope rock and pat to gain information about steepness. infants produce more exploratory actions on steep slopes than shallow ones.
what happens when infants were prohibited from making exploratory actions in the Adolph study?
infants were more likely to go down the steep slope
what facts suggests that depth perception does not necessarily require locomotor experience?
some species avoid the deep side of a cliff as soon as they begin to walk
what fact suggests that depth perception does require locomotor experience?
prolonged dark-rearing can disrupt depth perception in rats.
what main question did the visual cliff paradigm look at?
how do early crawlers and experienced crawlers differ on the visual cliff tasks?
what does self-locomotion result in?
high level of sensory integration (visual, vestibular, and somatosensory)
what implications does being carried/strollered have on infant experience?
infants have input from fewer sources and therefore less experience with how the inputs relate
can newborns detect depth information? what is the caveat?
newborn infants can detect depth information, but they don't necessarily know how to interpret depth cues for the purposes of their own action
what did the held and hein experiment show about kitten depth perception
self generated motion, not visual experience is key.
do infants avoid the drop off?
no, they explore it
what do infants respond to in the visual cliff experiment?
not just drop off depth, but also motor demands and posture.
when do infants begin to pass the A not B test?
12 months, and success correlates with self-locomotion.
what is exploration like for 2-3 mos
infants can swipe, but not pick up and exploration is mostly oral
what is exploration like for 5 mos
infants are good at reaching and grabbing and exploration is mostly visual
what happens to 3 mos exploratory actions when you give them sticky mittens?
infants are not able to pick up toys by just swiping
what was the main question that the sommerville study looked at?
How/when do infants perceive goals and intentions
what is infantile amnesia?
failure to remember early experiences, most adults can't remember events before the age of 3 and have few memories until 5 years of age
describe a stronger memory test in infants than simple imitation
show infants an action but don't let them imitate immediately, and introduce a delay
describe 6 mos imitation abilities
6 mos can imitate immediately but not after a delay
describe 9 mos imitation abilities
9 mos imitate a novel action 1 day later
describe 14 mos imitation abilities
14 mos imitate 4 months later
what does the data from Bauer and Mandler's study on deferred imitation suggest?
ability to form stable, enduring memories gets better across infancy
why didn't rovee-collier think deferred imitation was the best test?
deferred imitation had a high motor demand
what was the goal of the Rovee-collier experiment?
measure memory development with task demands equated across ages.
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