79 terms

A&P Chapter 5, 6, and 7.

Study guide for Pam Bradshaw's Paramedic A&P Class. Chapters 5,6, and 7. Fall 2010.
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Functions of the skin:
Protection; Temperature Maintenance; Storage of Nutrients; Sensory Reception; Excretion; Secretion.
T/F: The skin is the largest organ of the body.
True
What are the 2 major layers of the skin?
Outer Epidermis
Inner Dermis
Stratum Germinativium
Mitosis takes place.
Cells produce Keratin and die as they are pushed to the surface.
Cannot regenerate without a graft.
Stratum Spinosum
Provides strength and flexibility.
Stratum Granulosum
Water Repelant.
Stratum Lucidum
Only fingers, palms, and soles.
Stratum Corneum
Dead cells.
Resists entry and exit of water, chemicals, and pathogens.
Replaced every 28 days.
T/F: Melanin gives the skin its color.
True
Meissner's Corpuscles
Detect light touch.
Pacinian Corpuscles
Detect pressure.
Free Nerve Endings
Respond to pain.
Krause End Bulbs
Detect touch.
Sebaceouse Glands
Secrete sebum (oil) into hair follicles, or the skin surface.
Sebum prevents drying of skin and hair.
Ceruminouse Glands
Secrete cerumen in ear canals.
Prevent drying of ear drum.
Aprocin Sweat Glands
Modifies scent glands in axillae and genital area.
Activated by stress, and emotions.
Merocrine Sweat Glands (eccrine)
Mostly on face, palm, and soles.
Activated by high temperature or exercise.
Sweat on skin surface is evaportated by excess body heat.
Potential disadvantage is dehydration.
1st Degree Burn
Inflammed, tender, kills superficial and deep cells of epidermis, indures deep layers.
2nd Degree Burn (partial thickness)
Blisteres, very painful, kills superficial and deep cells of epidermis, dermis may be affected.
3rd Degree Burn (full thickness)
Charred, no sensation at all, kills all cells, injures deep tissues and organs.
Effects of aging on the skin
Weakened, dry, and often scaly.
Blister
Tissue fluid that separates the layers of the skin.
Callus
Abnormal thickening of the skin.
Cyanosis
Blueish color.
Albinism
Inherited condition where melanin is not produced.
Functions of the skeleton:
Support; Leverage; Protection; Storage; Blood Cell Production.
2 types of bones?
Compact, and Spongy.
Long Bones
Duh...longer than wide. Excludes wrists and ankles.
Short Bones
Equal demintions. Wrist and ankle.
Flat Bones
Thin and broad. ie. Ribs, scapula, hip, cranium.
Irregular Bones
Doesn't fit any category.
What is the most abundant mineral in the body?
Calcium.
Factors the affect bone growth and maintenance:
Heredity; Nutrition; Hormones; Exercise; Stress.
What are the 2 divisions of the skeleton?
Axial and Appendicular.
Locate the following bones:
Frontal; Occipital; Maxillary; Mandable; Zygomatic; Ulna; Radium; Femur; Humorouse; Tarsal; Phalanges; Patella; Tibia; Fibula.
# of Cervical vertibra
7
# of Thoracic vertebra
12
# of Lumbar vertebra
5
# of Sacral vertebra
5 (Fused into one)
# of Coccygeal vertebra
4-5 (Fused into one)
# of True Ribs
7 pairs
# of False Ribs
3 pairs
# of Floating Ribs
2 pairs
Synarthrosis Joint
Immovable
Amphiarthrosis Joint
Slightly movable
Diarthrosis Joint
Freely movable
Types of Diarthrosis Joints:
Ball and socket; Hinge; Ellipsoid; Pivot; Gliding; Saddle.
Effects of aging on the bones:
Lose more calcium than is replaced. Thinner matrix. Become brittle. Erosion of articular cartilage of joints. Arthritis.
Osteocytes
Mature bone cells.
Osteoclasts
Break up bone.
Osteoblasts
Immature bone cells.
Ossification
Process of replacing other tissue with bone.
Fontanels
Soft spot on infants that allows compression during birth; completely closed at age 2.
Osteoporosis
Excessive loss of calcium from bones without sufficient replacement.
Sutures
Immovable joints in the skull.
Scoliosis
Abnormal lateral curvature; may be congenital.
Kyphosis
Exaggerated lumar curve; hunchback.
Lordosis
Exaggerated lumbar curve; swayback.
Synovial Fluid
Thick, slippery substance.
Bursa
Small sac of synovial fliud.
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Striated and voluntary.
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Striated and involuntary.
Smooth Muscle Tissue
Nonstriated and involuntary.
Exciatability
Ability to respond to stimulation.
Contractability
Ability to shorten activity and exert a pull, or tension.
Extensibility
Ability to rebound toward its orininal length after contraction.
Functions of the skeletal muscle:
Produce movement; Maintain posture and body possition; Support soft tissue; Guard entrances and exits; Maintain body temperature.
Rhabdomyolysis
A breakdown of muscle tissue where the pt has been lying.
Neuromuscular Junction
Specialized intercellular connection between nervouse system and muscles.
Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter; a chemical released by neuron to change activities of other cells.
Twitch
Single stimulouse contraction relaxation sequence.
Summation
Addition of one twitch to another before relaxation has ended.
Incomplete Tetanus
A muscle producing a complete tension during rapid cycles of contraction, and relaxation.
Complete Tetanus
Rate of stimulation is increase until relaxation is completely eliminated.
Muscle Tone
Resting tension.
Isotonic Contraction
Tension rises to level that is maintained until relaxation occurs.
Isomatric Contraction
Tension continues to rise but muscle, as a whole does not change in length.
T/F: Muscle contractions require a large amount of ATP energy.
True
Know the following muscles:
Frontalis; Occipitalis; Sternocleidomastoid; Internal Intercostales; External Intercostales; Rectus Abdominus; Deltoid; Gluteuse Maximus; Vastus Lateralis; Bicepts; Tricepts.