79 terms

A&P Chapter 5, 6, and 7.

Study guide for Pam Bradshaw's Paramedic A&P Class. Chapters 5,6, and 7. Fall 2010.

Terms in this set (...)

Functions of the skin:
Protection; Temperature Maintenance; Storage of Nutrients; Sensory Reception; Excretion; Secretion.
T/F: The skin is the largest organ of the body.
What are the 2 major layers of the skin?
Outer Epidermis
Inner Dermis
Stratum Germinativium
Mitosis takes place.
Cells produce Keratin and die as they are pushed to the surface.
Cannot regenerate without a graft.
Stratum Spinosum
Provides strength and flexibility.
Stratum Granulosum
Water Repelant.
Stratum Lucidum
Only fingers, palms, and soles.
Stratum Corneum
Dead cells.
Resists entry and exit of water, chemicals, and pathogens.
Replaced every 28 days.
T/F: Melanin gives the skin its color.
Meissner's Corpuscles
Detect light touch.
Pacinian Corpuscles
Detect pressure.
Free Nerve Endings
Respond to pain.
Krause End Bulbs
Detect touch.
Sebaceouse Glands
Secrete sebum (oil) into hair follicles, or the skin surface.
Sebum prevents drying of skin and hair.
Ceruminouse Glands
Secrete cerumen in ear canals.
Prevent drying of ear drum.
Aprocin Sweat Glands
Modifies scent glands in axillae and genital area.
Activated by stress, and emotions.
Merocrine Sweat Glands (eccrine)
Mostly on face, palm, and soles.
Activated by high temperature or exercise.
Sweat on skin surface is evaportated by excess body heat.
Potential disadvantage is dehydration.
1st Degree Burn
Inflammed, tender, kills superficial and deep cells of epidermis, indures deep layers.
2nd Degree Burn (partial thickness)
Blisteres, very painful, kills superficial and deep cells of epidermis, dermis may be affected.
3rd Degree Burn (full thickness)
Charred, no sensation at all, kills all cells, injures deep tissues and organs.
Effects of aging on the skin
Weakened, dry, and often scaly.
Tissue fluid that separates the layers of the skin.
Abnormal thickening of the skin.
Blueish color.
Inherited condition where melanin is not produced.
Functions of the skeleton:
Support; Leverage; Protection; Storage; Blood Cell Production.
2 types of bones?
Compact, and Spongy.
Long Bones
Duh...longer than wide. Excludes wrists and ankles.
Short Bones
Equal demintions. Wrist and ankle.
Flat Bones
Thin and broad. ie. Ribs, scapula, hip, cranium.
Irregular Bones
Doesn't fit any category.
What is the most abundant mineral in the body?
Factors the affect bone growth and maintenance:
Heredity; Nutrition; Hormones; Exercise; Stress.
What are the 2 divisions of the skeleton?
Axial and Appendicular.
Locate the following bones:
Frontal; Occipital; Maxillary; Mandable; Zygomatic; Ulna; Radium; Femur; Humorouse; Tarsal; Phalanges; Patella; Tibia; Fibula.
# of Cervical vertibra
# of Thoracic vertebra
# of Lumbar vertebra
# of Sacral vertebra
5 (Fused into one)
# of Coccygeal vertebra
4-5 (Fused into one)
# of True Ribs
7 pairs
# of False Ribs
3 pairs
# of Floating Ribs
2 pairs
Synarthrosis Joint
Amphiarthrosis Joint
Slightly movable
Diarthrosis Joint
Freely movable
Types of Diarthrosis Joints:
Ball and socket; Hinge; Ellipsoid; Pivot; Gliding; Saddle.
Effects of aging on the bones:
Lose more calcium than is replaced. Thinner matrix. Become brittle. Erosion of articular cartilage of joints. Arthritis.
Mature bone cells.
Break up bone.
Immature bone cells.
Process of replacing other tissue with bone.
Soft spot on infants that allows compression during birth; completely closed at age 2.
Excessive loss of calcium from bones without sufficient replacement.
Immovable joints in the skull.
Abnormal lateral curvature; may be congenital.
Exaggerated lumar curve; hunchback.
Exaggerated lumbar curve; swayback.
Synovial Fluid
Thick, slippery substance.
Small sac of synovial fliud.
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Striated and voluntary.
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Striated and involuntary.
Smooth Muscle Tissue
Nonstriated and involuntary.
Ability to respond to stimulation.
Ability to shorten activity and exert a pull, or tension.
Ability to rebound toward its orininal length after contraction.
Functions of the skeletal muscle:
Produce movement; Maintain posture and body possition; Support soft tissue; Guard entrances and exits; Maintain body temperature.
A breakdown of muscle tissue where the pt has been lying.
Neuromuscular Junction
Specialized intercellular connection between nervouse system and muscles.
Neurotransmitter; a chemical released by neuron to change activities of other cells.
Single stimulouse contraction relaxation sequence.
Addition of one twitch to another before relaxation has ended.
Incomplete Tetanus
A muscle producing a complete tension during rapid cycles of contraction, and relaxation.
Complete Tetanus
Rate of stimulation is increase until relaxation is completely eliminated.
Muscle Tone
Resting tension.
Isotonic Contraction
Tension rises to level that is maintained until relaxation occurs.
Isomatric Contraction
Tension continues to rise but muscle, as a whole does not change in length.
T/F: Muscle contractions require a large amount of ATP energy.
Know the following muscles:
Frontalis; Occipitalis; Sternocleidomastoid; Internal Intercostales; External Intercostales; Rectus Abdominus; Deltoid; Gluteuse Maximus; Vastus Lateralis; Bicepts; Tricepts.