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Terms in this set (48)
Which kind of study is able to find the prevalence and incidence?
Prospective Cohort Study
1. Looks at a population at a single point in time
2.Participants grouped into groups having the outcome and groups not having the outcome and their past histories are analyzed to examine exposures.
3. Participants grouped into groups having exposure and not having exposure and followed to observe outcome
4. Begin after outcome occurrence and look back at the effects of an exposure on an outcome
5. Examines relationship between exposures and outcomes by studying population-level data rather than individual data
Cross-sectional study - observational
Case-control study - observational-analytic
Prospective cohort study - observational
Retrospective cohort study - observational
Ecological study - observational
Case control is divided into :
Randomized control trial is divided into:
Cohort Study is divided into:
Cases & Control
Treatment & Non-treatment
Exposed & Non-exposed
What kind of study mimcs an RCT?
Descriptive Analytic Studies:
Randomized Short Term
Randomized Long Term
Randomized Cross Over
What kind of study utilizes odds ratio ?
What kind of study utilizes probability or relative risk?
Stating the research question involves:
What kind of variable is always the exposure?
What kind of variable is always the outcome/end result?
The variables must ALWAYS be:
Measured & Validated
What kind of study shows the measurement of statistical significance ?
Randomized Controlled Trials
What kind of experiments lack a control, are not randomized and may contain unmeasured cofounding variables while trying to measure causation of a disease?
What is the difference between prospective cohort that mimics a randomized controlled trial?
RCT contains investigators manipulation; the cohort does not involve any manipulation, only observations
What is the term that measures the strength of association between the exposure and disease?
Incidence Ratio/Risk Ratio
Which kind of study explores the ETIOLOGY of a disease?
Case Control -- Odds Ratio
Which type of study is always retrospective?
When the the confidence interval "tightened" most?
Larger sample population
How does one calculate "the spread"?
Subtracting the two confidence interval numbers.
When does the p value show it is more statistically significant?
When it is smaller; the closer it is to 0.05 or less
What formula do you use to measure incidence ?
Relative Risk (RR) aka Risk Ratio
Incidence is also known as...
What measures the "odds of association between a disease and population"?
What kind of study will utilize intent to treat? Why?
Randomized Controlled Trail -- If there is a loss to follow up-- people drop out of the study -- based on previous results, the experimenter still takes them into account; if they do not, this can skew unwanted/not true results
What are the two kinds of review papers?
Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis
Which type of review paper does not include methods and materials section?
What is the term used to compare different journals within the same field/used to measure importance of a journal...the higher the ________ the better/more appraised the article is
The Belmont Report is in regards to .... and consists of what three elements:
Respect for persons
The ADA/AND's code of ethics consists of
Risks are for:
Benefits are for:
Individual and SOCIETY
When must the IRB come into play?
BEFORE any human subjects are used in a research experiment
The Nuremberg Codes are based off of : (1947)
The treatment of human subjects in Nazi concentration camps
What two locations were associated with the syphilis scandal and who was the main individual involved?
Tuskegee Alabama (1932)
What two things are to be prevented in relation to the Belmont Report :
The three R's from Russel and Birch in animal ethics:
What three factors are involved with the Epidemiological Triad?
Descriptive Nutritional Epidemiology Research Designs:
Hint: Population Based **
What is the term for "making association at the population level whereas one may not exist at the individual level
What is considered the French "Paradox"?
The French follow a diet that is known to be bad and high in fat and yet the incidence of heart disease is very low compared to many other countries...
What can surveillance determine due to the inclusion of time factor?
Incidence --> ATTACK RATE
Hills Criteria for Causation: (CSSTGPCE)
Which bias is known for when there is a loss of cases by death or recovery due to time between exposure and development of disease
characteristics of the participants in a study;s a variable that is possibly predictive of the outcome under study might have undue influence on outcome... what is this known as?
what are different adjustments of possible confounders - defined in methods?
What allows for a more powerful comparison between groups that expresses a range of one of the selected variables?
No distribution is what kind of randomization
No variation is what kind of randomization; division of a population into smaller groups known as strata
No imbalance is what kind of randomization
Studies done at different times is what kind of randomization
What kind of error is associated with:
Misrepresentation of the general population
Happens by chance and in need of more subjects
Individuals were excluded
A low response rate
Error in observation
This set is often in folders with...
Research Methods in Food & Nutrition
Lecture 2-4 NFS 402
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