25 terms

unit 4

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atomic radius
the radius of an atom; the distance from the atomic nucleus to the outermost stable electron orbital in a atom at equilibrium
sentence: The ??? of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms.
malleability
the quality of something that can be shaped into something else without breaking
sentence: ??? is a substance's ability to deform under pressure (compressive stress).
ionization energy
the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion.
sentence: The ??? is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
metals
a solid material that is typically hard, shiny, malleable, fusible, and ductile, with good electrical and thermal conductivity
sentence: ??? are any of a class of elementary substances, as gold, silver, or copper, all of which are crystalline when solid.
nonmetals
an element that doesn't have the characteristics of metal including: ability to conduct heat or electricity, luster, or flexibility.
sentence: An example of a ??? element is carbon.
actinide series
the series of radioactive elements that starts with actinium and ends with lawrencium.
definition: There are two rows under the periodic table: the lanthanide and ???.
conductor
A material or an object that conducts heat, electricity, light, or sound.
sentence: Electrical conductors contain electric charges (usually electrons) that are relatively free to move through the material.
period
a horizontal row of the periodic table
sentence: ??? contains only two elements: hydrogen and helium.
electronegativity
a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons.
sentence: Fluorine (the most ??? element) is assigned a value of 4.0, and values range down to caesium and francium which are the least ??? at 0.7.
halogens
any of the elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine, occupying group VIIA (17) of the periodic table.
sentence: They are reactive nonmetallic elements that form strongly acidic compounds with hydrogen, from which simple salts can be made.
alkali metals
any of the elements lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium, occupying Group IA (1) of the periodic table
sentence: They are very reactive, electropositive, monovalent metals forming strongly alkaline hydroxides.
ionic bond
A chemical bond formed between two ions with opposite charges
sentence: ??? form when one atom gives up one or more electrons to another atom.
transition metals
any of the set of metallic elements occupying a central block (Groups IVB-VIII, IB, and IIB, or 4-12) in the periodic table, e.g., iron, manganese, chromium, and copper
sentence: Chemically they show variable valence and a strong tendency to form coordination compounds, and many of their compounds are colored.
groups
a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements.
sentence: There are 18 numbered ??? in the periodic table, and the f-block columns (between ??? 3 and 4) are not numbered.
lanthanide series
the series of rare-earth elements of atomic numbers 57 through 71 (lanthanum through lutetium)
sentence: ??? are a series of metallic elements, included in the rare-earth metals , in Group 3 of the periodic table .
families
a group of elements with similar chemical properties
sentence: Chemical ??? tend to be associated with the vertical columns on the periodic table.
ductile
a physical property of a material associated with the ability to be hammered thin or stretched into wire without breaking.
sentence: A ductile substance can be drawn into a wire.
periodic trend
a regular variation the properties of an element with increasing atomic number
sentence: A ??? is attributed to regular variations in the atomic structure of each element.
alkaline earth metals
six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table
sentence: Because the ??? have two electrons in their outer shell, they react easily with other elements and are found in nature only in compounds.
metalloids
an element (e.g., germanium or silicon) whose properties are intermediate between those of metals and solid nonmetals.
sentence: They are electrical semiconductors.
periodicity
The variations in properties of elements with their position in the periodic table.
sentence: ??? is caused by regular and predictable variations in element atomic structure.
shielding effect
the attraction between an electron and the nucleus in any atom with more than one electron shell
sentence: ??? can be defined as a reduction in the effective nuclear charge on the electron cloud, due to a difference in the attraction forces of the electrons on the nucleus.
ion
an electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the loss or gain of one or more electrons
sentence: ??? form when doing so minimizes the total potential energy of the chemical species involved in the chemical reaction.
ionic radius
the measure of an atom's ion in a crystal lattice
sentence: ???, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.
ionic size
When atoms gain or lose electrons, the atom becomes an ion. When an atom gains an electron, it becomes a negatively charged ion that we call an anion
sentence: ??? changes depending on the charge of the ion.