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Through digestion, nucleic acids are broken down into


The epiglottis is a

Flap of cartilage that flips down to cover the entry to the trachea during swallowing

The mucous producing cells that line the stomach

Lubricate and protect the stomach lining

During which of the following stages of food processing is undigested material removed from the digestive tract?


Through digestion, polysaccharides are broken down into


Digestion begins in the

Oral cavity

Smooth muscle propels food through the alimentary canal by a process called


The tongue does all of the following except:

Secrete saliva

An animal digestive tract that consists of two openings is called

The alimentary canal

The structure of the esophagus fits its function in that

It has smooth muscle for peristalsis

The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth. What is the name given to the starch digesting enzyme secreted by salivary glands?


Human saliva performs all of the following functions except:

Hydrolyzing protein

What happens to nutrient macromolecules in an animal's digestive tract?

Nutrient macromolecules are digested into monomers for absorption

Digestion is the

Chemical and mechanical breakdown of food for absorption into the body

Which of the following correctly lists the order of the parts of the human digestive system, from first to last contact, with food matter?

Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, small intestine, large intestine

Absorption of water is a major function of the


Bile produced in the liver is stored in the ________ before entering the intestine


Release of digestive enzymes by the pancreas

Arrow E

Release and storage of bile

Arrow A

Which of the following statements regarding animal digestive systems is false?

Meat is more difficult to digest than vegetable matter because of its protein content

The secretory parietal cells of the stomach are responsible for producing

Hydrochloric acid

Nutrients absorbed by the intestines move directly to the liver, which

Converts excess glucose to glycogen

The stomach mixes food with secretions of the stomach wall to form


Which of the following is important in the digestion of lipids?

Bile salts

In the digestive system, most nutrient absorption occurs in the

Small intestine

The function of the pyloric sphincter is to

Periodically release chyme into the duodenum in periodic squirts

Release of chyme in the duodenum

Arrow D

Altogether, the body secretes about 7 liters of water into the alimentary canal each day. About what percent of this water gets reabsorbed?


Which of the following mechanisms helps prevent the gastric juice from destroying the stomach lining

Generation through mitosis of new cells to replace the stomach lining

Which of the following nutrients is digested only after it reaches the small intestine?


Urine flows from collecting duct into

Renal pelvis

The overall process that refines the filtrate and ultimately returns water and valuable solutes to the blood is known as


Which part of the nephron show contains urine

Part D

Which part of the nephron shown is permeable to urea?

Part E

Which of the following options correctly lists the structures in the kidney in order in which fluid flows through them?

Glomerulus, bowman's capsule, proximal tubule, loop of henle, distal tubule

The first step in the formation of urine is the

Formation of filtrate that accumulates in Bowman's capsule

Which art of the nephron shown is its collecting duct?

Part E

Which part of the nephron shown is its proximal tubule?

Part B

What is the name of the functional unit of the kidney?


Through which of the following structures does urine leave the bladder?


Which part of the nephron shown is its loop of Henle?

Part D

Which of the following statements regarding the urinary system is true?

Bowman's capsule envelopes the glomerulus

Which part of the nephron shown will cause it to be classified as a juxtamedullary nephron?

Part D

Which part of the nephron shown contains the glomerulus?

Part A

Which part of the nephron shown is its distal tubule?

Part C

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