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PET3322 - Exam 3 Study Guide Ch. 12
Terms in this set (50)
Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Diencephalon, Brainstem
What are the 4 regions of the adult brain?
Accounts for 83% of brain mass
Divided into lobes which control senses, thoughts, and movements.
Association of higher brain function.
What is the Cerebrum?
Cerebellar Peduncles, Flocculondodular lobe, Vermis, and Lateral Hemispheres
What does the Cerebellum contain?
Thalamus and Hypothalamus
What does the Diencephalon contain?
Medulla Oblongata (Pyramids & Olive), Pons, and Midbrain
What does the Brainstem contain?
Continuous with one another and central canal of spinal cord.
Lined by ependymal cells and filled with CSF
What are the characteristics of the ventricles in the brain?
The 1st and 2nd lateral ventricles are separated by the?
via interventricular foramen
How do the lateral ventricles connect to the 3rd ventricle?
via Cerebral Aqueduct
How does the 3rd ventricle connect to the 4th ventricle?
central canal of spinal cord and the subarachnoid space that surrounds the brain.
What is the 4th ventricle continuous with?
Gyri, Sulci, and Fissures
What are the surface markings of the cerebrum?
ridges/meaty portion of brain
What are Gyri?
What are Sulci?
What are Fissures?
Separates the two hemispheres
What does the Longitudinal Fissure do?
Separates the cerebrum and cerebellum
What does the Transverse Fissure do?
separates precentral from postcentral gyrus of parietal lobe
What does the Central Sulcus do?
separates occipital and parietal lobes
What does the Parieto-Occipital Sulcus do?
outlines temporal bones
What does the Internal Sulcus do?
Involves voluntary motor function, motivation, aggression, and mood
What is the function of the frontal lobe?
Involves reception and evaluation of most sensory information
What is the function of the Parietal lobe?
Involves reception and evaluation of visual information
What is the function of the Occipital Lobe?
Involves reception and evaluation of smell, hearing, and memory.
What is the function of the Temporal Lobe?
serves as the primary gustatory cortex, making important connects to language and visual-vestibular integration, and is important in autonomic function, particularly sympathetic tone.
What is the function of the Insular Lobe?
"Executive Suite" of brain. Site of conscious mind: awareness, sensory perception, voluntary motor initiation, communication, memory storage, and understanding.
Thin 2-4mm superficial layer of gray matter.
Composed of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, glial cells, and blood vessels, but no axon.
Accounts for 40% of mass of the brain.
What is the Cerebral Cortex?
Part of the Cerebral Cortex where Seeing occurs?
Part of the Cerebral Cortex where Hearing and Speaking occurs?
Frontal, Parietal, and Temporal Lobes
Part of the Cerebral Cortex where Thinking occurs?
Located in frontal lobe. They control voluntary movement.
What are the motor areas of the cerebral cortex?
Pyramidal Cells and Pyramidal Tracts
What do the Primary (somatic) Motor Cortex contain?
large neurons that allow conscious control of precise, skilled, skeletal muscle movements
What are Pyramidal Cells?
formed from long axons that project down spinal cord.
What are Pyramidal Tracts?
Helps plan movements -- staging area for skilled motor activities
What is the Premotor Cortex?
Controls learned, repetitious, or patterned motor skills
Coordinates simultaneous or sequential actions
Controls voluntary actions that depend on sensory feedback.
What are the functions of the Premotor Cortex?
Present in only one hemisphere (usually left)
Motor speech area that directs muscles of speech production.
Active in planning speech and voluntary motor activities.
What is the Broca's Area?
Controls voluntary eye movement
What is the Frontal Eye Field?
Stroke, Paralyzed muscle controlled by those areas.
Paralysis occurs on the opposite side of body from site of damage.
Muscle strength/ability to perform discrete individual movements are not impaired, only control over those movements are.
What happens if there is damage to the Primary (somatic) Motor Cortex?
Ex. Damage to premotor area controlling movement of fingers - fingers are able to move, but voluntary control needed to type is lost.
Other premotor neurons can be reprogrammed through plasticity (taking over skill of damaged neurons) but will require practice.
What happens if there is damage to the Premotor Cortex?
May result in Aphasia, a speech disorder.
What happens if there is damage to the Broca's Area?
Unable to control voluntary eye movement
What happens if there is damage to the Frontal Eye Field?
concerned with conscious awareness of sensation.
Generally, occurs in parietal, temporal, occipital, and insular lobes.
What is the Sensory Areas of the Cortex?
Receives general sensory information from skin and proprioceptors of skeletal muscle, joints, and tendons.
Capable of spatial discrimination - identification of body region being stimulated.
What is the Primary Somatosensory Cortex?
Integrates sensory input from primary somatosensory cortex for understanding of object.
Determines size, texture, and relationship of parts of objects being felt.
What is the Somatosensory Association Cortex?
Primary Visual (striate) and Visual Association Area
What do Visual Areas contain?
Receives visual information from retinas
What is the Primary Visual (striate)?
Surrounds primary visual cortex; uses past visual experiences to interpret visual stimuli (color, form, or movement).
What is the Visual Association Area?
Responsible for conscious awareness of balance (position of head in space)
What is the Vestibular Cortex?
Primary olfactory (smell) cortex - involved in conscious awareness of odors.
What is the Olfactory Cortex and what does it contain?
Involved in the perception of taste
What is the Gustatory Cortex?
onscious perception of visceral sensations
What is the Visceral Sensory Area?
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