32 terms

Rocks: Vocabulary

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Rock
A mixture of minerals, rock fragments, volcanic glass, organic matter, and other natural materials
Mineral
Particular combinations and arrangements of atoms that can be identified by their physical properties: the size and shape of the crystals that form them.
Igneous Rock
A rock that forms when magma cools
Magma
Melted rock material that is found below Earth's surface
Lava
Melted rock material that reaches Earth's surface
Intrusive rocks
Igneous rocks that form at deep depths of the Earth. They contain large mineral grains or crystals because they cool slowly.
Extrusive rocks
Igneous rocks that form when lava cools on Earth's surface. They contain small mineral grains or crystals because they cool quickly.
Basaltic rocks
These are dense dark colored igneous rock that form from magma that is rich in magnesium and iron, and low in silica
Granitic rocks
These are light colored igneous rock that have a lower density than basaltic rocks
Metamorphic rocks
Rocks that have changed because of changes in temperature and pressure or the presence of hot, watery fluids (magma)
Foliated rocks
A metamorphic rock that has mineral grains which line up in parallel layers
Non-foliated rocks
A metamorphic rock that does not have parallel layers of mineral grains
Sediments
Loose materials such as rock fragments, mineral grains, and bits and pieces of shell that have been moved by wind, water, or ice
Sedimentary rocks
Rocks that form when sediments are pressed together by great pressure, or when minerals form in solution
Weathering
This process, which breaks down rocks into smaller pieces
Erosion
The movement of sediments from one location to another
Compaction
Pressure from all of the built up layers pushes down on the lower layers causing the small fragments to form solid rock
Cementation
Occurs when minerals such as quartz, calcite, and hematite are deposited between sediments and 'glue' the sediments together.
Organic sedimentary rocks
Rocks that are made of the remains of once-living things
Chemical sedimentary rock
A sedimentary rock that is formed when dissolved minerals come out of solution
Pumice
Light grey igneous rock with a bubbly texture, that can float on water.
Agents of physical weathering
Temperature; ice and water; plants; crystallization of salts; wind.
Agents of chemical weathering
Acids; gases; minerals in water.
Clastic sedimentary rock
Rock formed from weathered sediments that have been cemented together. Often found with fossils in them. Often found in layers.
Regional metamorphic rock
Formed over large areas with the movement of Earth's tectonic plates.
Contact metamorphic rock
Rock formed in local areas when in contact with magma.
The rock cycle
Used to explain the endless cycle of change that rocks undergo.
Examples of Igneous rock
Basalt, granite, obsidian, scoria.
Examples of Sedimentary rock
Coal, sandstone, mudstone, gypsum, limestone.
Examples of Metamorphic rock
Marble, slate, gneiss.
Moh's scale of hardness
A comparative scale used to determine the hardness of minerals by scratching one against another.
Examples of minerals
Diamond, quartz, feldspar, talc, biotite.

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