Terms in this set (54)
-Political belief that one ruler should hold all the power within the boundaries of a country. --Based on the belief that rulers have divine right to rule.
King/Queen holds all the power.
-Spain: Phillip II
-France: Louis XIV
-England: Charles I
-Russia: Peter the Great (the I)
-Austria: Maria Theresa
-Prussia: Frederick the Great
Economic system in which countries seek to accumulate wealth by selling more than they buy, or selling more expensive goods and buying cheaper goods.
Claim of monarchs that their power is given by God.
SPAIN: Phillip II
Catholic King of Spain who held incredible wealth: inherited Spain, Spanish Netherlands, and colonies in the Americas. He ruled as Absolute Monarch.
SPAIN: Spanish Netherlands
Territory populated by "the Dutch" that the Spanish ruled during reign of Phillip II. Majority of Dutch were Protestant.
SPAIN: Dutch Revolt
Majority of Dutch were Protestant and rebelled against Phillip II. Dutch revolt was from 1566 to 1579. Dutch provinces in "the Netherlands" gained independence at the end of revolt.
SPAIN: Dutch Trade Empire
Dutch Trade Empire included Africa and Asia, with ports on the coasts of both continents.
FRANC: Edict of Nantes
Declaration that Hugenots could live and worship in France. Established by King Henry of Navarre in 1598 and rescinded in 1685 by Louis XIV.
FRANCE: Cardinal Richelieu
Louis XIII minister, who ruled as the King:
-Limited some of the freedoms to Hugenots that had been given by Edict of Nantes
-Weakened nobles by ordering them to destroy fortified castles
-Increased power of government agents, and took it away from noble officials
-Involved France in the Thirty Years War so as to limit power of King of Spain
FRANCE: Louis XIII
Puppet king, whose rule was mostly taken by Cardinal Richelieu
FRANCE: Cardinal Mazarin
"Heir" to Cardinal Richelieu, and minister to Louis XIV. Was hated by French nobles because he raised their taxes and limited their power.
FRANCE: Louis XIV
Sun King. Absolute King of France. Limited the power of nobles. Exercised protocol. Built Palace at Versailles and forced nobles to move there so he could control them. Led disastrous wars.
Under Louis XIV, government agents who collected taxes and administered justice. Reported to the king.
FRANCE: Jean Baptiste Colbert
Finance minister to Louis XIV who believed in Mercantilism. Protected France's industries by placing high tariffs on goods from other countries. Encouraged migration to Canada to develop fur trade. French colonies provided raw materials and a market for manufactured goods.
FRANCE: Palace at Versailles
Palace built by Louis XIV near Paris, where he moved his entire (and very large) court.
FRANCE: War of Spanish Succession
-War between France/Spain vs. alliance of Netherlands, England, Portugal, and Austria
-War intended to prevent that heir to Spanish throne (French grandson of Louis XIV, Phillip of Anjou) would also be heir to French crown
-Ended with Treaty of Utrech, which stated that Phillip could be king of Spain as long as he did not also become king of France.
-Most favored country was Great Britain
Thirty Years War, 1618-1648
-War over religion, territory, and power among European ruling families
-Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin intervened so as to control that Hapsburgs (Spain's rulers) did not gain too much power
Peace of Westphalia, 1648
-Ended the Thirty Years War
-Weakened Hapsburgs (Spain)
-Ended religious wars
-Introduced new method of peace negotiation: all participants meet to decide terms of peace
RUSSIA: Peter The Great (the I)
-Rule of Romanov Family
-Attempted to Westernize Europe
-Brought potatoes to Russia
-Raised women's status and education in the arts
-Established city of St. Petersburg as a window to Western Europe
ENGLAND: Charles I
-Always needed money
-Dissolved Parliament repeatedly because they did not grant him what he wanted
-Accepted the Petition of Rights, in which he vowed to respect citizen's rights, but then did not follow it
-Was executed in 1649 at the end of the English Civil War
ENGLAND: English Civil War, 1642-1649
-War of Parliament against Charles I
-Ended with execution of Charles I for treason, and the taking over of Oliver Cromwell
ENGLAND: Oliver Cromwell
-General supported by Puritans who turned the tide of the English Civil War
-Brought Charles I to trial for treason against Parliament
-Found Charles guilty, sentenced him to death and executed him
-1649: Cromwell abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords
-Established a Commonwealth, or republican form of government
-1653: Dissolved Parliament
-A Constitution was drafted
-Cromwell then destroyed it and became a military dictator
-Ruled until his death in 1659
ENGLAND: Charles II, 1660-1685
-Son of Charles I, who was called to rule England after the death of Oliver Cromwell
-Restored the monarchy: thus period is called "Period of Restoration"
ENGLAND: Restoration Period, 1660-1685
-Period of British rule by Charles II, son of Charles I, when monarchy was restored after Cromwell's death
ENGLAND: Habeas Corpus
-Important document passed by Parliament during reign of Charles II (Period of Restoration)
-Stated that every prisoner has the right to be tried by a judge, and that prisoners could not be put in jail indefinitely or at the king's pleasure. Prisoners either need to be found guilty and imprisoned, or set free.
ENGLAND: James II, 1685-1688
-Brother of Charles II, and his heir
-He was Catholic (thus, a problem)
-Offended Parliament by appointing several Catholics to high office
-Dissolved Parliament when Parliament protested
ENGLAND: Glorious Revolution, 1688
-Seven members of Parliament invited James' Protestant daughter, Mary, and her husband, William of Orange, to depose James II and rule England
-When William led his army to London, James II fled
-Bloodless overthrow of James II by Parliament
ENGLAND: William and Mary, 1688
-Rulers of England who vowed to recognize Parliament as their partner in government
ENGLAND: Constitutional Monarchy
-System of government, established in England, in which laws limit the monarch's power
-No ruler can rule without consent of Parliament
-No Parliament can rule without consent of monarch
ENGLAND: Bill of Rights, 1689
Document drafted in 1689, which lists many things that monarchs cannot do:
-not suspend Parliament laws
-not levy taxes without Parliament's permission
-not interfere with freedom of speech in Parliament
-no penalties for citizens who challenges king
-Group of ministers or officials who represent the major party in Parliament
-Over time, Cabinet became the center of power and policy making
-Link between Parliament and Monarch
ENGLAND: Prime Minister
-Leader of the majority party under the Cabinet system: the effective head of government in England
European-born population sent to populate the Americas
French and Indian War, 1754-1763
-War between France and England, for colonial territories
-Natives enlisted with both nations, but especially the French
-England won: Britain and her colonists seized nearly all French land in North America
Stamp Act, 1765
-Law passed by British Parliament
-Colonists had to pay a tax to have an official stamp put on wills, deeds, newspapers, and other printed materials
U.S.: No taxation without representation
Accusation by colonist lawyers that the Stamp Act violated the colonists' natural rights because the colonist had no representatives in Parliament
U.S. Revolutionary War
War of American colonists against the British crown and army
U.S.: Declaration of Independence, July 1776
-Document written by political leader Thomas Jefferson
-Firmly based on ideas of John Locke and the Enlightenment
-Argument for Natural Rights: "We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal..." etc "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
-The colonists declared themselves to be absolved from all allegiance to the British crown
U.S: Articles of Confederation, 1781
Articles that established the United States as a Republic, a government in which citizens are ruled through elected representatives
U.S: Constitution, 1787
Document that establishes the laws of the U.S.
U.S: Bill of Rights
Amendments to the constitution that list rights that protect individual U.S. citizens:
-Freedom of speech
-Freedom of religion
-Freedom of assembly
-Freedom of press
U.S.: Checks and Balances
Built-in-system in U.S. constitution in which each branch checks the actions of the other two
U.S: Federal System
A system of government in which power is divided between national and state governments
A 17th century intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems
Thomas Hobbes and Social Contract
-Hobbes' idea that individuals needed protection from a ruler and so they handed over their rights to this rule in exchange for protection. This is called the "social contract."
-Idea expressed in book called Leviathan
John Locke and Natural Rights
-Locke's idea is that all people are born "free and equal" and that these are "natural rights" that cannot be granted or taken away (thus, natural, self-evident).
-Government's power comes from the consent of the people, and people are capable of governing themselves.
Voltaire combats intolerance
"I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it."
Montesquieu and the Separation of Powers
"Power should be a check to power." (Basis for notion of checks and balances).
Rousseau, Champion of Freedom
-"Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains."
-Agreement between free individuals TO CREATE a society and a government
-Legitimate government comes from consent of those governed
-Inspired the French Revolution
The Philosophers of Enlightenment thinking:
Philosophes advocate Reason
Legacy of Enlightenment
1. Belief in Progress (reason leads to progress)
2. A More Secular World (a step back from religious explanations)
3. Importance of Individual (each individual is important).