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the sense of smell

olfaction organs

these are located on each side of the nasal septum.
they are on the inferior side of the cribriform plate on the superior conchae of the ethmoid bone.

olfactory epithelium

this is an olfactory organ that is a layer of epithelium

olfactory receptors

this is a part of the olfactory epithelium that is a specialized smell receptor.

olfactory cilia

this is a part of the olfactory epithelium that contains receptor proteins

basal cells

this is a part of the olfactory epithelium that is a olfactory receptor stem cell

olfactory gland

this is a part of the olfactory epithelium that is a mucous secreting cell that enhances the receptor's sensitivity

process of olfaction

odorants, water or fat soluble chemicals, come in contact with mucous covered olfactory cilia of the olfactory receptors. These olfactory receptors generate sensory impulses. The sensory information is corrected through the ethmoid to the olfactory bulbs of the brain

tatse buds

these are specialized sensory structures that are located on the surface of the tongue, pharynx, and larynx. There are approximately 3000 total of these. They each contain about 40 taste receptors called gustatory cells.

Gustatory cells

these are taste receptors located in taste buds. They are long receptor cells with taste hairs that extend through taste pores and into mucous ans saliva.
they have a life span of about 10 days

taste pores

these are small openings in the taste buds

primary taste sensations

all taste is a combination of 4 primary tastes.

sweet, sour, bitter, salty

what are the four primary taste sensations?

the process of gustation

chemicals contact the taste hairs of the gustatory cells. Gustatory sensations are received by the primary sensory cortex. Olfaction has a large influence of the taste.

lingual papillae

these are epithelial projections on the surface of the tongue

filiform, fungiform, circumvallate

what are the three types of papillae?


this type of papillae is tall and has thread like projections. They do NOT contain taste buds. The provide friction to help the tongue move substances around the mouth.


this type of papillae has mushroom like projections. Each contains about 5 taste buds


this type of papillae is located at the back of the tongue. Each contains approximately 100 taste buds


the sense of sight

accessory structures

these structures provide support protection and lubrication


these are eye lids.
they are a continuation of the skin of the face.
it lubricates, protects, and sweeps debris off the eye.
the upper and lower palpebrae connect medially at the medial canthus and laterally at the lateral canthus

tarsal glands

this accessory structure is a specialized sebaceous gland.
it is located along the inner edge of the palpabrae.
this secrete sa fatty substance that prevents the palpabrae from sticking together

lacrimal caruncle

this accessory structure is a gland of the medial canthus that produces thick deposits that trap and collect debris

palpebral conjuctiva

this accessory structure is the epithelium covering the inner surface of the palpabrae

ocular conjunctiva

this accessory structure is the epithelium covering the outer surface of the eye


this is pink eye.
it is an inflammation of either conjunctiva. it is caused y either a simple irritation or an infection


this accessory structure is the transparent epithelium covering the center of the eye

eye lashes

this accessory structure prevents debris from contacting the eye. it contains large sebaceous glands.

lacrimal apparatus

this accessory structure produces, distributes, and removes tears. tears protect the conjunctival surface by:
keeping them moist
reducing friction
removing debris
preventing them from sticking together
supplying oxygen and nutrients
killing bacteria

lacrimal gland

this is the tear gland.
it is superior and lateral to the eye ball. it produces tears that flow over the conjunctival sufrace.s blinking coats conjunctival surface with tears and washes debris towards the medial canthus.

lacrimal puncta

this accessory structure contains two small pores that drain tears into the lacrimal sac

lacrimal sac

this is a reservoir in the lacrimal bone which drains into the nasal cavity via the nasolacrimal duct


this is a ping pong ball sized structure located in the orbit. orbital fat surrounds and cushions this.

fibrous, vascular, neural

what are the 3 tunics that make up the eye wall


this tunic is the over layer of fibrous connective tissue.
it contains the sclera and cornea


this is the white of the eye. it supports nerves and blood vessels that penetrate the eye wall. it is the attachment site for muscles that move the eye and focus it.


this is a transparent epithelium on the anterior center of the surface of the eye. it allows light to enter.
no blood vessels.
gets oxygen and nutrients from tears
limited healing abilirt
has many pain receptors
it is the most sensitive part of the eye


this is the middle tunic layer. it contains the iris and ciliary muscles


this is a pigmented portion.
deep to the cornea and superficial to the lens.
contains the pupillary muscles.

pupillary muscles

this controls the diameter of the pupil.
it is the opening which allows light to enter the eye

ciliary muscle

this is lcoated around the lens.
it changes shape of lens to allow for focus.
it maintains the proper position of lens below the pupil of the iris


this is the inner tunic layer. it contains neural parts and pigmented parts.

neural part

this is the inner layer of the neural tunic. it contains photoreceptors

pigmented part

this is the outer layer of the neural tunic. it absorbs light. it prevents light from reflecting back across the neural part.

retina structures

contains two types of photoreceptors: rods and cones


these are photoreceptors that are sensitive to light. the allow us to see in dim light. they are located around the periphery of the retina.


these are photoreceptors that are sensitive to color. they provide color vision. they are most concentrated in the fovea.

optic disc

this is the place where all sensory neurons converge. it forms the optic nerve. this is where retina blood vessels enter the eye. it is also called the blind spot.

optic nerve

carries visual sensations to the diencephalon

posterior cavity

this is a large space behind the lens and cillary body.
it contains the vitreous body

vitreous body

this is a gelatinous mass. it maintains the shape of the eye.

anterior cavity

this cavity contains the anterior chamber and the posterior chamber

anterior chamber

this part of the anterior cavity is between the cornea and the iris

posterior chamber

this part of the anterior cavity is between the iris and the lens and cilliary body

aqueous humor

this is a CSF like fluid. it circulates between anterior and posterior chambers. it supplies nutrients and removes wastes. it also circulates between the vitreous body and the retina. this is where it presses against the pigmented parts, which stabilizes the retina and prevents a detached retina.


this is located posterior to the iris. it focuses images onto the photoreceptors. it is filled with crystallons (proteins that allow for cravity and focus


this is a condition resulting from the loss of transparency within the lens. the lens becomes cloudy and yellow.


this is the ability of the lens to change shape to focus on objects. it is controlled by ciliary muscles.
close objects = spherical lens
far objects = flattened lens

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