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Ch. 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy
Terms in this set (32)
Organized patterns of functioning that adapt and change with mental development
The process by which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking. ex: thinking flying squirrel is bird.
Changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events.
ex: thinking bird has tail
Sensorimotor Stage (of cognitive development)
Piaget's initial major stage of cognitive development, which can be broken down into six substages.
Substage 1: Simple Reflexes. First Month of Life.
The sucking reflex causes the infant to suck at anything placed in its lips.
Substage 2: First Habits and Primary Circular Reactions. From 1 to 4 months.
An infant might combing grasping an object with sucking on it, or staring at something with touching it.
Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions. From 4 to 8 months.
A child who repeatedly picks up a rattle and shakes it in different ways to see how the sound change is demonstrating her ability to modify her cognitive scheme about shaking rattles.
Substage 4: Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions. From 8 to 12 months.
An infant will push one toy out of the way to reach another toy that is lying, partially exposed, under it.
Substage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions. From 12 to 18 months.
A child will drop a toy repeatedly, varying the position from which he drops it, carefully observing each time to see where it falls.
Substage 6: Beginnings of Thought. From 18 months to 2 years.
Children can plot in their heads unseen trajectories of objects, so that if a ball rolls under a piece of furniture, they can figure out where it is likely to emerge on the other side.
The realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen.
An internal image of a past event or object.
An act in which a person who is no longer present is imitated by children who have witnessed a similar act.
Information Processing Approaches
The model that seeks to identify the way that individuals take in, use, and store information.
The process by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
The process by which information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved.
The lack of memory for experiences that occurred prior to three years of age.
An overall developmental score that relates to performance in four domains: motor skills, language use, adaptive behavior, and personal-social.
Bayley Scales of Infant Development
A measure that evaluates an infants development from 2 to 42 months in two areas: mental and motor abilities.
The systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols, which provides the basis for communication.
Making speech-like but meaningless sounds.
one-word utterances that stand for a whole phrase, whose meaning depends on the particular context in which they are used.
Speech in which words not critical to the message are left out
The overly restrictive use of words; common among children just mastering spoken language
The overly broad use of words, overgeneralizing their meaning.
A style of language use in which language is used primarily to label objects
A style of language use in which language is used primarily to express feelings and needs about oneself and others
Learning Theory Approach to Language
The theory that language acquisition follows the basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning.
Nativist Approach to Language
The theory that a genetically determined, innate mechanism directs language development.
Noam Chomsky's theory that all the world's languages share a similar underlying structure.
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
A neural system of the brain hypothesized to permit understanding of language
Infant Directed Speech
A type of speech directed towards infants; characterized by short, simple sentences.
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