24 terms

Rise of the Boxer and Boxer rebellion 1800-1911 and 1900-1950-3

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Boxer Rising/Boxer Rebellion- English name
"militia units that practiced ritual boxing as a form of self defense and group discipline"
Origins of the Boxers
The Righteous/Harmonious fists
- religions like Buddhism/Daoism
Chinese Mongolia restore: Eight Trigams(Bagua) Secret societies- attacked imperial palace 1813
Matrega "The Buddha of Compassion "The Buddha of the Future" the White Lotus
Boxer Groups
20-30 strong
each owned "alliance to a single leader
acted against any foreign pressence
Foreigns
Great Hairy ones
Chinese Christians, construction, economic enterprises
2nd Hair Ones
Foreign Products
Tertianry Hair Ones
Boxer Proclamation
May 28, 1900
Catholics/Protestant- disrupting what we hold sacred
bullied officials, oppressed black haired people of China
G-ds-Men Angry- die out all foreigners, villages do so to
Boxer group- people no land. or regular employment, were excluded/excluded themselves
Zhang De Cheng
leader of the Boxer Rebellion
been a boatman/Cao Futian/former soldier
both occupations supported the Boxer people
Heavily on "Ritual" "Magic"
Practice: boxing: fitness, enlightenment
sessions: Shamism/spirt possession "people od charms, propolicies, magic formulate
-destroy enemy, military weather, rain-> poverty poops
Pledge
leader/master
-not accept
peerage steal/protest, common people, no women, eat not meat, not tea
Red lanterns
girls 12-18- trained/fought alongside their brothers
Blue lanterns force
middle aged women
The Rising
the boxer militia- against christians
the "Big Sword Society Shandong
-early manifestation of the Boxers
attacked Shandong 1896
2 german catholic missionaries Nov. 1 , 1897 car zhou damaged
german government .- demanded- mining/railway rights
China didn't understand
German took Jia Zhou
Li Bing hong
he encouraged the Big Sword society against the Chinese Christians
Zhu Hong Deng(Red Lantern)
Oct 9, 1899
reputation attacks christian converts
rough/defeated govt. troops
harvest failed
runner Missonaries- conspiring with local landlords/merchants honored grain/benefitted
1st leader to argue Boxers support Qing against foreigners
The Boxer Rebellion Background
-spread of Christianity in China: by 1820, there were about 250 European Catholic priests in China and in 1900 the figure was 886.
1840-1911 more than 1,000 violent Anti-Christian incident in China
Conflict
German missionaries and Chinese peasants in Shandong Province, German Shares of influence
-anti-foreign ,superstitions, martial arts, secret societies in N. China
Secret Societies- support of xenophobia, local gentlemen and officials, Peasants- illiterate, elite- more educated
Boxer ideology
-Peasants influence d by Daoism, martial arts, drama
-believing in supernatural power in Chinese martial arts
-Anti-Qing to Anti-foreign, support, reconciled with the government against foreign enrichment governor/later the Empress Dowager oppressed Nov. 7
-occupied Beijing in 1900, killed foreigners, burned churches and surrounded the legation quarters
one Japanese diplomat and one German officer were killed
1st President
Yuan Shi-Kai- a few months
Internationally
failed at "international army of the 8 power(18,000 troops) put down boxers and retire order
-Britain, France, German, Russia, American, Japan, Italy, Austria/Hungary Empire
-Empress Dowager declared war against all the 8 nations
reformer against Boxers
-considered a "modernization"
-later removed
2nd governor more lenient to Boxers
Settlement
Boxers more crushed/many slaughtered
Conservative high officials- executed at the order occupation army
Cixi was an exception due to her special status
->most wanted by 8 Powers-female battle
Matriarch- forced to kill others
Li Hong Zhang
Signed the Boxers Protocol
punitive indemnity of45 million dollars
stating foreign troops between Bejing and Tianjin US.A d fund too much $
led to the late conflict between Russia/Japan Russian Japanese War 1904-1905
suspension of civil service examination for 5yrs.
Peasants
showed power that prevented further partition of China- fight to death
Qing court lost credibility and was called "Foreigners Court"
-befriend wife of ambassador-Cixi
"Foreign Agent"
The Qing court started reform, finally
-Demolisation of railway/telepgraph lines
patriotism
How could you evaluate the Boxers?
New policy Reform
1901-1911
-some said it was "fake"
-Western style New Army Yuan Shi-Kai, 1901 Westernized Minstry of Commerce, 1903-Modern army- father dismissed, Bank
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