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Chapter 10 History

Chapter 10 History European Explorers & The Americas
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roads, aqueducts, buildings
Incas: Accomplishments
farming, calendar, hieroglyphics, number system, astronomy
Mayas: Accomplishments
farming, arts and crafts, medicine, astronomy, hieroglyphics
Aztecs: Accomplishments
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Haiti; Independence from France
Miguel Hidalgo
Mexico; Planned a revolution with Criollos; Mestizos and Native Americans fought against the Spanish; Captured and executed
Agustin de Iturbide
Mexico; Defeated the Spanish and declared Mexico independent
Simon Bolivar
South America/Venezuela; Freed future countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama
Jose de San Martin
South America/Argentina; Freed Chile from Spanish rule; Gave control of army to Bolivar
Copán and Tikal
Mayas: Ancient Cities
Tenochtitlan
Aztecs: Ancient Cities
Cuzco
Incas: Ancient Cities
Central America and Southern Mexico
Mayas: Location of Civilization
Valley of Mexico and Lake Texcoco
Aztecs: Location of Civilization
Cuzco Valley
Incas: Location of Civilization
50 degrees longitude
Line of Demarcation: Location
more powerful; advanced weapons; European diseases
Reasons for the Spanish victory in the Americas
Portugal- colonize east
Spain- colonize west
Treaty of Tordesillas Divisions
Peru and New Spain
Spain's two most important provinces
Oil prices to run factories rose; prices for Latin American goods dropped; many countries went into debt
Oil prices in the 1980s
invested, resulting in most powerful companies making huge profits
Foreign countries in Latin America
maize
both the plant and the kernel of corn
hieroglyphics
a system of writing using signs and symbols; used by the Maya and other cultures
aqueduct
a pipe or channel used to carry water from a distant source to dry areas
Treaty of Tordesillas
the 1494 treaty setting up the Line of Demarcation, giving Spain the right or settle and trade west of the line and Portugal the same rights east of the line
treaty
an agreement in writing made between two or more countries
Line of Demarcation
an imaginary line form the North Pole to the South Pole (at about 50 degrees longitude) set forth in the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas
conquistador
16th century conquerors working for the Spanish government who were in charge of gaining land and wealth in the Americas
mestizo
a person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry
hacienda
plantation owned by the Spanish settlers or the Catholic Church in Spanish America
revolution
a political movement in which the people overthrow a government and set up another
criollo
someone who was born in Latin America but has Spanish parents
caudillo
a military officer who ruled very strictly with unlimited power
invest
to spend money to earn more money
economy
the way that goods and services are produced and made available to people
Hernan Cortez
Aztecs thought Europeans were gods and brought them to Tenochtitlan; Moctezuma was killed and Aztec empire was destroyed
Francisco Pizarro
captured Atahualpa and asked for a ransom; killed Atahualpa and took over Incan Empire
Native American population went from 25 million to 3 million in 50 years; creation of New Spain and Peru (Kansas to the tip of South America)
Effects of European Exploration
give Spain 1/5 of any treasure they found
Conquistadors agreed to...
Portugal gave them their independence
Brazil's Independence
caudillos ruled because of land control; Latin America was very poor
after independence
Moctezuma
Aztec ruler
by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean
How did European explorers originally hope to reach Asia?
rivalry between Spain and Portugal; new land; fame; wealth
short-term effects of European exploration of Latin America
fighting and revolutions
How did Latin American countries win their independence?