a pigment produced from the destruction of hemoglobin, is released by the liver in bile. Excess bilirubin in the blood is associated with jaundice.
is a dental specialist who prevents or treats disorders of the tissues surrounding the teeth
also known as canker sores, are recurrent blister-like sores that break and form lesions on the soft tissues lining the mouth. Although the exact cause is known, the appearance of these sores is associated with stress, certain foods, or fever.
also known as cold sores or fever blisters, are blister-like sores caused by the herpes simplex virus that occur on the lips and adjacent tissue.
is a congenital fissure of the palate that involves the upper lip, hard palate, and/or soft palate. If not corrected, this opening between the nose and mouth makes it difficult for the child to eat and speak.
is involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that usually occurs during sleep and is associated with tension or stress. Bruxism wears away tooth structure, damages periodontal tissues, and injures the temporomandibular joint.
also known as bad breath, may be caused by dental diseases or respiratory or gastric disorders
also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD , is the upward flow of stomach acid into the esophagus.
are enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus. Severe bleeding occurs if one of these veins ruptures.
is a protrusion of part of the stomach through the esophageal sphincter in the diaphragm
is an eating disorder in which there is persistent eating of nonnutritional substances such as clay. These abnormal cravings are sometimes associated with pregnancy.
also known as vomiting, means to expel the contents of the stomach through the esophagus and out of the mouth.
is a common form of cancer that often first manifests itself in polyps in the colon.
is inflammation of one or more diverticulum (diverticul means diverticulum and itis means inflammation). A diverticulum (dye-ver-TICK-you-lum) is a pouch or sac occurring in the lining or wall of a tubular organ including the intestines (plural, diverticula).
is a chronic autoimmune disorder involving any part of the GI tract but most commonly resulting in scarring and thickening of the walls of ileum, colon or both.
lso known as irritable bowel syndrome or IBS, is a disorder of the motility (ability to move spontaneously) of the entire GI tract. It is characterized by abdominal pain, nausea, gas, constipation, and/or diarrhea.
is a temporary stoppage of intestinal peristalsis that may be accompanied by severe pain, abdominal distention, vomiting, absence of passage of stools, fever, and dehydration.
abnormally hold together parts of the intestine where they normally should be separate. This condition, which is caused by inflammation or trauma, can lead to intestinal obstruction.
is a complete stoppage or serious impairment to the passage of the intestinal contents. A mechanical obstruction may result from a blockage that may be due to many causes including the presence of a tumor.
the blood flow to a segment of the intestine is cut off. This may lead to gangrene and perforation
is the telescoping of one part of the intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part. This is typically a condition found in infants and young children
is the protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin.
Frequent, watery stools often with blood and mucus accompanied by pain, fever, and dehydration
also known as piles, are enlarged veins in or near the anus that may cause pain and bleeding.
is a progressive degenerative disease of the liver characterized by disturbance of structure and function of the liver. It frequently results in jaundice and ultimately hepatic failure.
is a yellow discoloration of the skin and other tissues caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood.
is a hard deposit that forms in the gallbladder and bile ducts (plural, calculi). Biliary (BILL-ee-air-ee) means relating to bile.
is the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts (chole means bile or gall and lithiasis means presence of stones).
is the visual examination of the anal canal and lower rectum using a short speculum called an anoscope
is an instrument used to enlarge the opening of any body cavity to facilitate inspection of its interior.
upper GI series, or barium swallow, and lower GI series, or barium enema (BE
are radiographic studies to examine the digestive system. Barium is used as a contrast medium to make these structures visible.
also describes a solution placed into the rectum and colon to empty the lower intestine through bowel activity. One purpose of an enema is to clear the bowels in preparation for an endoscopic examination.
also known as the fecal occult blood test or FOBT, is a laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools (hemo means blood, occult means hidden or difficult to see). A test kit may be used at home and the specimens are delivered to a laboratory or physician's office for evaluation.
are specimens of feces that are examined for content and characteristics. For example, fatty stools might indicate the presence of pancreatic problems. Cultures of the stool sample can be examined in the laboratory for the presence of bacteria or O & P, which are ova (parasite eggs) and parasites.
is the use of an endoscope for the direct visual examination of the interior of the entire rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon.
taken before eating block the effects of histamine, which signals the stomach to produce acid.
Oral rehydration therapy
also known as ORT, is a treatment in which a solution of electrolytes is administered orally to counteract dehydration that may accompany severe diarrhea.
is specialized surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases, and repair injuries.