Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads


a pigment produced from the destruction of hemoglobin, is released by the liver in bile. Excess bilirubin in the blood is associated with jaundice.


means pertaining to the gallbladder


is a series of wavelike contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction.


is the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine.


is a dental specialist who prevents or treats disorders of the tissues surrounding the teeth


specializes in disorders of the colon, rectum, and anus

Aphthous ulcers

also known as canker sores, are recurrent blister-like sores that break and form lesions on the soft tissues lining the mouth. Although the exact cause is known, the appearance of these sores is associated with stress, certain foods, or fever.

Herpes labialis

also known as cold sores or fever blisters, are blister-like sores caused by the herpes simplex virus that occur on the lips and adjacent tissue.

cleft lip

is a congenital defect resulting in a deep fissure of the lip running upward to the nose.

cleft palate

is a congenital fissure of the palate that involves the upper lip, hard palate, and/or soft palate. If not corrected, this opening between the nose and mouth makes it difficult for the child to eat and speak.


is involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that usually occurs during sleep and is associated with tension or stress. Bruxism wears away tooth structure, damages periodontal tissues, and injures the temporomandibular joint.


also known as bad breath, may be caused by dental diseases or respiratory or gastric disorders


is difficulty in swallowing

Esophageal reflux

also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD , is the upward flow of stomach acid into the esophagus.

Esophageal varices

are enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus. Severe bleeding occurs if one of these veins ruptures.

hiatal hernia

is a protrusion of part of the stomach through the esophageal sphincter in the diaphragm


is bleeding from the stomach


is the excessive flow of gastric secretions


is a rupture of the stomach

peptic ulcer

also known as PU, is a lesion of the mucous membranes of the digestive system

perforating ulcer

involves erosion through the entire thickness of the organ wall.


is an eating disorder in which there is persistent eating of nonnutritional substances such as clay. These abnormal cravings are sometimes associated with pregnancy.


is the absence of hydrochloric acid from gastric secretions.


is the spasmodic swallowing of air followed by eructations


is the act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach.


also known as indigestion, is an impairment of digestion


also known as vomiting, means to expel the contents of the stomach through the esophagus and out of the mouth.


is vomiting blood


means excessive vomiting


is the return of swallowed food into the mouth.

Colorectal cancer

is a common form of cancer that often first manifests itself in polyps in the colon.


is inflammation of one or more diverticulum (diverticul means diverticulum and itis means inflammation). A diverticulum (dye-ver-TICK-you-lum) is a pouch or sac occurring in the lining or wall of a tubular organ including the intestines (plural, diverticula).


is an inflammation of the colon

Crohn's disease

is a chronic autoimmune disorder involving any part of the GI tract but most commonly resulting in scarring and thickening of the walls of ileum, colon or both.


is an inflammation of the ileum


is an inflammation of the small intestines

Spastic colon

lso known as irritable bowel syndrome or IBS, is a disorder of the motility (ability to move spontaneously) of the entire GI tract. It is characterized by abdominal pain, nausea, gas, constipation, and/or diarrhea.


is a temporary stoppage of intestinal peristalsis that may be accompanied by severe pain, abdominal distention, vomiting, absence of passage of stools, fever, and dehydration.

Intestinal adhesions

abnormally hold together parts of the intestine where they normally should be separate. This condition, which is caused by inflammation or trauma, can lead to intestinal obstruction.

Intestinal obstruction

is a complete stoppage or serious impairment to the passage of the intestinal contents. A mechanical obstruction may result from a blockage that may be due to many causes including the presence of a tumor.

strangulating obstruction

the blood flow to a segment of the intestine is cut off. This may lead to gangrene and perforation


is twisting of the intestine (bowel) on itself that causes an obstruction


is the telescoping of one part of the intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part. This is typically a condition found in infants and young children

inguinal hernia

is the protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin.

Amebic dysentery

Frequent, watery stools often with blood and mucus accompanied by pain, fever, and dehydration


Food poisoning that is characterized by paralysis and is often fatal.


Severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration that can be fatal if not treated.


Severe diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting accompanied by a high fever.


also known as piles, are enlarged veins in or near the anus that may cause pain and bleeding.


is the passage of black stools containing digested blood.


is a progressive degenerative disease of the liver characterized by disturbance of structure and function of the liver. It frequently results in jaundice and ultimately hepatic failure.


is a yellow discoloration of the skin and other tissues caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood.


is pain in the gallbladder


is inflammation of the gallbladder


is a hard deposit that forms in the gallbladder and bile ducts (plural, calculi). Biliary (BILL-ee-air-ee) means relating to bile.


is the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts (chole means bile or gall and lithiasis means presence of stones).


is the visual examination of the anal canal and lower rectum using a short speculum called an anoscope


is an instrument used to enlarge the opening of any body cavity to facilitate inspection of its interior.

upper GI series, or barium swallow, and lower GI series, or barium enema (BE

are radiographic studies to examine the digestive system. Barium is used as a contrast medium to make these structures visible.


also describes a solution placed into the rectum and colon to empty the lower intestine through bowel activity. One purpose of an enema is to clear the bowels in preparation for an endoscopic examination.


also known as the fecal occult blood test or FOBT, is a laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools (hemo means blood, occult means hidden or difficult to see). A test kit may be used at home and the specimens are delivered to a laboratory or physician's office for evaluation.

Stool samples

are specimens of feces that are examined for content and characteristics. For example, fatty stools might indicate the presence of pancreatic problems. Cultures of the stool sample can be examined in the laboratory for the presence of bacteria or O & P, which are ova (parasite eggs) and parasites.


is an instrument used for visual examination of internal structures


is the endoscopic examination of the rectum and anus


is the use of an endoscope for the direct visual examination of the interior of the entire rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon.

Acid blockers

taken before eating block the effects of histamine, which signals the stomach to produce acid.


prevents or relieves nausea and vomiting.


produces vomiting.


are medications or foods given to stimulate bowel movements.

Oral rehydration therapy

also known as ORT, is a treatment in which a solution of electrolytes is administered orally to counteract dehydration that may accompany severe diarrhea.


is the surgical repair of the esophagus


as the term is used in dentistry, is the surgical removal of a tooth.


is the surgical removal of diseased gingival tissue

Maxillofacial surgery

is specialized surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases, and repair injuries.


is surgical repair of a cleft palate


is the surgical removal of all or a part of the stomach

Nasogastric intubation

is the placement of a tube through the nose and into the stomach.


is the surgical repair of the anus


is a surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures


is the surgical fixation of the rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ


is the surgical repair of the rectum


is an incision in the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy

also known as a lap choley, is the surgical removal of the gallbladder using a laparoscope and other instruments while working through very small openings in the abdominal wall

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording