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Chapter 2 Vocabulary
Chapter 2 A Living Planet
Terms in this set (40)
landmasses above water on Earth.
consists of the sun and nine known planets, as well as other celestial bodies that orbit the sun.
the center of the Earth and is made up of iron and nickel.
surrounds the core and contains most of the Earth's mass.
the thin layer of rock at the Earth's surface.
a layer of gases surrounding the Earth which contains the oxygen we breathe, protects the earth from radiation and space debris, and provides the medium for weather and climate.
the solid rock portion of the Earth's surface which includes the crust and uppermost mantle.
made up of the water elements on the earth, which include oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, and water in the atmosphere.
the part of the Earth where plants and animals live...it consists of the atmosphere, the lithosphere, and the hydrosphere.
a theory presented by Alfred Wegener of Germany in 1912 that maintains the earth was once a supercontinent (Pangaea) that divided and slowly drifted apart over millions of years
the continuous circulation of water between the atmosphere, the oceans, and the earth.
an area drained by a major river and its tributaries.
the water that is held in the pores of rock.
the level at which the rock is saturated.
naturally formed features on the surface of the earth.
the earth's surface from the edge of a continent to the deep part of the ocean.
the difference in elevation of a landform from its lowest point to its highest point.
the combination of the surface shape and composition of the landforms and their distribution in a region.
enormous moving pieces of the earth's lithosphere.
fracture in the earth's crust
violent movement of the earth.
measures the size of the energy waves created by an earthquake.
the point above the focus on the earth's surface.
uses information collected by seismographs to determine the relative strength of an earthquake.
a giant wave in the ocean.
occurs when magma, gases, and water from the lower part of the crust or mantle collects in underground chambers and eventually pour out of the earth's surface.
magma that has reached the earth's surface.
Ring of Fire
active volcanoes located around the rim of the Pacific Ocean.
refers to the physical and chemical processes that change the characteristics of rock on or near the earth's surface.
identifiable as mud, sand, or silt, which are very fine particles of rock.
processes that break rock into smaller pieces.
processes that change rock into a new substance as a result of interactions between elements in the air or water and the minerals in the rock.
the reshaping of landforms, coastal regions, riverbeds, and river banks that occurs when weathered material is moved by the action of wind, water, ice, or gravity.
a fan-like landform made of deposited sediment, left by a river that develops as it enters the ocean.
windblown silt and clay sediment that produce very fertile soil.
a large, long-lasting mass of ice that moves because of gravity.
the changing of landforms by slowly moving glaciers
rocks left behind by glaciers which may form ridges or hills.
organic material in the soil.
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