Biology: History of DNA
Terms in this set (41)
40 percent DNA
60 percent Protein
initially scientists thought protein was the genetic material instead of DNA
What are chromosomes made of?
tried to develop a vaccine for pneumonia, he discovered transformation
he experimented with mice and 2 forms of bacteria (R strand and S strand)
movement of genetic material from one organism to another
rough bacteria, learned to make a "coat" and became smooth
S was deadly with a coating
R was not deadly with no coating but learned how to have a coating
What was transformed in Griffith's experiment?
living S strain
living R strain
Heated S strain
found healthy with heat
Living R strain and dead S strain
made from killed or weakened microorganisms that are injected into the body to produce immunity
able to cause disease
anything that can make you sick
used Griffith's work to prove DNA was genetic material; did not satisfy scientific community
determined that genes are composed of DNA
destroyed proteins --> transformation DID occur
killed DNA --> transformation DID NOT OCCUR
Hershey and Chase
proved DNA is genetic material using radioactive labeling and bacteria only
virus that attacks batcteria only
causes: cell to explode OR change DNA to make more bacteriophage
Charagaff's Nitrogen Base Pairing Rule
A - T or T- A
G- C or C-G
Wilkins and Franklin
X - rayed DNA showing it to be a helical shape
EX: twisted staircase, twizzler
Watson and Crick
used work of Chargaff and Franklin to prove DNA is a double helix ("twisted ladder")
DNA is made of...
phosphate groups, deoxyribose (5 carbon sugar) nitrogen bases, (Adenine, Thymine, Grenadine, Cytosine)
nucleotides are made of
What are A and G?
What are T and C?
What does DNA stand for?
(strands held together with hydrogen bonds, and they complement each other, based on Chargaff's rules
ex: TACCAT pairs with ATGGTA
How many strands are hold DNA together
distinct sequence of nucleotides forming a part of a chromosome
unit of heredity that is transferred form parent to offspring
DNA holds ALL genes
make new strand of DNA
enzyme that breaks hydrogen bond causes DNA to "unzip"
the point at which DNA unzips
enzyme which adds nucleotides to make DNA
two strands in end has one new strand and one old strand
non-coding part of DNA
removed from m RNA before leaving nucleus
coding part of DNA
worked with Indian corn or maize
"jumping genes" , genes that move
piece of chromosome 22 breaks off and binds to chromosome 9... causes lukemia
like DNA except
single stranded, has ribose (sugar), its nitrogen bases are U, C, G and A
U --> uracil pairs with A
messenger RNA: copies heredity info from DNA
ribosomal RNA: site where protein is made
transfer RNA --> tRNA to mRNA (transfers the amino acid)
looks like a "t"
DNA to mRNA
enzyme unwinds DNA, adds nucleotides, makes RNA
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