Terms in this set (38)
What are macronutrients?
Macronutrients are substances required in relatively large amounts by organisms.
What are micronutrients?
micronutrients are substances required in small amounts
What is the role of primary producers in the carbon cycle?
produce energy from sunlight and carbon in the environment. Pass carbon onto secondary consumers.
What is the role of secondary consumers in the carbon cycle?
Release Carbon Dioxide into the air through respiration.
What is the role of decomposers in the carbon cycle?
Release stored Carbon Dioxide into the air by decomposing dead organisms.
Where is most of the Earth's carbon located and in what form?
Most of the Earth's carbon is located in the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide.
How does carbon enter the biotic part of the ecosystem?
Carbon enters the biotic part of the ecosystem through photosynthesis, when carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and water react to produce glucose and oxygen.
What functions do plants have in the forest? Carbon Cycle?
In forests, plants help with climate, oxygen levels and vegetation. In the carbon cycle plants use photosynthesis which produces and moves carbon throughout the atmosphere.
How is carbon dioxide returned to the atmosphere?
Animals, plants, algae, and microorganisms use the process of respiration to return carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere
What is a primary producer?
Any green plant or any of various microorganisms that can convert light energy or chemical energy into organic matter
What happens when primary and secondary consumers die?
Their organic matter enters soil through process of decay. It is broken down by the decomposers, which are small animals and microorganisms that subsist on decaying matter
What do detritus feeders contribute to the carbon cycle?
Detritus feeders return carbon from dead primary and secondary consumers to the soil.
What is a fossil fuel?
A fossil fuel is a natural fuel formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms.
How does carbon get in the oceans?
Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere dissolves in the surface waters of the ocean.
What percent of the air is nitrogen?
78% of the air is nitrogen
Why is nitrogen essential to life?
Nitrogen is a key component of nucleic acids and amino acids
How do plants and animals get nitrogen if not from the atmosphere?
What are nitrogen fixing bacteria?
Bacteria that convert nitrogen into ammonia that is used by plants
What is a major reservoir for ammonia?
Soil is a major reservoir for ammonia.
Why do herbivores need nitrogen?
Nitrogen is used for the synthesis of amino acid, proteins, and nucleic acids.
What is denitrification?
A process performed by bacteria and fungi to break down the nitrates in soil to release nitrogen back into the atmosphere.
Why is Phosphorus an important biological molecule?
Phosphorus makes up adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) which are used in important cellular processes such as photosynthesis.
What happens to phosphorus that erodes from rock and soil?
Phosphorus that erode from rock and soil is carried to the roots of plants to be absorbed
Phosphorus unites with Oxygen to make phosphates
How are phosphates incorporated into the organic molecules in plants and animals?
Phosphates are absorbed by the roots of plants and are also incorporated into the organic molecules of animals who eat the plants. Phosphates are transferred by food webs.
What happens to the phosphates when plants and animals die?
The phosphates will return to the soil or to the ocean when the dead animals decay.
What happens to the phosphorus that is carried by runoff to the oceans?
Water runs over phosphorus containing rocks and the ions slip into streams and eventually end up in the ocean. Then the sediment from the phosphorus-ions lies trapped on the ocean floor for millions of years.
How are phosphates incorporated into the organic molecules in aquatic plants and animals?
The scales and bones of fish contain phosphorus
Phosphate is absorbed by the plant roots in nature
What is different about the phosphorus cycle as compared to the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles?
The phosphorus cycle occurs on earth, while the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles occur in the atmosphere. It also is much slower compared to the other cycles.
Name three important needs for water.
-Habitat for many species of plants, animals, and microorganisms
-Most abundant substance in living organisms or things
-Important for biochemical mechanisms: digestion, cellular respiration
How is water distributed through the biosphere?
Water is distributed in a cycle called the water (hydrologic) cycle.
What draws water back to the earth?
Precipitation and gravity draws the water back in the form of rain, sleet, and snow
What is transpiration?
When water is absorbed by the roots of a tree and used in photosynthesis, but it is lost from their leaves by evaporation.
Name two ways water travels from land to enter the ocean.
runoff and infiltration
What does runoff include?
Runoff includes chemicals, sediments, and other pollutants that water and snow picks up and flows into bodies of water
What determines which plants grow where?
Climate: temperature, precipitation, sunlight, wind
What is an aquifer?
Soil and permeable rock formations underground (rock, sand, and gravel) from which groundwater can be extracted using a water well.
How much water enters the hydrologic cycle?
Over 80% of water enters the hydrologic cycle
How much water falls back as rain?
About 52% of water falls back as rain.