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Bio 2.3 Carbon Compounds
Terms in this set (32)
four types of carbon compounds
small units that join together to form a polymer
macromolecule made of monomers linked together
-compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen usually in a 1:2:1 ratio
-used as a source of energy and structure
polymer of a carbohydrate formed by bonding several monosaccharides
-made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms
-important part of biological membranes and waterproof coverings
-macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
-store and transmit genetic information
-polymers assembled from individual monomers(nucleotides)
3 parts- phosphate group, 5 carbon sugar, and nitrogenous base
2 types of nucleic acids
-DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid
-RNA: ribonucleic acid
-macromolecules that contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
-control rates of reactions, form structures, transport substances, and help fight disease
-are polymers of molecules called amino acids
compounds with an amino group (-NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other
What is function of carbohydrates?
Living things use --this?-- as their main source of energy. Plants and animals also use --this?-- for structural purposes.
Living things store extra sugar as complex carbohydrates known as ---??
breakdown of sugars, supplies immediate energy for all cell activities
What are examples of carbohydrates?
starches & sugars...used for what?
monosaccharides include what?
glucose, galactose(milk), fructose (in many fruits)
Lipids are not??
Not soluble in water
common categories of lipids are?
When is lipid said to be saturated?
When each carbon atom in a lipids fatty acid chains is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond.
when is term saturated used?
used because the fatty acids contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms.
Many lipids are formed??
when a glycerol molecule combines with compounds called fatty acids.
If there is at least one carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid.
Lipids whose fatty acids contain more than one double bond.
What is the function of nucleic acids?
store and transmit heredity, or genetic information
ribonucleic acid (contains sugar ribose)
-deoxyribonucleic acid (contains sugar deoxyribose)
-its where the instructions for arranging amino acids into different proteins are stored.
The portion of each amino acid that is different is a side chain called...
What is function of proteins?
-control rates of reactions & regulate cell processes
-some are used to form bones & muscles
-some transport substances into or out of cells or help to fight disease
What 4 levels of organization can proteins have?
-Amino acids have a specific protein chain.
-The amino acids within a chain can be twisted or folded.
-The chain itself is folded.
-If a protein has more than one chain, each chain has a specific arrangement in space.
study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms
formed by process known as polymerization
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