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Carly Stasio ES Midterm 2017 (85 Questions)
Terms in this set (84)
Ch. 1 Geosphere
the densest parts of Earth that include the crust, mantle and core.
Ch. 1 Hydrosphere
the portion of Earth that consists of water in any of its forms, including oceans, glaciers, rivers, lakes, groundwater and water vapor
Ch. 1 Rock samples
Geologists have drilled holes drills bring up samples of rock.
Ch. 1 4 Earths layers in order
Inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
Ch. 1 Because of seismic waves we know earth is made up of
Ch. 1 Thickest layer in earth
Ch. 1 Inner core is a
Dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of the earth
Ch. 1 Conduction
The transfer of thermal energy from one particle of matter to another
Ch. 1 Convection currents
The movement of a fluid, caused by differences in temperature, that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another
Ch. 1 radiation
The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
Ch. 1 Relief
The difference in elevation between the highest and lowest parts of an area
Ch. 1 Elevation
Height above sea level
Ch. 1 Scale
Used to relate distance on a map or globe to distance on a map or globe to distance on earth's surface.
Ch. 1 Degree
A unit used to measure distance around a circle. One degree equals 1/360 of a circle.
Ch. 1 Plateau
A large landform that has high elevation and a more or less level surface.
Ch. 1 Longitude
The distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian
Ch. 1 Landforms
A feature of topography formed by the processes that shape Earth's surface.
Ch. 1 0° latitude and 0° longitude
Where the prime meridian and equator intersect
Ch. 1 Key concept pg 37
Map makers use contour lines to show elevation, relief, and slope on topographic maps
Ch. 2 Diamond
Extremely hard, can scratch all known common minerals
Ch. 2 Coarse grained
Rocks with grains that are large and easy to see
Ch. 2 Deposition
Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
Ch. 2 Metamorphic rock
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
Ch. 2 Streak
The color of a minerals powder.
Ch. 2 Fracture
The way a mineral looks when it breaks apart in an irregular way.
Ch. 2 Luster
The way a mineral reflects light from its surface
Ch. 2 Talc
The softest mineral, talc flakes when scratched by a fingernail
Ch. 2 Cleavage
A minerals ability to split easily along flat surfaces.
Ch. 2 Extrusive
Igneous rock formed from lava that erupted onto earths surface
Ch. 2 Compaction
The process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight.
Ch. 2 Cementation
The process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass
Ch. 2 Erosion
The process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered particles or rock soil
Ch. 2 Sediment
Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or the remains of organisms; earth materials deposited by erosion
Ch. 2 Rock cycle
A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
Ch. 3 Key concept pg 95
Wegners hypothesis was that all the continents were once joined together in a single landmass and have since drifted apart
Ch. 3 Pangaea
The name of the single landmass that began to break apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents.
Ch. 3 Fossil
The preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the pass
Ch. 3 Sonar
A system that uses reflected sound waves to locate and determine the distance to objects under water.
Ch. 3 Plate tectonics
The theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle.
Ch. 3 Transform boundary
Plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
Ch. 3 mid ocean ridges are found
In all earths oceans. Lie under thousands of meters of water.
Ch. 3 subduction
The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary
Ch. 3 Rift Valley
A deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
Ch. 3 Convergent boundary
A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
Ch. 3 Continental drift
The hypothesis that the continents slowly move across earths surface
Ch. 3 Sea floor spreading
The process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
Ch. 3 Deep ocean trench
A deep valley along the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle
Ch. 3 Sea floor spreading at the mid ocean ridge
New molten material from inside earth rises, erupts, cools, and hardens to form a solid strip of rock
Ch. 3 Earths plates move because of
Convection currents in the mantle
Ch. 3 Plates
A section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust
Ch. 4 Shearing
stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions, in a sideways movement
Ch. 4 Tension
Stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
Ch 4. Hanging wall
The block of rock that sits over the fault
Ch. 4 Footwall
Rock that lies under the fault
Ch. 4 Compression
Stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
Ch. 4 Stress
A force that acts on rock to changed its shape or volume
Ch. 4 Anticline
A fold in rock that bends upward into an arch
Ch. 4 Syncline-
A fold in rock that bends downward to for a V shape.
Ch. 4 Plateau
A large landform that has high elevation and a more or less level surface
Ch. 4 Focus
The point beneath earths surface where rock first breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
Ch. 4 P Waves
A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground
Ch. 4 S Waves
A type of seismic wave in which the shaking is perpendicular to the direction of the wave
Ch. 4 Surface Waves
A type of seismic wave
that forms when P Waves and S Waves reach earths surface.
Ch. 4 Moment magnitude scale
A scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake
Ch. 4 Mercalli scale
A scale that rates the amount of shaking from an earthquake
Ch. 4 Strike slip fault
A type of fault in which rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up or down movement
Ch. 4 Seismograph
A device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through earth
Ch. 5 magma
The molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle.
Ch. 5 Location of Volcanoes
Along belts and boundaries of Earths plates. Ring of Fire is a major belt. Includes many volcanoes that rim Pacific Ocean. Hot spots.
Ch. 5 1st key concept pg 158
When a volcano erupts, the force of the expanding gases pushes magma from the magma chamber through the pipe until it flows or explodes out of the vent
Ch. 5 Small earthquakes near volcanoes means
Its about to erupt
Ch. 5 Composite volcanoes
A tall, cone-shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other volcanic materials
Ch. 5 Caldera
A large hole at the top of a volcano formed when the roof of a volcanos magma chamber collapses
Ch. 5 Volcanic neck
A deposit of hardened magma in a volcanos pipe
Ch. 5 Cinder cone volcano
A steep, cone shaped hill or small mountain made of volcanic ash, cinders, and bombs piled up around a volcanos opening
Ch. 5 Batholith
A mass of rock formed when a large body of magma cools inside the crust
Ch. 5 Dome mountain
Form when uplift pushes large body of hardened magma toward surface. Hardened magma forces layers of rock to bend upward into dome shape. Rock above eventually wears, leaving it exposed, result=dome mountain
Ch. 5 Island arc
A string of volcanoes that form as the result of subduction of one oceanic plate beneath a second oceanic plate
Ch. 5 Ring of fire
Major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
Ch. 5 Crater
A bowl-shaped area that forms around a volcanos central opening
Ch. 5 Pyroclastic flow happens during
Explosive volcano eruptions.
Ch. 5 Active volcano
Volcano that is erupting or has shown signs that it may erupt in the near future
Ch. 5 lava plateau
The result of thick runny lava flooding and traveling far before cooling and solidifying. After millions of years, repeated floods of lava form high, level plateaus
Ch. 5 Dike
A slab of volcanic rock formed when magma forces itself across rock layers .
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