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Plasma is

the liquid portion of blood including clotting factors

Most oxygen carried in the blood is

chemically combined with a heme group


its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation, its accumulation in the blood is associated with a drop in pH, CO2 venous is greater than CO2 arterial

Most CO2 is transported in the blood in the form of

bicarbonate ion

O2 transport in the blood

50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate a higher activity level than normal

Partial Pressure

each gas in a mixture exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present, the pressure a specific gas exerts

Total Pressure

a mixture is the sum of all the partial pressures that make it up

Atmospheric Air

a mixture of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water

21% of gas in the atmosphere is


21% x 760 mm Hg =

p O2 (160 mm Hg)

How does gas diffuse

from areas of high partial pressure to areas of lower partial pressure

Gas acts

independently of other gases in the mixture

Gas dissolve in


Ability to stay in solution is dependent on

partial pressure, solubility coefficient

Solubility coefficient of CO2

high (0.57)

The chief extracellular anion is


The chief intracellular anion is


As dehydration increases, the release of ADH from the posterior pituitary will


The plasma protein concentration of a patient with untreated glomerulonephritis would be expected to be

less than normal

What is a function of atrial natriuretic peptide

it acts to increase blood pressure

Parathyroid hormone acts to

increase plasma calcium levels

7.0 is the normal pH of the

fluid within a typical cell

The addition of a strong acid to the extracellular fluid would result in the increased formation of


Which of the following depends on the presence of electrolytes

membrane polarity, neuromuscular excitability and maintenance of osmotic relations between cells and ECF

Plasma is considered to be


Solubility coefficient of o2 is

low 0.024

Solubility coefficient of N2 is

very low 0.012

The higher the partial pressure and the higher the solubility coefficient the more

the gas will have a tendency to stay in solution

Soft drinks are bottled

under pressure

CO2 remains dissolved

as long as the container is unopened

The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ___ buffer system


In an attempt to compensate for plasma acidosis

breathing rate and depth will increase

The pH of blood varies directly with


If plasma (aldosterone) increases, Na+ excretion will


If lactic acid is injected iv, then plasma bicarbonate ion level will immediately


Very little atmospheric N2 dissolves in

blood plasma

N2 has low

solubility coefficient

A scuba diver breathes air under


In scuba diving the sum of partial pressures increases as total pressures


PN2 of compressed air is higher than

pN2 in the atmosphere

Increased plasma N2 levels brings on

giddiness, similar to alcohol intoxication (nitrogen narcosis)

Diver returning to the surface slowly allows

dissolved N2 to be eliminated through the lungs

A too rapid ascent

brings N2 out of solution quicker than the lungs can eliminate it


forms gas bubbles in the body tissues

Use of helium-oxygen mixtures instead of air containing N2

reduces dangers of decompression sickness

Carbon dioxide and oxygen for binding sites with the hemoglobin


Oxygen dissociates faster from hemoglobing during exercise


At high altitudes it is difficult to breathe because the air has a lower percentage of oxygen


The PO2 in the pulmonary veins is less than the PO2 in the alveolar air


If the alveolar partial pressure of carbon dioxide were 45 mmHg, carbon dioxide would not readily diffuse into the air


Helium is 40% less soluble than


Hyperbaric Oxygenation

uses pressure to cause more oxygen to dissovle in the blood

Oxygen is adminstered in a chamber at a pressure of

3-4 atmostpheres

HBO is used in treatment of

anaerobic bacterial infections, heart disorders, CO poisoning, gas embolisms, crush injuries, cerebral edema, bone infections, smoke inhalations, burns, asphyxia, vascular insufficiencies and near-drowning

Water will become saturated with

dissolved molecules of the gases with which it is in contact

Then main purpose for cellular oxygen is to provide a means of producing most of the cell energy


In order to maintain homeostasis, chloride ions follow as bicarbonate moves out of the erythrocyte


Within the blood, oxygen is primarily transported ___ while the bulk of carbon dioxide is transported

as oxyhemoglobin, as bicarbonate ions

Wheter oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood or not is dependent upon the partial pressure ___

oxygen in the lungs and in the blood

The respiratory membrane, across which gases diffuse, is very thin and is made up of ___

alveolar cell membrane, capillary membrane and fused basement membranes

CO2 is about 20x more

soluble than O2 at body temperature

p O2 lowered to 100 mm Hg because

of mixture of inspired air witht he volume of old air retained in the anatomical dead space

Volume not exchanged with

inspired air

P CO2 is higher for

the same reasons

Alveolar gas composition

changes little during each respiratory cycle

The most important factor that allows the blood to carry carbon dioxide in high amounts is

carbonic anhydrase

Where is most carbon dioxide transported

as bicarbonate

Has the highest affinity for hemoglobin


Favors a release of oxygen from hemoglobin

decreased pH

At high PO2 levels, where is most oxygen located


Most of the oxygen in the blood is found in the


Which condition is characterized by inflammation and infection involving the alveoli


Where is the highest amount of carbon dioxide found

the arteries entering the lung

What is the normal PO2 of the alveolar air

104 mmHg

What is the normal PCO2 of the capillary blood

45 mm Hg

total alveolar ventilation

2 L

Each alveolar ventilation amounts to only

350 mL to be diluted by the total volume

During exhalation alveolar air

mixes with anatomical dead space air that was not altered by gas exchange

p O2 expired air

120 mm Hg

p CO2 expired air

32 mm Hg

What is the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen

160 mm Hg

Which is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere


If a person ascended a mountain where the atmospheric pressure was only 500 mmHg, what would the PO2 of the air be, assuming that the air consisted of 21% O2


List the substance that can combine with Hb

O2, CO2, H+, CO

The ___ effect refers to the increased affinity of Hb for CO2 and H+ after O2 unloading


P O2 mixed venous blood

40 mm Hg

P CO2 mixed venous blood

46 mm Hg

Driving force for O2 diffusion

p O2 alveolar air (100 mm Hg) - p O2 of pulmonary arterial blood (40 mm Hg) = 60 mm Hg

Driving force for CO2 diffusion

p CO2 of alveolar air (40 mm Hg) - p CO2 of pulmonary arterial blood (46 mm Hg) = 6 mm Hg

Does CO2 has a much higher solubility and iffusion rate and thus appropriate volumes of CO2 and O2 are exchanged across the alveolar membranes


The ___ effect refers to the reduced affinity of Hb for )2 in the presence of increased CO2 and H+


The primary factor that determines the % Hb saturation is the


The combination of Hb and CO2 is known as carboxyhemoglobin


Hemoglobin, by acting as a storage depot, plasy an important role in permitting the transfer of large quantities of O2 between the blood and surroudnign tissue down PO2 gradietns because the O2 boudn to Hb does not directly contribute tot he blood PO2


In the plateau region of the Hb-O2 curbe, a large decreases in PO2 results in a small decrease in Hb saturation, wheras in the steep portion of the blood and surroudnign tissue down PO2 gradients becasue the O2 bound to Hb does not directly contribute to the blood PO2


Blood gas partial pressures

equilibrate with partial pressures of alveolar air within 1/3 of a seconde that each drop of blood is exposed

Full equilibrium occurs

even with increased blood velocity (exercise)

Extremely short diffusion path

between alveoli and blood

Partial pressure of dissolved gas in systemi arterial blood and alveolar air

might be assumed to be equal

The body's resting O2 consumption is

250 ml per minute O2

During hyperventilation, arterial PCO2 levels decrease because CO2 is blown off more rapidly than it is being produced in the tissue


Carbonic anhydrase is found only in the plasma


At the systematic capillaries, the PO2 is in the range of teh steep portion of the O2 -Hb curve


O2 is much more soluble in blood than CO2 is


The most important factor that determiens the extent to which hemoglobin is satruated with oxygen is the blood PO2


Normal cardiac output

5 L/ min

99% of O2 is carried by



is an oxygen binding iron based protein contained within the RBC

When oxyhemoglobin is fully saturated with oxygen it is

brilliant red

Deoxyhemoglobin has lost one or more of four oxygen molecules

dark red

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