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Miltenberger Combined Chapters 1-16 (EDPS 463-863)
Terms in this set (231)
Applied behavior analysis
a term often used interchangeably with the term behavior modification; it involves analyzing and modifying behavior
the subject matter of behavior modification; what a person says or does; involves a persons actions
the philosophy if the science of behavior. Behaviorism's core tenets are that behavior is lawful and controlled by environmental events occurring in close temporal relation to the behavior
an undesirable target behavior that a person seeks to decrease in frequency, duration, or intensity
the field of psychology concerned with analyzing and modifying human behavior (also called applied behavior analysis)
a desirable target behavior that a person seeks to increase in frequency, duration, or intensity
the environmental events (antecedents and consequences) that influence the probability of a particular behavior. The controlling variables are the antecedents and consequences that are functionally related to the behavior.
behavior that is not observable to others; also called private events
an aspect of the behavior that can be measured and modified; relevant dimensions may include frequency, duration, latency, and intensity
a dimension of behavior, specifically, the time from the onset of behavior to the offset of the behavior; duration is how long an instance of the behavior lasts
Experimental analysis of behavior
the scientific study of behavior and the types of environmental events that are functionally related to the occurrence of behavior; involves laboratory research with humans and nonhumans
a dimension of behavior, specifically, the number of times a behavior occurs in a specific time period; the number of responses (frequency) divided by time equals the rate of the behavior
a dimension of behavior, specifically the physical force or magnitude of the behavior; often measured with a recording instrument or on a rating scale
a dimension of behavior, specifically the time from some stimulus to the onset of behavior
Law of effect
a behavior that produces a favorable effect on the environment will be more likely to be repeated in the future
behavior that can be observed and recorded by a person other than the one engaging in the behavior
in behavior modification, the behavior to be modified
4 Dimensions of behavior
frequency, duration, intensity, latency
What is a functional assessment?
The process of gathering information about the antecedents (antecedent events that evoke behavior) and consequences (reinforcing consequences) that are functionally related to the occurrence of a problem behavior
What are the six functions of behavioral excesses?
(1) positive automatic reinforcement, (2) positive reinforcement: social, (3) positive reinforcement: tangible, (4) negative automatic reinforcement, (5) negative reinforcement: escape motivated social, and (6) negative reinforcement: escape motivated task
Identify and describe the three major methods for conducting a functional assessment of a problem behavior.
(1) indirect methods: behavioral interviews, questionnaires
(2) direct observation methods: ABC observations; descriptive method, checklist method, interval or real-time method
(3) experimental methods (functional analysis)
What questions could you ask in an interview to determine the antecedents and consequences of a problem behavior?
1) When and where does the problem behavior usually occur?
2) Who is present when the problem behavior occurs?
3) What activities or events precede the occurrence of the problem behavior?
4) What do other people say or do immediately before the problem behavior?
1) What happens after the problem behavior occurs?
2) What do you do when the problem behavior occurs?
3) What does the child get, get out of, or avoid after the problem behavior?
4) What changes after the problem behavior occurs?
Identify and describe three ways to conduct ABC direct observation assessments.
1) Descriptive method: describe each antecedent and consequence every time the behavior occurs
2) Checklist method: complete a checklist with columns for possible antecedents, behaviors, and consequences
3) Interval or real-time method: divide observation period into time intervals and use data sheet to record when the behavior occurs and specific events that may serve as antecedents and consequences to the behavior
What is descriptive analysis (assessment) and what is its limitation?
Use of direct and indirect functional assessment methods to describe antecedents and consequences either from memory or from direct observation of events. It does not prove that the variables are functionally related to the behavior because there is no direct manipulation of variables.
What is the outcome of descriptive functional assessment methods?
Develop hypotheses about the antecedents and consequences controlling the problem behavior
What is functional analysis?
Otherwise referred to as experimental method of conducting a functional assessment, it demonstrates a functional relationship between antecedents and consequences and problem behavior through a direct manipulation of variables
What are the steps in conducting a functional assessment?
1) start with a behavioral interview
2) develop a hypothesis about the ABCs of the problem behavior
3) conduct a direct observation assessment
4) confirm your initial hypothesis about the ABCs of the problem behavior
5) conduct further assessments if needed
6) conduct a functional analysis if needed
What is an exploratory functional analysis?
It typically includes three or four test conditions and a control condition. In each test condition an EO is presented and a possible reinforcer for the problem behavior. In a control condition, an AO is presented and possible reinforcers for the problem behavior are withheld.
What is a hypothesis-testing functional analysis?
There is one test condition and one control condition. The test condition presents the hypothesized EO, and when the problem behavior occurs, presents the hypothesized reinforcer. The control condition presents the hypothesized AO, and if the problem behavior occurs, does not provide the hypothesized reinforcer.
What is a functional intervention?
Interventions such as extinction, differential reinforcement, and antecedent manipulations that address the antecedents and consequences identified in the functional assessment (they address the function of behavior).
A complex behavior consisting of many component behaviors that occur together in a sequence
Each behavior or response in the chain produces a stimulus change that acts as an SD for the next response in the chain.
The process of analyzing a behavioral chain by breaking it down into its individual stimulus-response components
The systematic application of prompting and fading strategies to each stimulus-response component in the chain
A training procedure in which you teach one component at a time and then chain the components together, using prompting and fading to teach the behavior associated with the SD at each step of the chain. Training begins with the first component, then the second component, and so on, moving from the beginning of the chain to the end
A training procedure in which you use prompting and fading to teach the last behavior in the chain first, after which you teach the next-to-last behavior, and so on until the learner can exhibit the whole chain when presented with the first SD, without any prompts.
A technique in which you use hand-over-hand guidance to lead the learner through the task. Over trials, you gradually provide less and less assistance and shadow the learner's hand as the learner completes the task.
Total Task Presentation
A training procedure in which the complex chain is taught in a single unit, completing the total task in each learning trial using prompting. Once the learner completes the task with prompts, prompts are faded over learning trials until the learner can engage in the task without any assistance.
Written Task Analysis
A strategy to teach a behavioral chain in which the trainer presents the learner with a list of the component behaviors in their proper sequence, and the learner uses this list to perform the task correctly.
A strategy used to guide appropriate performance of a chain in which pictures of the outcome of each behavior or of someone engaging in each behavior are used to prompt the learner to engage in the behaviors in the proper sequence.
A strategy used to guide appropriate performance of a chain in which the learner watches a video of someone engaging n the chain of behaviors immediately before engaging in the same task.
A strategy to guide appropriate performance of a chain in which the learners are taught how to give themselves verbal prompts or instructions to engage in the correct sequence of behavior in the chain.
Multiple Opportunity Method
A method of assessing the the learner's ability to complete each individual component in the chain by presenting the first SD and waiting for the learner's response. If the learner does not respond correctly, you present the second SD and assess the learner's response. You continue to do this until the learner has had the opportunity to respond to every SD in the chain.
Single Opportunity Method
A method of assessing in which you present the learner with the opportunity to complete the task and record which components the learner in the correct sequence. You present only the first SD and assess the learner's responses.
What is a prompt?
A stimulus given before or during the performance of a behavior in the presence of a future SD to increase the likelihood of correct behavior at the correct time.
What is a verbal prompt?
A type of prompt in which the verbal behavior of another person results in the correct behavior of the trainee in the presence of the future SD
What is a gestural prompt?
A physical movement or gesture of another person that leads to the correct behavior in the presence of the future SD
What is a modeling prompt?
A type of prompt in which the trainer demonstrates the target behavior for the learner in the presence of the future SD
What is a physical prompt?
A type of prompt in which the trainer physically assists the learner to engage in the correct behavior at the correct time in the presence of the future SD, most often involves hand-over-hand guidance.
What is a response prompt?
A type of prompt in which the trainer engages in a behavior to induce the client to engage in the target behavior in the presence of the future SD
What is a stimulus prompt?
Some change in an antecedent stimulus or the addition or removal of an antecedent stimulus, with the goal of making a correct response more likely under natural stimulus conditions
What is an extrastimulus prompt?
A type of stimulus prompt in which a stimulus is added to help a person make a correct discrimination
What is a within-stimulus prompt?
A type of stimulus prompt in which some aspect of the SD is changed to help a person make a correct discrimination
What is transfer of stimulus control?
A process in which prompts are removed once the target behavior is occurring in the presence of the SD
What is prompt fading?
The gradual removal of prompts as the behavior continues in the presence of the SD
What is prompt delay?
A procedure in which the trainer presents the SD and then, after a specific time interval, presents the prompt if the learner does not give the correct response
What is stimulus fading?
The gradual elimination of a stimulus as the behavior continues to occur in the presence of the SD
What is shaping?
The reinforcement of successive approximations to a target behavior. Shaping is used to establish a novel topography or dimension of behavior.
What are the circumstances in which shaping is appropriate?
(1) Generating a novel behavior, (2) reinstating a previously exhibited behavior, and (3) changing some dimension of a behavior
Processes involved in Shaping
- Differential Reinforcement: selective reinforcement of a particular Response
- Extinction: Cessation of reinforcement for a previously reinforced response
What are the shaping steps?
(1) Define the target behavior,
(2) Determine if shaping is appropriae
(3) Identify the starting behavior
(4) Choose the shaping steps
(5) Choose the reinforcer to use in shaping
(6) Differentially reinforce each successive approximation
(7) Move through the shaping steps at a proper pace
What is differential reinforcement?
A procedure in which a specific desirable behavior is followed by a reinforcer but other behaviors are not. The result is an increase in the desirable behavior and extinction of the other behaviors
What does "successive approximation" refer to?
In the process of shaping, each successive approximation is a behavior that more closely resembles the target behavior. The shaping process starts with reinforcement of the first approximation, a behavior currently exhibited by the person. After the first approximation is strengthened through reinforcement, it is extinguished. A closer approximation then occurs and is reinforced. This process continues until the person exhibits the target behavior
When is shaping not the most appropriate procedure?
If the person already engages in the target behavior at least occasionally
What are more efficient acquisition strategies than shaping?
Prompting, modeling, instructions
What is backward conditioning?
A respondent-conditioning procedure in which the unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented before the conditioned stimulus (CS)
- this is the least effective type of respondent conditioning procedure
What is a conditioned emotional response?
A type of conditioned response such as fear, anger, or happiness is elicited by a conditioned stimulus in the process of respondent conditioning
What is a conditioned response in respondent conditioning?
In respondent conditioning, a ____ ____ is elicited by a conditioned stimulus
- the conditioned stimulus acquires the power to elicit the ____ ____ by its repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus or another conditioned stimulus
What is a conditioned stimulus in respondent conditioning?
A previously neutral stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
- once established in this way, the _____ _____ elicits a conditioned response similar to the unconditioned response elicited by the unconditioned stimulus
What is operant behavior?
Behavior that acts on the environment to produce an immediate consequence and, in turn, is strengthened by that consequence
What is operant conditioning?
Occurs when a behavior in a particular situation is followed by a reinforcing consequence, thus making the behavior more likely to occur in similar circumstances in the future
What is respondent behavior?
Behavior that is elicited by a prior stimulus
- An unconditioned response (UR) and a conditioned response (CR) are respondent behaviors because they are elicited by unconditioned stimuli (US) and conditioned stimuli (CS), respectively
What is respondent conditioning?
A process whereby a previously neutral stimulus elicits a response due to pairing of the neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus
- the US elicits and UR
- as a result of NS+US--> the NS becomes the CS
What is respondent extinction?
The process by which, when a conditioned stimulus (CS) is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US), the CS gradually ceases to elicit the conditioned response (CR)
What is simultaneous conditioning?
The process in which the unconditioned stimulus (US) and the conditioned stimulus (CS) are presented at the same time in respondent conditioning trials
What is spontaneous recovery with respondent behavior?
The process in which, when a conditioned response (CR) has been extinguished, the CR may occur at a later time when the conditioned stimulus (CS) is presented again
What is an unconditioned response?
The response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus (US)
What is an unconditioned stimulus?
A stimulus that naturally elicits an unconditioned response (UR) because the UR has survival value. No prior conditioning is needed for it elicit a UR
How should the timing of the NS and US be arranged to create faster conditioning?
The US should occur immediately after the onset of the NS
What are the most effective methods for respondent conditioning?
Trace and delay conditioning, because the NS is presented before the US
What are the factors that influence respondent conditioning?
(1) The nature of the US and CS, (2) the temporal relationship between the CS and US, (3) the contingency between the CS and US, (4) the number of pairings, and (5) previous exposure to the CS
What is the difference between "elicit" and "evoke" and how are they used?
Respondent behavior is elicited by an antecedent stimulus, whereas operant behavior is evoked by an antecedent stimulus or event. In respondent conditioning, a US elicits a UR as an unconditioned reflex, and a CS elicits a CR because the CS was paired with a US. In operant conditioning, SDs and MOs evoke behavior.
stimuli or events that precede an operant response; stimuli, events, situations, or circumstances that are present when it occurs or immediately before the behavior
Stimulus control is said to occur when...
there is an increased probability that the behavior will occur in the presence of a specific antecedent stimulus or a stimulus from a specific stimulus class.
A discriminative stimulus is...
the stimulus that is present when a particular behavior is reinforced (an SD)
What are the steps for stimulus discrimination training?
(1) When the SD is present, the behavior is reinforced. (2) When any other antecedent stimuli are present, the behavior is not reinforced.
a stimulus that is present when a behavior is not reinforced and which does not exert stimulus control over the behavior.
What is the three-term contingency?
The process by which the consequence (reinforcer or punisher) is contingent on the occurrence of behavior only in the presence of the specific antecedent stimulus called the SD.
Generalization takes place when...
a behavior occurs in the presence of stimuli that are similar in some ways to the SD that was present during stimulus discrimination training.
What is the antecedent stimulus that is present when a behavior is reinforced?
An SD (discriminative stimulus)
If an SD does not cause a behavior to occur, what does it do?
An SD signals that the behavior will be reinforced.
What is a stimulus that precedes the occurrence of an operant response?
An antecedent stimulus
Why does behavior continue to occur in situations in which it has been reinforced in the past and stop occurring in situations in which it has not been reinforced in the past?
Because behavior is situation specific.
Skinner (1953a) defined generalization as...
"a term which describes the fact that the control acquired by a stimulus is shared by other stimuli with common properties."
A conditioned punisher is...
a previously neutral stimulus that comes to function as a punisher as a result of being paired with other (unconditioned or conditioned) punishers
A generalized conditioned punisher is...
a punisher that has been paired with a variety of other unconditioned and conditioned punishers over the course of a person's life (e.g., the word "no").
Negative punishment is defined as...
(1) The occurrence of behavior (2) is followed by the removal of a reinforcing stimulus, (3) and as a result, the behavior is less likely to occur in the future.
Positive punishment is defined as...
(1) The occurrence of behavior (2) is followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus, (3) and as a result, the behavior is less likely to occur in the future.
What is the definition of a punisher?
a consequence that makes a particular behavior less likely to occur in the future
The factors that influence the effectiveness of punishment include...
(1) immediacy, (2) contingency, (3) motivating operations, and (4) individual differences and magnitude of the punisher.
The three parts to the definition of punishment are...
(1) A particular behavior occurs. (2) A consequence immediately follows the behavior. (3) As a result, the behavior is less likely to occur again in the future. (The behavior is weakened.)
An unconditioned punisher is...
Punishing consequences for which no prior conditioning is needed (e.g., painful and/or extreme level of stimuli that naturally weaken behavior).
What are potential problems with punishment?
(1) It may produce aggression or other emotional side effects. (2) It may result in escape or avoidance behavior by the person being punished. (3) The person using punishment may be negatively reinforced for its use. (4) Its use is modeled for those being punished, which may lead to them using punishment in the future. (5) There are concerns about its ethical use and acceptability.
A behavior that had been reinforced for period of time was no longer reinforced and therefore the behavior stops.
Increase in frequency, duration, or intensity of the behavior when reinforcement is no longer delivered. This is a natural characteristic of an extinction situation
is the natural tendency for the behavior to occur again in situations that are similar to those in which it occurred and was reinforced before extinction.
Procedural variations of extinctions include...
1) the positive reinforcer is no longer delivered after the behavior. 2) the aversive stimulus is no longer removed after the behavior.
removing the reinforcer for a behavior, not ignoring the behavior.
Factors that influence extinction include...
1) The reinforcement schedule before extinction 2) The occurrence of reinforcement after extinction
What produces resistance to extinction?
Intermittent (rather than continuous) reinforcement before extinction
Extinction occurs when
(1) A behavior that has been previously reinforced (2) no longer results in reinforcing consequences (3) and, therefore, the behavior stops occurring in the future
Three typical characteristics of an extinction burst are...
(1) an increase in behavior, (2) the appearance of novel behavior, and (3) the appearance of emotional responses
What is a common misconception about extinction?
Using extinction means simply ignoring the behavior, which works only if attention is the reinforcer.
The process in which a behavior is strengthened by a consequence that reliably follows its occurrence, resulting in an increase in behavior
The occurrence of a behavior is followed by the addition of a stimulus (a reinforcer) or an increase in the intensity of a stimulus, resulting in strengthening/an increase in behaivor
The occurrence of a behavior is followed by the removal of a stimulus (an aversive stimulus) or a decrease in the intensity of a stimulus, which results in the strengthening of the behavior
A type of positive reinforcement involving the opportunity to engage in a high-probability behavior (a preferred behavior) as a consequence for a low-probability behavior, to increase the low-probability behavior
The occurrence of the behavior results in the termination of an aversive stimulus that was already present when the behavior occured
The occurrence of the behaviour prevents an aversive stimulus from occuring
Natural reinforcers that function as reinforcers the first time they are presented (e.g., food, water, sexual stimulation) and require no prior conditioning
Also called a secondary reinforcer, a stimulus which was once neutral, but became established as a reinforcer by being paired with a natural positive reinforcer
generalized conditioned reinfocer
a conditioned reinforcer that is paired with a wide variety of other reinforcers (e.g., money, tokens, points)
The time between the occurence of a behavior and the reinforcing consequence
When a response is consistently followed by an immediate consequence, a contingency develops
Events occurring before behavior that can make a particular consequence more or less reinforceing at some times than at others, temporarily altering the value of the reinforcer (e.g., hunger, thirst, fatigue)
a type of motivating operation that makes a reinforcer more potent
a type of motivating operation that makes a reinforcer less potent
a type of establishing operation that increases the effectiveness of most unconditined reinfocers, and some conditioned reinforcers
A type of abolishing operaton which occurs when a person has recently consumed a large amount of a particular reinforcer, temporarily decreasing the potency of the reinforcer
The likelihood of a consequence being a reinforcer varies from person to person.
The amount of reinforcement influences the effectiveness of reinforcement
schedules of reinforcement
Schedules of reinforcement specify whether every response is followed by a reinforcer or whether only some responses are followed by a reinforcer
A reinforcement schedule in which each occurrence of the response is reinforced
A reinforcement schedule in which not every occurrence of the response is reinforced
Which type of schedule is used during acquisition?
Which type of schedule is used during maintenance?
fixed ratio schedule
A specific number of responses must occur before the reinforcer is delivered.
variable ratio schedule
The number of responses required for reinforcement varies each time around an average.
fixed interval schedule
Reinforcement for a response occurs only after a fixed interval of time has passed
variable interval schedule
Reinforcement for a response occurs only after a variable interval (established as an average) of time has passed
concurrent schedules of reinforcement
For each of the possible behaviors a person could engage in at a particular time, there is a specific schedule of reinforcement in effect
the different behaviors or response options that are concurrently available at a given point in time
Why are graphs used in behavior modification to evaluate behavior change?
To (1) document changes in behavior; (2) compare levels of behavior before, during, and after treatment; and (3) make decisions about the continued use of the treatment.
They are quick and easy to interpret,
more conservative, and leave judgment of effectiveness to the viewer
What two variables are illustrated in a behavior modification graph?
Time and behavior
What is the y-axis? What is labeled on the y-axis?
ordinate; vertical axis
level of behavior
What is the x-axis? What is label on the x-axis?
abscissa; horizontal axis
What is a phase?
a period in which the same treatment (or no treatment) is in effect; a single condition (baseline or treatment) is in effect
Why are data points not connected across phase lines?
This allows you to see differences in the level of the behavior in different phases more easily
What are the six essential components of a graph?
1) x-axis and y-axis
2) labels for x-axis and y-axis
3) numbers on the x-axis and y-axis
4) data points
5) phase lines
6) phase labels
What will you label the y-axis of a graph based on interval recording?
Percentage of Intervals of (Behavior)
What is an A-B design? What do A and B refer to?
A case-study design; the simpest design with just two phases
A = baseline
B = treatment
**does not demonstrate a functional relationship because treatment is not replicated; does not rule out the possibility that an extraneous variable was responsible for the behavior change
What is an A-B-A-B design?
an extension of the A-B design; baseline and treatment phases are implemented twice
What is a multiple-baseline-across-subjects design?
There is a baseline and a treatment phase for the same target behavior of two or more subjects
What is a multiple-baseline-across-behaviors design?
There is a baseline and treatment phase for two or more behaviors of the same subject
What is a multiple-baseline-across-settings design
There is a baseline and a treatment phase for two or more settings in which the same behavior of the same subject is measured
What is an extraneous variable? How does an A-B-A-B design help you rule out extraneous variables as the cause of the behavior change?
an extraneous variable is some outside event that could potentially cause a change in the behavior;
in an A-B-A-B design, the fact that the behavior changed three times, and only when the phase changed, is evidence that the change in demands, rather than some extraneous variable, caused the behavior change
What does it mean to say that treatment is staggered in a multiple-baseline design?
when treatment for different subjects is implemented at different times; in multiple-baseline-across subjects, the baselines for each subject are of different lengths due to different starting times for the treatment
What is an alternating-treatments design (ATD)?
A multi-element design;
the baseline and treatment conditions (or two treatment conditions) are conducted in rapid succession and compared with each other; the conditions occur during alternating days or sessions, and can therefore be compared within the same time period
How do you judge the effectiveness of treatment in an ATD?
"we would say there is a separation in the data when the data are consistently higher in one condition than the other" The data series are clearly discriminable from one another. In other words, there is separation of data between conditions.
Describe the changing-criterion design.
a baseline phase is followed by a treatment phase in which performance criteria are specified and changed sequentially in the desired direction.
Successive goal levels for the target behavior specify how much the target behavior should change during treatment.
How do you determine that treatment is effective in a changing-criterion design?
whether the subject's behavior changes to meet the changing performance criteria
is a research design that consists of a baseline and a treatment that are replicated by withdrawing the treatment and then implementing it again. It establishes a functional relationship
alternating-treatments- design or ATD
is a design in which the baseline and treatment conditions are conducted in rapid succession and compared with each other
is the label on a graph most often given to the control/no-treatment phase
is a design that has a baseline phase and treatment phase for one subject. In the treatment phase, there are progressive performance criteria or increasing goal levels of the behavior
What is a functional relationship?
A relationship that shows that a behavior modification procedure causes a target behavior to change. It is established if a target behavior changes when an independent variable is manipulated while all other variable are held constant and the process is replicated or repeated one or more times and the behavior changes each time
is a visual representation of the occurrence of a behavior over time
An observation setting that is not part of the client's normal daily routine. Typically involves a setting such as a separate room where all stimuli and activities are controlled by the experimenter
The condition or phase in which no treatment is implemented
Measurement of the target behavior in behavior modification. May also refer to measurement of antecedents and consequences of the target behavior
A type of recording procedure in which some aspect of the behavior is recorded each time the behavior occurs. Frequency, duration, latency, or intensity can be recorded in a continuous recording procedure
Behavioral assessment involving direct observation and recording of the behavior as it occurs. Direct assessment may also refer to direct observation and recording of the antecedents and consequences of the behavior
A dimension of behavior, specifically the time from the onset of the behavior to the offset of the behavior. Duration is how long an instance of the behavior lasts
A dimension of behavior-specifically, the number of times a behavior occurs in a specific time period. The number of responses (frequency) divided by the time equals the rate of the behavior
A recording method in which the number of times the target behavior occur (frequency) is recorded within consecutive intervals of time during the observation period
Assessment that relies on information from others. The information on the problem behavior, antecedents, and consequences is not derived from direct observation but from retrospective report in interviews and questionnaires
A dimension of behavior, specifically the physical force or magnitude of the behavior. Often measured with a recording instrument or on a rating scale
Interobserver agreement or interobserver reliability
Occurs when two observers independently observe and record a person's behavior at the same time and agree on the occurrence of the behavior
A type of behavior recording procedure in which the observation period is divided into a number of consecutive time intervals and the behavior is recorded as occurring or not occurring in each of the intervals
A dimension of behavior, specifically the time from some stimulus to the onset of the behavior
Momentary time sampling
The observation interval is broken into time segments and behavior is recorded only if it occurs at the exact instant the interval ends
An observation setting that is part of the client's normal daily routine. The target behavior typically occurs in the natural setting
The time period in which an observer observes and records the behavior of a client participating in a behavior modification program
The observer scores the interval if the behavior occured during any part of the interval
Why is it important to record the behavior you are trying to change when using behavior modification?
To find out if treatment is necessary, what kind of treatment is best, and if the behavior changed after the treatment was implemented
Identify the four steps involved in a behavior recording plan
Defining the target behavior, determining the logistics of recording, choosing a recording method, and choosing a recording instrument
What is a behavioral definition and how does it differ from a label for a behavior?
To define the target behavior for a particular person, you must identify exactly what the person says or does that constitutes the behavioral excess or deficit targeted for change. It includes active verbs describing specific behaviors that a person exhibits. It is objective and unambiguous unlike labels which are ambiguous and abstract. It does not describe the internal state of a person.
Identify the four dimensions of a behavior that may be recorded in a continuous recording method
Frequency or rate, intensity, duration, and latency
What is product recording?
It is an indirect assessment method that can be used when a behavior results in a certain tangible outcome that your are interested in, like work products, miles traveled, etc.
What is reactivity? Describe two ways to reduce reactivity during direct observation.
Reactivity is when someone is changing their behavior because he or she knows someone is watching.
The first one is to allow enough time for the person to get used to the observer; so, that the target behavior will eventually resurface. The second one is to observe the person without his or her knowledge.
What is interobserver agreement and why is it assessed?
Interobserver agreement is when two people independently observe and record the same target behavior of the same subject during the same observation period. The results are compared. When the percentage of agreement is high, it indicates that there is consistency in the scoring by the two observers. This suggests that the definition of the target behavior is clear and objective and that the observers are using the recording system correctly.
A basic principle of behavior in which eliminating the reinforcing consequence for a behavior results in a decrease in the frequency of the behavior
Why must you conduct a functional assessment before using extinction to decrease a problem behavior?
Because you must identify the specific reinforcer for the problem behavior so you can eliminate it in an extinction procedure
Why is it important to collect data on the problem behavior when implementing an extinction procedure?
To determine whether the behavior decreased when extinction was implemented
Before using an extinction procedure, you must ask whether the reinforcer can be eliminated. Why is this important?
If the change agent has no control over the reinforcer, extinction cannot be applied. It
can only be implemented if the change agent can prevent the reinforcing consequence each time the problem behavior occurs.
Before using an extinction procedure, you must ask whether extinction is safe to use. Why is this important?
Extinction could result in harm to the person to other people in the immediate environment (e.g., attacking people, aggressive behavior, running into the street). Extinction may be particularly unsafe when a problem behavior is negatively reinforced because it often requires that you prevent escape when the problem behavior occurs and this requires physical guidance.
What is an extinction burst and how should it influence your decision about whether to implement extinction in a particular case?
The behavior increases in frequency, duration, or intensity, or novel behaviors or emotional responses occur following the implementation of an extinction procedure. You must be certain that the change agents can tolerate the escalation in the behavior
What happens if the change agents cannot maintain consistency in using the extinction procedure?
if not consistent, and the problem behavior is reinforced even occasionally, the procedure amounts to intermittent reinforcement for the behavior rather than extinction, and will make the problem worse.
Why is it important to use a reinforcement procedure in conjunction with extinction?
The extinction procedure decreases the frequency of the problem behavior, and the reinforcement procedure increases an alternative behavior to replace the problem behavior, which makes it less likely that the problem behavior will occur again after extinction (spontaneous reinforcement).
How is the schedule of reinforcement before extinction related to the effectiveness of extinction?
With continuous reinforcement, extinction is more rapid. With intermittent reinforcement, problem behavior decreases more gradually during extinction.
What is sensory reinforcement? What is another name for sensory reinforcement? Provide an example of a behavior maintained by sensory reinforcement.
The reinforcer for the behavior is not socially mediated and involves the sensory stimulation produced by the behavior itself (automatic positive reinforcement). For example, repetitive behaviors such as plate spinning.
What is sensory extinction?
It involves changing or eliminating the sensory stimulation that reinforces the behavior.
Describe how you would promote the generalization and maintenance of the behavior change produced through an extinction procedure.
To promote generalization, extinction must be implemented consistently by all change agents and must be implemented in all circumstances in which behavior change is expected.
To promote maintenance, it is important to implement the extinction procedure after the initial suppression of the behavior whenever the problem behavior occurs again.
It is also important to deliver consistent reinforcement of alternative behavior that is functionally equivalent to the problem behavior.
Define differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA).
A behavioral procedure used to increase the frequency of a desirable behavior and to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors by combining reinforcement for a desirable behavior and extinction of undesirable behavior.
What two behavioral principles are involved in differential reinforcement?
reinforcement for a desirable behavior and extinction of undesirable behaviors
When is it appropriate appropriate to use DRA?
When you want to increase the rate of a desirable behavior and the desirable behavior is already occurring at least occasionally. You must have access to a reinforcer that can be delivered after the occurrence of the behavior.
Describe four ways to identify reinforcers for a person.
1) use the reinforcer currently maintaining undesirable behavior
2) observe the person and note which activities or interests he or she pursues
3) ask the client, parents, and/or teachers, or use reinforcer questionnaires
4) do a preference assessment
When using DRA, at what point do you use a continuous reinforcement schedule?
immediately in the early stages of DRA
When using DRA, at what point do you use an intermittent reinforcement schedule?
once the desirable behaviors are occurring consistently and the undesirable behaviors occur rarely
use an intermittent reinforcement schedule to maintain target behavior and to make it more resistant to extinction
What is the Premack principle?
using a high probability behavior to reinforce a low probability behavior
What is generalization? How do you program for generalization when using DRA?
The target behavior should occur outside the training situation in all relevant stimulus situations.
Differentially reinforce the target behavior in as many relevant situations as possible and by as many relevant people as possible
How does DRO differ from DRA?
DRO: reinforce for the absence of the problem behavior; used when you want to eliminate a problem behavior
DRA: reinforce an alternative desirable behavior; used when you want to increase the frequency of an existing desirable behavior
What does DRO stand for? Describe the implementation of the DRO procedure.
differential reinforcement of other behavior; the reinforcer is contingent on the absence of problem behavior
if the reinforcer is delivered only after periods in which the problem behavior is absent, the problem behavior decreases through extinction and time periods without the problem behavior should increase
1) identify the reinforcer for the problem behavior
2) identify the reinforcer to use in the DRO procedure
3) choose the initial DRO time interval
4) eliminate the reinforcer for the problem behavior and deliver the reinforcer for the absence of the problem behavior
5) reset the interval if the problem behavior occurs
6) gradually increase the interval length
Why is it important to use extinction for the problem behavior when implementing DRO?
Extinction is used when the problem behavior occurs. Reinforcing the absence of the problem behavior would not be effective if instances of the problem behavior continued to be reinforced.
How do you establish the length of the interval for reinforcement in the DRO procedure?
The length of the interval should be tied to the baseline rate of the problem behavior: if the problem behavior occurs frequently, the DRO interval will be short; if the problem behavior occurs infrequently, the DRO interval will be longer. As the frequency of the problem behavior decreases, the DRO intervals can be lengthened gradually
When implementing DRO, what do you do if the problem behavior occurs before the end of the interval for reinforcement?
Reset the interval
How is a whole-interval DRO procedure different from a momentary DRO procedure? Which one is preferable?
With whole-interval, the behavior must be absent throughout the entire interval to receive reinforcement. With momentary, behavior must be absent when the interval ends to receive reinforcement. Whole-interval DRO is typically more effective; momentary DRO can be used for maintenance after first using whole-interval DRO to decrease problem behavior.
What is DRL? What are the two types of DRL procedures?
Differential reinforcement of low rates of responding. A reinforcer is delivered contingent on a lower rate of responding during a period of time. It is used when a low rate of the problem behavior can be tolerated or when the behavior is a problem only because of its high rate.
Th two types are full-session DRL and spaced-responding DRL.
How is full-session DRL implemented?
Reinforcement is delivered if fewer than a specified number of responses occur in a period of time.
How is spaced-responding DRL implemented?
Reinforcement is not delivered until a specified amount of time between responses occurs.
How does the purpose of DRO differ from that of spaced-responding DRL?
DRO is used when you want to eliminate a problem behavior. DRL is used when you want to decrease the rate of a behavior that occurs too frequently.
How does the implementation of DRO differ from the implementation of spaced-responding DRL?
With DRO, the reinforcer is deliverd for the absence of the behavior after an interval of time has passed. With DRL, the reinforcer is delivered for the occurrence of the behavior after an interval of time has passed since the last instance of the behavior.
When implementing the spaced-responding DRL procedure, what do you do if the behavior occurs before the end of the interval?
The behavior is not reinforced and the interval is reset.
In general terms, what are antecedent control procedures?
Manipulating some aspect of the physical or social environment prior to behavior to make a desired behavior more likely or to make a competing, undesirable behavior less likely. Efforts are made to evoke desired behaviors and prevent undesirable behaviors.
How is the occurrence of undesirable competing behaviors related to the occurrence of a desirable behavior?
Competing behaviors are concurrent operants reinforced on concurrent schedules of reinforcement. One way to make a desirable behavior more likely to occur is to make undesirable behaviors less likely to occur.
What is the goal of antecedent control procedures with regard to the occurrence of undesirable competing behaviors?
To decrease the likelihood that undesirable competing behaviors will occur
What are the three antecedent control strategies that can be used to evoke a desirable behavior?
1) presenting the SD or supplemental stimuli that have stimulus control over the desired behavior
2) arranging an establishing operation such that the consequence of the desirable behavior is more reinforcing
3) decreasing the response effort for the desirable behavior
What are the three antecedent control strategies that can be used to decrease the likelihood of undesirable competing behaviors?
1) removing the SD or cues for the competing behaviors
2) presenting an abolishing operation for the outcome of the competing behaviors
3) increasing the response effort for the competing behaviors
Why is it important to use differential reinforcement in conjunction with antecedent control procedures when you want to increase a desirable behavior?
To strengthen the desirable behavior once it occurs. Antecedent manipulations done without effective consequences will not lead to lasting behavior change.
What does it mean to say that an intervention is functional?
It decreases problem behaviors and increases desirable behaviors by modifying the antecedent and consequence variables that control the behaviors
Besides antecedent manipulations, what are two other functional interventions for problem behaviors?
Extinction and differential reinforcement
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