Intro to Physiology
What is Physiology
How the body functions in normal homeostatic processes.
(Explains the specific characteristics and
mechanisms of the human body that make
it a living being.)
What is a cell?
The basic living unit of the body.
What are extra/intrcellular fluid?
The two fluid compartments that our body are made up of.
How much of our body is made up of extracellular (outside the cell) fluid?
20% of our body
60% of adult human body is fluid
1/3 of this 60% is extracellular fluid
What ions make up extracellular fluid?
Large amounts of Na, Cl, HCO3, oxygen, glucose, fatty acids, amino acids.
Why are ions important in regards to cell?
Ions are the nutrient needed for cell life.
Where is Na found?
Where is K found?
Why is the Na/K pump important?
Na/K pump helps drive energy production in the cell. The ATP energy that is released/produced from the Na/K pump. That energy is then used to drive other reactions.
How much of the bodies fluids is intracellular? (The body is 60% fluid)
2/3 of the 60% or 40%
What is Intracellular Fluid made of?
Potassium, magnesium, phosphate
What happens when there is swelling in the body? (due to kidney failure, liver failure...)
Fluids usually shift from an intercellular to an extracellular location. (that's why the numbers of ions in the cells are important)
What's happening when the body temp gets to high?
The bodies homeostasis is getting out of balance.
What could the body do to try and maintain homeostasis when its temperature gets too high?
Sweat, shunt blood to give off heat.
What could the body do to try and maintain homeostasis when its temperature gets too low?
Shiver, Shunt blood to the core.
Where do the extracellular fluids originate from?
What are the 3 major causes of edema (fluid in the body)?
Liver Failure, Heart Failure, Kidney Failure. (these organs aren't working properly)
What's happening when you see edema?
Fluid is shifting from intracellular to extracellular third space. Or fluid is being produced.
What also becomes distorted when fluid shifts?
Electrolytes and ions
How is metabolic waste removed?
Lungs and kidneys
How do the lungs remove metabolic waste?
By breathing our CO2.
How do kidneys remove metabolic waste?
Through the GI tract?? and Colon??
How are most medications removed in the body?
Kidneys. (Then liver, then lungs.)
Name three functions that regulate body functions?
Nervous system, endocrine system and reproductive.
Name three control systems of the body?
->Regulation of arterial blood pressure with
->Regulation of oxygen and carbon dioxide
concentration in ECF with CO2 level
->All electrolytes have a normal range in the
Name three characteristics of the control system?
Negative feedback, Positive feedback, Adaptive control.
How are most hormones controlled?
Via negative feedback.
What is negative feedback a big player in?
Endocrine system, hormone production and hormone control.
Why does the body use negative feedback?
The body is trying to conserve what it has. Negative feedback tells the body how much hormone it needs to maintain homeostasis.
How is positive feedback commonly used?
Name the eleven organ systems.
Blood, Special Senses (?), Endocrine, Lymphatic/Immune, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Genitourinary, Pulmonary, Musculoskeletal, Nervous, Skin
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