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Politics of the United States
Political Science 300 Court Cases
Terms in this set (62)
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee (1816)
This ruling affirmed the Supreme Court's ability to review decisions made by state supreme courts when a federal issue is involved.
Luther v. Borden (1849)
The Court's decision in this case established the Political Questions Doctrine
Chisholm v. Georgia (1793)
This decision held that states could not claim sovereign immunity from lawsuits filed in federal court by citizens of other states.
*The decision in this case was quickly reversed by the 11th Amendment.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Decision established the Supreme Court has the power of horizontal judicial review
Cooley v. Board of Wardens of the Port of Philadelphia (1852)
the court's decision in this case allowed states to adopt regulations of interstate commerce if the law in question was entirely of local nature.
Pilotage is commerce, but it is local in nature.
(the law in this case required the use of local pilots for ships entering ports)
Frothingham v. Melon (1923)
The Courts decision in this case limits the ability of taxpayers to bring suit against the government when they disagree with how their tax money is being spent
United States v. EC Knight Co (1895)
Court held that manufacturing is of local nature and cannot be regulated by Congress under commerce powers.
Prize Cases (1863)
Central question in these cases was whether Congress needed to declare a state of war before a president could take actions in response to an attack.
They ruled he does have the right to respond to attacks.
Calder v. Bull (1789)
In the opinions for this case, the justices debated the standards for exercising judicial review, but did not actually strike down the state law at hand.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
The supreme court held here that congress has implied powers not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution.
The central questions in this case were tied to Congress' ability to incorporate a national bank and Maryland;s ability to tax that bank.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
In this decision, the Court ruled that interstate commerce is more than just the trafficking of goods from one state to another, it is intercourse.
Marshall directs the Commerce Clause in this case. (word "among")
Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1849)
In this decision, the majority of the Court ruled that the federal government has exclusive authority over fugitive slaves.
Ex Parte Merryman (1861)
President Lincoln ignored this decision by the Supreme Court.
Mississippi v. Johnson (1867)
The courts opinion in this case made a distinction between the president's ministerial and executive duties, and ruled the latter were beyond the court's jurisdiction.
Legal Tender Cases (1871)
This decision in these cases overturned Hepburn v. Griswold, which was decided the previous year.
Congress has wide discretion and Legal Tender is necessary for the preservation of the Gov.
The Slaughter House Cases (1873)
the ruling in this collection of cases established a very narrow interpretation of the 14th Amendments Privileges and Immunities Clause.
The 14th Amendment doesn't apply to individuals, just the states.
The Civil Rights Cases (1883)
The ruling in this collection of cases established the State Action Doctrine
They were ruled unconstitutional because they were not necessary to carry out the 13th and 14th amendments (overturned Civil Rights Act of 1865)
Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Co. (1894)
Direct/indirect taxes- Congress can only impose direct taxes by representation.
this ruling was overturned by the 16th Amendment, giving the the right to direct taxes.
Champion v. Ames (1903)
In this case, the court ruled that the power to regulate interstate commerce includes the power to prohibit items from interstate trafficking.
Meyers v. United States (1926)
Here, the court ruled the president has the power to fire executive officers without congressional approval.
Because of the Vesting Clause- is a Constructionist approach.
Wilson v. Blackbird Creek Marsh Co. (1829)
DCC case that ruled states can regulate interstate commerce as long as it doesn't conflict with a current federal law
Texas v. White (1869)
Reconstructed Texas is a state, always has been, but the actions taken when they were succeeded are void because they were acting in rebellion against the Union.
Hepburn v. Griswold (1870)
Legal Tender Act struck down because it was ruled that it was not
to Congress' power to conduct war. Revives McCulloch.
Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918)
this case cited EC Knight Co. stating that congress could not ban goods made by Child Labor because it is manufacturing.
Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
The court ruled that Treaties made within Indian Territories are valid.
This decision was ignored by Georgia and not enforced by Jackson.
City of NY v. Miln (1837)
Court ruled that NY was acting within their police powers because it dealt with the health and safety of their citizens and there was no Supremacy Clause conflict.
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
This decision went further than it needed to, for political gain.
Ruled that slaves are not citizens who could bring suit and the the Federal Government does not have the power to prohibit slavery in the states.
Ex Parte McCardle (1868)
Congress repeals part of Habeas Corpus Act to not let the Supreme Court have jurisdiction in this case.
Wabash v. Illinois (1886)
Court ruled that railroad rate regulation is of national character.
uses the DCC for the first time.
J.W. Hampton v. US (1928)
The Court rejects the Non-delegation Doctrine stating that the Tariff Act is constitutional because Congress can delegate their powers to the president if they want to.
United States v. Curtiss-Wright Export Co (1936)
Case established the sole organ doctrine and allows the president broad executive powers in issues of foreign policy.
Wicked v. Filburn (1942)
Court held that the private consumption of a commercial good may be subject to regulation under Congress' Commerce Powers because it has a
substantial economic effect
on interstate commerce.
Baker v. Carr (1962)
Ruled the court held that legislative redistricting is a judicial issue because of the Equal Protection Clause because it deals with the federal judiciary's relationship to the states.
United States v. Nixon (1974)
in this case, the Court acknowledges the existence of Executive Privilege while noting that the privilege is not absolute (like in criminal trials)
U.S. v. Carolene Products (1938)
The court ruled in this case that Congress was justified in implementing the Filled Milk Act, banning it from interstate commerce because they had a
Rational Basis Test
developed here referring that the court should defer to the Legislative findings regarding a law's constitutionality.
Justice Stone's Footnote 4 important
Justice Stone's Footnote 4 from Carolene Products
this footnote suggests that the court may exercise a higher level of scruinty when legislation "restricts... the political process" or is "prejudice against discrete and insular minorities"
Cooper v. Aaron (1958)
Question: do state officials have to follow federal court orders mandating desegregation?
Court ruled that they do because
1. state (even representative) can't violate 14th amendment
2. the supremacy clause
3. Marbury v. Madison says its up to the courts to determine what the law says, not governors.
Flast v. Cohen (1968)
taxpayer suits, again.
Taxpayers do have standing to bring suit when where the tax money goes directly affects you.
Ruled that Frothingham was too broad and there isn't an absolute bar to this.
Created criteria for taxpayer suits.
only ruled on whether plaintiff had legal standing
Schecter Poultry Corp. v. US (1935)
Court ruled that if the effects of a business on interstate commerce is
Congress cannot regulate it.
Congress exceeded its commerce powers and power to delegate.
NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Co. (1937)
the Court upheld the National Labor Relations Act stating that it had a
close and substantial relationship with interstate commerce
(first time using this idea)
Did NOT overturn Schecter.
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. US (1964)
Court ruled that the commerce clause gives congress the power to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
South Carolina v. Katzenbach (1966)
The court ruled 9-0 that the 15th amendment gave Congress the authority to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Humphrey's Executor v. US (1935)
appointment and removal powers
the FTC is an independent regulatory agency (bipartisan) and the court ruled that it is not a purely executive function to remove these officers.
Used the sole organ doctrine to say that it is not executive only.
Did NOT overrule Meyers.
Youngstown Sheet & Tub Co. v. Sawyer (1952)
the court ruled that the constitution does not authorize the president to seize steel mills from striking union workers during times of war.
Jackson's Concurrence developed the 3 categories for boundaries of power of the President.
National League of Cities v. Usery (1975)
Court ruled that the 10th Amendment prohibits Congress from regulating the labor market for state/local employees with the amendment to FLSA.
This overturned Maryland v. Writz (1968)
develops first, what the traditional functions of government is
Garcia v. SAMTA (1985)
this case overturned National League of Cities (1975)
5-4 the Court rules that congress' FLSA does apply to SAMTA.
Blackmun laid out what was protected under NL of Cities and what wasn't.
INS v. Chadha (1983)
The court ruled that the legislative veto in this case does violate the Constitution's principle of Separation of Powers.
the decision was broad enough to strike down all forms of the legislative veto.
Bowsher v. Synar (1986)
budget decisions case
The court ruled that Congress unconstitutionally usurped executive power by delegating the authority of budget cut decisions to the Comptroller General.
The Comptroller General is a legislative agent and can't be entrusted with executive power.
Morrison v. Olson (1988)
The supreme court ruled that the Ethics in Government Act* is constitutional by looking at the appointments clause.
*Act created an independent Counsel to investigate possible corruption.
Massachusetts v. EPA (2007)
the court ruled that MA did have the standing to sue the EPA.
Used Article 3 of Const. to set up guidelines for states bringing suit.
Hollingsworth v. Perry (2013)
the court ruled that initiative proponents do not have legal standing under Article 3 to defend it in court.
Petitioners are not accountable to anyone, so they can't be the representatives.
If your state officials don't enforce something, thats within their rights and you can choose not to reelect them later.
United States v. Windsor (2013)
case about standing
The court ruled that the US did have standing to under art 3 and Section 3 of the DOMA (where the gov only recognizes marriage between man and women) is unconstitutional .
Ruled that states must recognize ALL legal marriages in EACH STATE.
US v. Lopez (1995)
Court ruled that the GFSZA was not within Congress's Commerce Powers.
First time since 1937 that the court constricts commerce powers.
United States v. Morrison (2000)
Court ruled that Congress didn't have the authority to pass the VAWA because gender-motivated crimes of violence are not economic activity.
Gonzales v. Raich (2005)
Court ruled that Congress can regulate the individual use and plantation of medical marijuana through the CSA.
Clinton v. City of New York (1998)
the court ruled that the Line Item veto was unconstitutional and that it violated the Presentment Clause.
Clinton v. Jones (1997)
presidential immunity case
Court unanimously ruled that the Separation of Powers does not require the president to be immune from lawsuits while in office.
President is immune from official conduct ONLY.
Cheney v. US District Court (2004)
the court in this case did not decide one way or another-they said maybe.
Executive privilege does protect documents from Discovery in civil lawsuits but the court did not say here whether executive privilege works here.
VP tried to claim executive AND legislative privilege
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004)
case regarding enemy combatants.
Court did not have a majority, plurality.
Ruled though that he had a right to trial as a citizen and the gov can't just detain him.
Shapiro v. Thompson (1969)
Court ruled that residency requirements are unconstitutional under the equal protection clause (14th amendment)
City of Borne v. Flores (1997)
the court in this case struck down the Religious Freedom Restoration Act as it applied to the States under the 14th Amendment.
justices asserted again that Courts are the ultimate interpreter of the Const.
National Federation of Independent Business v. Sibelius (2012)
Court ruled that the Constitution does allow Congress to pass an individual mandate to purchase healthcare under the tax clause ONLY
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