A period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid 1700s.
What was the enclosure movement?
A process in Europe from 1700s to mid-1800s where landowners fenced small fields to create large farms, allowing for more efficient farming methods and increased the food supply.
What were the factors of production?
The basic resources for industrialization, such as land, labor, and capital.
What was a cottage industry?
A usually small scale industry carried on at home by family members using their own equipment.
What is the definition for factory?
A place where goods are manufactured in mass quantity.
What is industrialization?
Developing industries for the production of goods.
Who was Jethro Tull?
British inventor, he invented the seed drill.
Who was Richard Arkwright?
English inventor; in 1769 he patented the spinning frame, which spun stronger, thinner, thread.
Who was James Watt?
Scottish inventor; he developed crucial innovations to make the steam engine efficient, fast and better able to power machinery.
Who was Robert Fulton?
American engineer and inventor; he built the first commercially successful , full sized steamboat, the Clermont, which led to the development of commercial steamboat ferry services for goods and people.
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain?
Colonies provided raw materials, political stability encouraged commerce, powerful navy defended shipping, government supported business, agricultural factors, factors of production.
Where did many of Great Britain's raw materials come from?
Colonies held by Britain.
How did industrialization cause a revolution in production of textiles?
New devices allowed faster and less labor-intensive production of cloth.
How did steam power the Industrial Revolution?
British inventors harnessed the force of steam to drive steam engines, first in textile mills, then in trains and steamships.
Where did industrialization spread beyond Great Britain?
America, continental Europe, Asia
What delayed industrialization in France and Germany?
French Revolution, Napoleonic wars, Germany had no central government.
What is a Labor Union?
An organization representing workers' interests.
What is a labor strike?
A work stoppage
What is mass production?
The system of manufacturing large numbers of identical items.
What are interchangeable parts?
Identical machine-made parts that can be substituted for each other in manufacturing.
What is an assembly line?
A mass-production process in which a product is moved forward through many work stations where workers perform specific tasks.
How was production organized before factories?
In small cottage industries; a family worked together to produce goods such as cloth or barrels.
What happened after a merchant dropped off wool at a weaver's cottage?
Family hand spun the fiber into thread, wove threads into cloth; merchant picked up cloth, took it to market.
What were factories and factory towns like?
Factories...often dangerous; work divided into separate, easily-learned tasks; low wages; long hours; Factory Towns...comprised of shoddy, close-packed company dwellings; polluted; poor sanitation.
What hardships were part of factory work?
Dangerous conditions, long work days, noise, lack of ventilation, poor sanitation, inadequate food.
Why were children sent to work in factories?
Families desperately needed money; some factory owners preferred hiring children.
How did the factory system affect workers?
Workers paid only for hours worked; little incentive to improve job performance; large supply of unskilled workers; employers preferred women and children.
What did mid-level and regular employees have in common?
Both worked for factory owners.
What was mass production, and what were its effects?
System of manufacturing large numbers of identical items; large increase in production, decrease in prices, standardization of measurements, repetitive jobs.
What is laissez-faire economics?
A business system where companies are allowed to conduct business without interference by the government.
Who was Adam Smith?
Scottish economist; he became the leading advocate of laissez faire economics and is considered by some to be the "father of modern economics."
Who was Thomas Malthus?
English economist and sociologist; his theory that population growth would exceed the growth of food production and that poverty would always exist was used to justify low wages and laws restricting charity to the poor.
What is an entrepreneur?
A risk taker who starts a new business within the economic system of capitalism.
Who was Andrew Carnegie?
American industrialist and humanitarian; he led the expansion of the U.S. steel industry in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
What is socialism?
A political and economic system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns the means of production.
Who was Karl Marx?
German social philosopher and chief theorist of modern socialism and communism; he declared that as capitalism grew, more and more workers would become impoverished and miserable. He advocated for a state in which the workers own the means of production and govern themselves.
What is communism?
Economic and political system in which government owns the means of production and controls economic planning.
What is meant by "standard of living"?
A measure of the quality of life.
What new ideas about economics developed during the Industrial Revolution?
Laissez-faire economics, The Wealth of Nations, increased role of the entrepreneur.
What is The Wealth of Nations about?
Analyzes wealth and how it is created; states that markets free from regulation would benefit all.
How is socialism different from capitalism?
Under capitalism, individuals own property and control industry; whereas under socialism, the government or society does.
How were Robert Owen's ideas applied in New Lanark?
Emphasis on good of all, good working conditions, nonprofit stores, free schooling, strict rules.
What did Marx and Engel think would happen to the capitalist system?
More workers would sink into poverty; workers would rebel, take over means of production, and then govern themselves.
How did the Industrial Revolution affect society?
Growth of new industries, working class women in factories and other jobs, migration of job-seekers to cities, pollution, some countries became powerful, increased standard of living.