What were the primary causes of the American Revolution?
British imposition of taxes threatened colonial liberties by undermining the authority of the lower houses of assembly that colonists looked to for protection of their rights.
How did the ideas of John Locke infuence the developments that resulted in the American Revolution?
John Locke argued that governments should have limited power and that individuals should be protected in their lives, liberty, and possessions.
The Battle of Trenton
The Battle of Trenton took place on December 26, 1776, after General George Washington led American troops across the Delaware River and surprised British and Hessian troops. The battle increased confidence in America that Washington's army could compete with British troops.
The Battle of Saratoga
The Battle of Saratoga took place in September and October of 1777 and was a major success for the American troops. The battle ended with the surrender of British troops and prevented the British from executing their plan to split the former American colonies in half. The victory at Saratoga gave the Americans the confidence that they might be able to win the war with the British. As a direct consequence of the battle, the French entered into an alliance with America.
The Battle of Yorktown
The Battle of Yorktown in Virginia ended the fighting in the American Revolution in 1781. American troops were led by George Washington with support from the French navy. Under the command of Cornwallis, the massive British army surrendered, effectively ending the war
Why was the Battle of Saratoga important?
It lifted Patriot spirits and showed Europe that Americans could win.
Which of the following marked the official end of the American Revolution?
The war ended when Congress approved the peace treaty negotiated in Paris in 1783.
What is federalism?
Sovereignty is shared between smaller political units and the central government. The Tenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution reserves to the states all powers not restricted to the central government or prohibited to the states.
Describe the principle of separation of powers.
The principle of separation of powers gives the three branches of government (legislative, executive, and judicial) different but slightly overlapping powers; no single branch is allowed to become so powerful that it dominates the other two branches and oppresses the people.
What were the European origins of the American ideas of freedom of speech and due process?
Concerns about freedom of speech emerged in Europe in the 15th century after the invention of the printing press and the censoring of printed materials by European governments. Due process emerged in England as part of the reforms put in place in the 13th century with the signing of the Magna Carta. In the United States, due process of law was guaranteed in the Bill of Rights and the Fourteenth Amendment.
Describe the general arguments put forward by Federalist and Anti-federalists during the debate over the U.S. Constitution.
Federalists supported the Constitution and Anti-federalists expressed concern about the powers of the proposed government. The Antifederalists' opposition to the Constitution was rooted in their fear that a stronger national government would infringe on individual liberties; they also believed the new constitution would undermine state authority.
How did Shays' Rebellion influence the campaign to revise the Articles of Confederation?
It caused concern about how a weak central government might respond to future rebellions.
What were some of the accomplishments of George Washington?
-service in the French and Indian War
-leadership position in his home state of Virginia
-commander of the Continental Army
-President of the Constitutional Convention in 1787
-President of the United States from 1789 to 1797
What were Alexander Hamilton's ideas about how the federal government should manage economic affairs?
Hamilton devised a plan to fund the national debt; he also created a national bank that would aid economic development in the new nation
Who and what did the Federalist and Democratic-Republican political parties of the late 1790s represent?
The Federalist Party represented the interests of people who supported the Constitution. The Democratic-Republicans represented people who had concerns about a strong central government. Under the leadership of Thomas Jefferson, the Democratic-Republicans supported strong state governments and the protection of individual liberties. Where Federalists drew much of their support from commercial and industrial interests, the Democratic-Republicans received strong backing from small farmers.
What advice did George Washington offer to the nation in his farewell address?
-avoid foreign entanglements and alliances
-avoid sectionalism in the United States
-limit political parties' influence
-pay attention to the needs of young people
Place in Order
French and Indian War, 1754-1763
Proclamation of 1763, 1763
Stamp Act, 1765
Boston Massacre, 1770
Tea Act, 1773
When was the United States Constitution written, and when was it ratified?
The U.S. Constitution was written and approved by the Constitutional Convention in 1787. The document was then sent to the states for ratification. Nine of thirteen states had to ratify in order for the Constitution to go into effect. This occurred in 1789.
The tone of the Stamp Act reflected:
restraint and conciliation, with no mention of independence or disloyalty.
The most obvious contradiction to the principles expressed in the founding of the American republic was the:
ontinued existence of slavery in much of the nation.
The most important accomplishment of Congress under The Articles of Confederation was its:
passage of ordinances organizing the Northwest Territory.
Federalists were very enthusiastic about capitalism but:
did not trust the people or local governments to make good decisions about financial matters.