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By 2 years of age, a typical toddler's height is ______ percent greater than at birth and birth weight has __________.

75; quadrupled

Infants and toddlers grow

in little spurts.

Maggi is concerned because her 8-month-old daughter has gained 10 pounds since birth and has transformed into a round,
plump baby. You can assure Maggi that her daughter's rise in "baby fat"

helps her keep a constant body temperature.

During infancy, __________. These sex differences will __________ during adolescence.

girls are slightly shorter and lighter than boys; be greatly magnified

The best way of estimating a child's physical maturity is to use ________ age.


Skeletal age is determined by

X-raying the long bones of the body to see the extent to which soft, pliable cartilage has hardened into bone.

When skeletal ages are examined,

girls are considerably ahead of boys.

Which of the following is consistent with the cephalocaudal trend of body growth?

During the prenatal period, the head develops more rapidly than the lower part of the body.

Which of the following is consistent with the proximodistal trend of body growth?

During childhood, the arms and legs continue to grow somewhat ahead of the hands and feet.

At birth, the brain is

nearer to its adults size than any other physical structure.

________ are nerve cells that store and transmit information.


The human brain has _________ neurons.

100 to 200 billion

_______ are tiny gaps where fibers from different neurons come close together but do not touch.


Neurons send messages to one another by releasing chemicals called


A surprising aspect of brain growth is that

as synapses form, many surrounding neurons die.

As neurons form connections, stimulation

becomes vital to their survival.

Neurons that are seldom stimulated soon lose their synapses in a process called

synaptic pruning.

In all, about _____ percent of synapses are pruned during childhood and adolescence to reach the adult level.


During synaptic pruning,

neurons not needed at the moment return to an uncommitted state.

_______ are responsible for myelination.

Glial cells

Coating the neural fibers with an insulating fatty sheath during the process of _________________ improves the
efficiency of message transfer.


Which of the following is true about brain development?

Gains in neural fibers and myelination are responsible for the extraordinary gain in overall brain size.

__________ provide(s) the most precise information about which brain regions are specialized for certain capacities.

Neuroimaging techniques

The __________ is the largest, most complex brain structure.

cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex accounts for ______ percent of the brain's weight.


Which of the following is true about the cerebral cortex?

It is sensitive to environmental influences for a longer period than any other part of the brain.

The cortical regions with the most extended period of development are responsible for


Which of the following is true about the frontal lobes?

They are responsible for consciousness, inhibition of impulses, memory, and integration of information.

For most people, the left hemisphere of the brain is largely responsible for __________ and the right hemisphere handles

verbal abilities and positive emotion; spatial abilities and negative emotion

The specialization of the two hemispheres of the brain is called


Nadia calls her son "right-brained" because he is analytical and calls her daughter "left-brained" because she is artistic.
What can you tell Nadia about her notions?

Her daughter is actually "right-brained" and her son is "left-brained."

Which of the following is true about brain plasticity?

Many areas of a highly plastic cerebral cortex are not yet committed to specific functions.

Which of the following provides evidence that the brain hemispheres have already begun to specialize at birth?

Most neonates show greater ERP brain-wave activity in the right hemisphere while listening to nonspeech sounds.

_________ greatly influences the organization of the cerebral cortex.

Early experience

Research on brain development shows that

toddlers advanced in language development show greater left-hemispheric specialization for language than their

Animal studies on early sensory deprivation

verify the existence of sensitive periods in brain development.

Michael was born with cataracts in both eyes. What can you tell his parents about the possibility of recovery as it relates
to sensitive periods in brain development?

If Michael has corrective surgery within four to six months, his vision can improve substantially, except for subtle
aspects of face perception.

In the first few years of life, the brain is

highly plastic.

Research on children with injuries to the cerebral cortex that occurred before birth or in the first six months of life shows

delays in language development persist until about 3½ years of age.

Reorganization in the brain can occur

even in adulthood.

Sharon's 46-year-old husband suffered a traumatic brain injury in an automobile accident. What information about brain
plasticity can you provide to Sharon?

The adult brain can produce a small number of new neurons and generate new synapses.

Which of the following is true about Romanian orphans adopted into British homes?

Most children who had been institutionalized for more than the first six months displayed at least three serious
mental health problems.

The chronic stress of early, deprived orphanage rearing

disrupts the brain's capacity to manage stress, with long-term physical and psychological consequences.

In the study of Romanian orphans adopted into Canadian homes, the longer the children spent in orphanage care, the

higher their cortisol levels.

_______ seems to help protect the young brain from excessive or inadequate stress-hormone exposure.

Sensitive adult care

_________ brain growth refers to the young brain's rapidly developing organization, which depends on ordinary


________ brain growth consists of additional growth and refinement of established brain structures as a result of specific,
varied learning experiences.


Which of the following is an example of a learning experience that would promote experience-dependent brain growth?

playing a computer game

Which of the following is true regarding a sensitive period for mastering musical performance skills?

No evidence exists for a sensitive period in the first few years of life for mastering skills that depend on extensive

The average 2-year-old needs _____ hours of sleep.

12 to 13

Between the ages of ________, napping subsidies.

3 and 5 years

What advice can you give Paul, who wants to help his 4-month-old daughter sleep better at night?

Take her on regular early-afternoon outings, exposing her to more bright sunlight.

Parent-infant "cosleeping" is the norm for approximately _____ percent of the world's population.


One possible explanation for the high frequency of bedtime struggles in Western homes is that

young children feel stressed when they are required to fall asleep without assistance.

Research suggests that cosleeping children

are no different from other children in any aspect of adjustment.

Rachel is concerned that she might accidentally suffocate her baby if she shares a bed with him. What information can
you share with Rachel about precautions taken in cultures where cosleeping is widespread?

Parents and infants usually sleep on hard surfaces, such as floor mats, firm mattresses, or wooden planks.

When _______ are adequate, height is largely determined by heredity.

diet and health

_______ growth is a return to a genetically influenced growth path once negative conditions improve.


The weights of adopted children

correlate more strongly with those of their biological than of their adoptive parents.

Pound for pound, an infant's energy needs are __________ those of an adult.


The World Health Organization recommends breastfeeding until age ______, with solid foods added at ______.

2 years; 6 months

Breastfeeding for just a few weeks

offers some protection against respiratory and intestinal infections.

Today, most developing countries

have banned the practice of giving free or subsidized formula to new mothers.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services advises exclusive breastfeeding for ________ and inclusion of
breast milk in the baby's diet until _____.

6 months; 1 year

Breastfed and bottle-fed children in industrialized nations

do not differ in emotional adjustment.

Most chubby babies

thin out during toddlerhood and early childhood.

In interviews with more than 3,000 U.S. parents of infants and toddlers, results indicated that _____ ate no fruits or


Research indicates that about _____ of the world's children suffer from malnutrition before age 5.


Shay suffers from a wasted condition of the body caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients. Shay most likely has


______ is caused by an unbalanced diet very low in protein.


When the diets of severely malnourished children improve, they

are far more likely to be overweight than their nonstunted agemates.

Today, inadequate nutrition

is not confined to developing countries.

An estimated 17 percent of U.S. children suffer from ________ because government-supported supplementary food
programs do not reach all families in need.

food insecurity

Baby Edda's body looks wasted, and she is withdrawn and apathetic. However, she is offered enough food and there is no
biological cause for her condition. She most likely has

nonorganic failure to thrive.

Newborn reflexes make ___________ possible in the young infant.

classical conditioning

In classical conditioning, once a baby's nervous system makes a connection between two stimuli, the

neutral stimulus produces the behavior by itself.

In classical conditioning, if the conditioned stimulus is presented alone enough times, without being paired with the
unconditioned stimulus,

extinction will occur.

Before Jack's mother leaves for work every morning, she takes her car keys off of a hook on the wall. Now, as soon as
she unhooks her car keys, Jack begins to cry. In this example, __________ is the conditioned response.


Young children can be classically conditioned most easily when

the association between two stimuli has survival value.

Some responses, such as __________, are very difficult to classically condition in young babies because they do not yet
have the motor skills needed to deal appropriately with stimuli.


In ________, infants act on the environment, and stimuli that follow their behavior change the probability that the
behavior will occur again.

operant conditioning

A stimulus that increases the occurrence of a response is called a(n)


Removing a desirable stimulus or presenting an unpleasant one to decrease the occurrence of a response is called


When baby Brad gazes at his mother, she smiles at him, and then Brad gazes and smiles, too. This contingent
responsiveness is an example of

operant conditioning.

At first, baby Mario was easily awakened every night by a barking dog in his neighborhood. Several weeks later, Mario's
sleep is not bothered by the dog's barks. This is an example of


________ refers to a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation.


Following habituation, when a new stimulus causes responsiveness to return to a high level, the increase is called


Researchers investigating infants' understanding of the world rely on ____________ more than any other learning

habituation and recovery

Dr. Eden studies a fetus's sensitivity to external stimuli by measuring changes in fetal heart rate when various repeated
sounds are presented. Dr. Eden is probably using

habituation and recovery.

Recovery to a new stimulus, or ____________, assesses infants' recent memory.

novelty preference

Which of the following statements about imitation is true?

Babies several months old often do not imitate an adult's behavior right away because they first try to play familiar
social games.

Human adults have especially elaborate ___________, which enable them to observe another's behavior while simulating
the behavior in their own brains.

mirror neurons

__________ refers to control over actions that help infants get around in the environment, whereas ___________ has to
do with smaller movements, such as reaching and grasping.

Gross-motor development; fine-motor development

Which of these is an example of a fine-motor skill?


Which motor activity typically develops first?

sits alone

Children acquire motor skills

in highly individual ways.

According to the ___________ of motor development, mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex
systems of action.

dynamic systems theory

The dynamic systems theory provides convincing evidence that the development of motor skills

is profoundly influenced by the physical environment.

Dennis's cross-cultural research illustrates how _________ and a stimulating environment contribute to motor

early movement opportunities

Kipsigi and Jamaican infants walk considerably earlier than North American infants because

their parents incorporate direct walking instruction and formal handling routines that encourage early motor

Of all motor skills, ________ may play the greatest role in infant cognitive development.

voluntary reaching

Newborn Sam's poorly coordinated swipes or swings toward an object in front of him is called


The clumsy motion in which a baby's fingers close against the palm to hold an object is called

the ulnar grasp.

A baby's ability to manipulate objects greatly expands with the development of the __________, use of the thumb and
index finger opposably.

pincer grasp

Six-month-old Marta holds a pacifier in each hand and shakes them vigorously. She is probably using

the ulnar grasp.

Dr. Sardoza is interested in research on the organization and interpretation of what we see. Dr. Sardoza studies


ERP brain-wave recordings reveal that around 5 months, babies

become sensitive to syllable stress patterns in their own language.

Around 7 to 9 months, infants

begin to divide the speech stream into wordlike units.

Which of the following is true about speech stream patterns?

When presented with controlled sequences of nonsense syllables, babies listen for statistical regularities.

For exploring the environment, humans depend on _______ more than any other sense.


Visual acuity is

the fineness of visual discrimination.

At first, babies are sensitive to virtually all speech sounds, but around 6 months, they

narrow their focus, limiting the distinctions they make to the language they hear and will soon learn.

Research suggests that there is a sensitive period, ________________, when babies are biologically prepared to "zero in"
on socially meaningful perceptual distinctions.

in the second half of the first year

__________ is the ability to judge the distance of objects from one another and from ourselves.

Depth perception

________ is the first depth cue to which infants are sensitive.


Which of the following is true about depth cues?

Changes in texture and overlapping objects are examples of pictorial depth cues.

Infants with a lot of crawling experience

are more likely than their inexperienced agemates to remember object locations.

Which of the following is true about pattern perception?

Contrast sensitivity continues to increase during infancy and childhood.

Which picture is newborn Alex most likely to prefer to look at?

a black-and-white checkerboard with a few large squares

One surprising finding of infant face perception is that infants will look longer at

attractive faces than unattractive ones.

Lana understands that an object's shape is the same whether she sees it or touches it; that breaking a glass causes a sharp,
crashing sound; and that the patter of footsteps signals the approach of a person. This understanding is called

intermodal stimulation

Babies perceive input from different sensory systems in a unified way by detecting

amodal sensory properties.

Which of the following is true about intermodal perception?

It is a fundamental ability that fosters all aspects of psychological development.

Which of the following is true about differentiation theory?

According to the theory, babies actively seek out invariant relationships.

__________________ seems to make crawlers and walkers more aware of the consequences of their movements.

Experience in trying to keep their balance on various surfaces

According to the cognitive perspective of perceptual development, babies

impose meaning on what they perceive.

At 16 months, Brynn is in Piaget's ___________ stage of cognitive development.


Piaget believed that infants and toddlers

"think" with their eyes, ears, and hands.

According to Piaget, specific psychological structures called _________ are organized ways of making sense of


According to Piaget, first schemes

are sensorimotor action patterns.

__________ involves building schemes through direct interaction with the environment.


During __________, children use their current schemes to interpret the external world, whereas in __________, children
create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that their current ways of thinking do not capture the environment

assimilation; accommodation

According to Piaget, the balance between assimilation and accommodation

varies over time.

Two-year-old Laura dropped a block into her toy box. She then dropped a cup, a car, and a doll into the box, throwing
some objects gently, while using more force with others. Laura's modification of her dropping scheme is an example of


In Piaget's theory, when children are in a state of cognitive equilibrium,

they assimilate more than they accommodate.

In Piaget's theory, when children are in a state of disequilibrium,

cognitive change is rapid.

Apart from direct contact with the environment, schemes also change

through organization.

In Piaget's theory, each time the back-and-forth movement between equilibrium and disequilibrium occurs,

more effective schemes are produced.

Baby Kate now relates dropping and throwing to her developing understanding of nearness and farness. In Piaget's
theory, this achievement is an example of


According to Piaget, a ___________ is a means of building schemes in which infants try to repeat chance motor
behaviors again and again.

circular reaction

The circular reaction initially centers on

the infant's own body.

In Piaget's theory, _________ are the building blocks of sensorimotor intelligence.

newborn reflexes

During the second substage of the sensorimotor period, babies

start to gain voluntary control over their actions through the primary circular reaction.

Baby Alan started opening his mouth differently for a nipple than for a spoon. Baby Alan is probably in Stage ___ of
Piaget's sensorimotor stages.


According to Piaget's theory, when baby Sasha sucks her thumb, she is demonstrating a __________ circular reaction.


In Piaget's theory, through the _________ circular reaction, babies try to repeat interesting events in the surrounding
environment that are caused by their own actions.


In Piaget's theory, 8- to 12-month-olds can use ____________ to solve simple problems.

goal-directed behavior

Baby Luigi retrieves his pacifier, which his mother has hidden behind a pillow. Baby Luigi has begun to master

object permanence.

Compared to schemes in Substage 3 of the sensorimotor period, schemes in Substage 4

are coordinated deliberately to solve simple problems.

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