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638 terms

psy 240 set 2

STUDY
PLAY
By 2 years of age, a typical toddler's height is ______ percent greater than at birth and birth weight has __________.
75; quadrupled
Infants and toddlers grow
in little spurts.
Maggi is concerned because her 8-month-old daughter has gained 10 pounds since birth and has transformed into a round,
plump baby. You can assure Maggi that her daughter's rise in "baby fat"
helps her keep a constant body temperature.
During infancy, __________. These sex differences will __________ during adolescence.
girls are slightly shorter and lighter than boys; be greatly magnified
The best way of estimating a child's physical maturity is to use ________ age.
skeletal
Skeletal age is determined by
X-raying the long bones of the body to see the extent to which soft, pliable cartilage has hardened into bone.
When skeletal ages are examined,
girls are considerably ahead of boys.
Which of the following is consistent with the cephalocaudal trend of body growth?
During the prenatal period, the head develops more rapidly than the lower part of the body.
Which of the following is consistent with the proximodistal trend of body growth?
During childhood, the arms and legs continue to grow somewhat ahead of the hands and feet.
At birth, the brain is
nearer to its adults size than any other physical structure.
________ are nerve cells that store and transmit information.
Neurons
The human brain has _________ neurons.
100 to 200 billion
_______ are tiny gaps where fibers from different neurons come close together but do not touch.
Synapses
Neurons send messages to one another by releasing chemicals called
neurotransmitters.
A surprising aspect of brain growth is that
as synapses form, many surrounding neurons die.
As neurons form connections, stimulation
becomes vital to their survival.
Neurons that are seldom stimulated soon lose their synapses in a process called
synaptic pruning.
In all, about _____ percent of synapses are pruned during childhood and adolescence to reach the adult level.
40
During synaptic pruning,
neurons not needed at the moment return to an uncommitted state.
_______ are responsible for myelination.
Glial cells
Coating the neural fibers with an insulating fatty sheath during the process of _________________ improves the
efficiency of message transfer.
myelination
Which of the following is true about brain development?
Gains in neural fibers and myelination are responsible for the extraordinary gain in overall brain size.
__________ provide(s) the most precise information about which brain regions are specialized for certain capacities.
Neuroimaging techniques
The __________ is the largest, most complex brain structure.
cerebral cortex
The cerebral cortex accounts for ______ percent of the brain's weight.
85
Which of the following is true about the cerebral cortex?
It is sensitive to environmental influences for a longer period than any other part of the brain.
The cortical regions with the most extended period of development are responsible for
thought.
Which of the following is true about the frontal lobes?
They are responsible for consciousness, inhibition of impulses, memory, and integration of information.
For most people, the left hemisphere of the brain is largely responsible for __________ and the right hemisphere handles
_____________.
verbal abilities and positive emotion; spatial abilities and negative emotion
The specialization of the two hemispheres of the brain is called
lateralization.
Nadia calls her son "right-brained" because he is analytical and calls her daughter "left-brained" because she is artistic.
What can you tell Nadia about her notions?
Her daughter is actually "right-brained" and her son is "left-brained."
Which of the following is true about brain plasticity?
Many areas of a highly plastic cerebral cortex are not yet committed to specific functions.
Which of the following provides evidence that the brain hemispheres have already begun to specialize at birth?
Most neonates show greater ERP brain-wave activity in the right hemisphere while listening to nonspeech sounds.
_________ greatly influences the organization of the cerebral cortex.
Early experience
Research on brain development shows that
toddlers advanced in language development show greater left-hemispheric specialization for language than their
agemates.
Animal studies on early sensory deprivation
verify the existence of sensitive periods in brain development.
Michael was born with cataracts in both eyes. What can you tell his parents about the possibility of recovery as it relates
to sensitive periods in brain development?
If Michael has corrective surgery within four to six months, his vision can improve substantially, except for subtle
aspects of face perception.
In the first few years of life, the brain is
highly plastic.
Research on children with injuries to the cerebral cortex that occurred before birth or in the first six months of life shows
that
delays in language development persist until about 3½ years of age.
Reorganization in the brain can occur
even in adulthood.
Sharon's 46-year-old husband suffered a traumatic brain injury in an automobile accident. What information about brain
plasticity can you provide to Sharon?
The adult brain can produce a small number of new neurons and generate new synapses.
Which of the following is true about Romanian orphans adopted into British homes?
Most children who had been institutionalized for more than the first six months displayed at least three serious
mental health problems.
The chronic stress of early, deprived orphanage rearing
disrupts the brain's capacity to manage stress, with long-term physical and psychological consequences.
In the study of Romanian orphans adopted into Canadian homes, the longer the children spent in orphanage care, the
higher their cortisol levels.
_______ seems to help protect the young brain from excessive or inadequate stress-hormone exposure.
Sensitive adult care
_________ brain growth refers to the young brain's rapidly developing organization, which depends on ordinary
experiences.
Experience-expectant
________ brain growth consists of additional growth and refinement of established brain structures as a result of specific,
varied learning experiences.
Experience-dependent
Which of the following is an example of a learning experience that would promote experience-dependent brain growth?
playing a computer game
Which of the following is true regarding a sensitive period for mastering musical performance skills?
No evidence exists for a sensitive period in the first few years of life for mastering skills that depend on extensive
training.
The average 2-year-old needs _____ hours of sleep.
12 to 13
Between the ages of ________, napping subsidies.
3 and 5 years
What advice can you give Paul, who wants to help his 4-month-old daughter sleep better at night?
Take her on regular early-afternoon outings, exposing her to more bright sunlight.
Parent-infant "cosleeping" is the norm for approximately _____ percent of the world's population.
90
One possible explanation for the high frequency of bedtime struggles in Western homes is that
young children feel stressed when they are required to fall asleep without assistance.
Research suggests that cosleeping children
are no different from other children in any aspect of adjustment.
Rachel is concerned that she might accidentally suffocate her baby if she shares a bed with him. What information can
you share with Rachel about precautions taken in cultures where cosleeping is widespread?
Parents and infants usually sleep on hard surfaces, such as floor mats, firm mattresses, or wooden planks.
When _______ are adequate, height is largely determined by heredity.
diet and health
_______ growth is a return to a genetically influenced growth path once negative conditions improve.
Catch-up
The weights of adopted children
correlate more strongly with those of their biological than of their adoptive parents.
Pound for pound, an infant's energy needs are __________ those of an adult.
twice
The World Health Organization recommends breastfeeding until age ______, with solid foods added at ______.
2 years; 6 months
Breastfeeding for just a few weeks
offers some protection against respiratory and intestinal infections.
Today, most developing countries
have banned the practice of giving free or subsidized formula to new mothers.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services advises exclusive breastfeeding for ________ and inclusion of
breast milk in the baby's diet until _____.
6 months; 1 year
Breastfed and bottle-fed children in industrialized nations
do not differ in emotional adjustment.
Most chubby babies
thin out during toddlerhood and early childhood.
In interviews with more than 3,000 U.S. parents of infants and toddlers, results indicated that _____ ate no fruits or
vegetables.
one-third
Research indicates that about _____ of the world's children suffer from malnutrition before age 5.
one-third
Shay suffers from a wasted condition of the body caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients. Shay most likely has
marasmus.
______ is caused by an unbalanced diet very low in protein.
Kwashiorkor
When the diets of severely malnourished children improve, they
are far more likely to be overweight than their nonstunted agemates.
Today, inadequate nutrition
is not confined to developing countries.
An estimated 17 percent of U.S. children suffer from ________ because government-supported supplementary food
programs do not reach all families in need.
food insecurity
Baby Edda's body looks wasted, and she is withdrawn and apathetic. However, she is offered enough food and there is no
biological cause for her condition. She most likely has
nonorganic failure to thrive.
Newborn reflexes make ___________ possible in the young infant.
classical conditioning
In classical conditioning, once a baby's nervous system makes a connection between two stimuli, the
neutral stimulus produces the behavior by itself.
In classical conditioning, if the conditioned stimulus is presented alone enough times, without being paired with the
unconditioned stimulus,
extinction will occur.
Before Jack's mother leaves for work every morning, she takes her car keys off of a hook on the wall. Now, as soon as
she unhooks her car keys, Jack begins to cry. In this example, __________ is the conditioned response.
crying
Young children can be classically conditioned most easily when
the association between two stimuli has survival value.
Some responses, such as __________, are very difficult to classically condition in young babies because they do not yet
have the motor skills needed to deal appropriately with stimuli.
fear
In ________, infants act on the environment, and stimuli that follow their behavior change the probability that the
behavior will occur again.
operant conditioning
A stimulus that increases the occurrence of a response is called a(n)
reinforcer.
Removing a desirable stimulus or presenting an unpleasant one to decrease the occurrence of a response is called
punishment.
When baby Brad gazes at his mother, she smiles at him, and then Brad gazes and smiles, too. This contingent
responsiveness is an example of
operant conditioning.
At first, baby Mario was easily awakened every night by a barking dog in his neighborhood. Several weeks later, Mario's
sleep is not bothered by the dog's barks. This is an example of
habituation
________ refers to a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation.
Habituation
Following habituation, when a new stimulus causes responsiveness to return to a high level, the increase is called
recovery.
Researchers investigating infants' understanding of the world rely on ____________ more than any other learning
capacity.
habituation and recovery
Dr. Eden studies a fetus's sensitivity to external stimuli by measuring changes in fetal heart rate when various repeated
sounds are presented. Dr. Eden is probably using
habituation and recovery.
Recovery to a new stimulus, or ____________, assesses infants' recent memory.
novelty preference
Which of the following statements about imitation is true?
Babies several months old often do not imitate an adult's behavior right away because they first try to play familiar
social games.
Human adults have especially elaborate ___________, which enable them to observe another's behavior while simulating
the behavior in their own brains.
mirror neurons
__________ refers to control over actions that help infants get around in the environment, whereas ___________ has to
do with smaller movements, such as reaching and grasping.
Gross-motor development; fine-motor development
Which of these is an example of a fine-motor skill?
grasping
Which motor activity typically develops first?
sits alone
Children acquire motor skills
in highly individual ways.
According to the ___________ of motor development, mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex
systems of action.
dynamic systems theory
The dynamic systems theory provides convincing evidence that the development of motor skills
is profoundly influenced by the physical environment.
Dennis's cross-cultural research illustrates how _________ and a stimulating environment contribute to motor
development.
early movement opportunities
Kipsigi and Jamaican infants walk considerably earlier than North American infants because
their parents incorporate direct walking instruction and formal handling routines that encourage early motor
development.
Of all motor skills, ________ may play the greatest role in infant cognitive development.
voluntary reaching
Newborn Sam's poorly coordinated swipes or swings toward an object in front of him is called
prereaching.
The clumsy motion in which a baby's fingers close against the palm to hold an object is called
the ulnar grasp.
A baby's ability to manipulate objects greatly expands with the development of the __________, use of the thumb and
index finger opposably.
pincer grasp
Six-month-old Marta holds a pacifier in each hand and shakes them vigorously. She is probably using
the ulnar grasp.
Dr. Sardoza is interested in research on the organization and interpretation of what we see. Dr. Sardoza studies
perception.
ERP brain-wave recordings reveal that around 5 months, babies
become sensitive to syllable stress patterns in their own language.
Around 7 to 9 months, infants
begin to divide the speech stream into wordlike units.
Which of the following is true about speech stream patterns?
When presented with controlled sequences of nonsense syllables, babies listen for statistical regularities.
For exploring the environment, humans depend on _______ more than any other sense.
vision
Visual acuity is
the fineness of visual discrimination.
At first, babies are sensitive to virtually all speech sounds, but around 6 months, they
narrow their focus, limiting the distinctions they make to the language they hear and will soon learn.
Research suggests that there is a sensitive period, ________________, when babies are biologically prepared to "zero in"
on socially meaningful perceptual distinctions.
in the second half of the first year
__________ is the ability to judge the distance of objects from one another and from ourselves.
Depth perception
________ is the first depth cue to which infants are sensitive.
Motion
Which of the following is true about depth cues?
Changes in texture and overlapping objects are examples of pictorial depth cues.
Infants with a lot of crawling experience
are more likely than their inexperienced agemates to remember object locations.
Which of the following is true about pattern perception?
Contrast sensitivity continues to increase during infancy and childhood.
Which picture is newborn Alex most likely to prefer to look at?
a black-and-white checkerboard with a few large squares
One surprising finding of infant face perception is that infants will look longer at
attractive faces than unattractive ones.
Lana understands that an object's shape is the same whether she sees it or touches it; that breaking a glass causes a sharp,
crashing sound; and that the patter of footsteps signals the approach of a person. This understanding is called
intermodal stimulation
Babies perceive input from different sensory systems in a unified way by detecting
amodal sensory properties.
Which of the following is true about intermodal perception?
It is a fundamental ability that fosters all aspects of psychological development.
Which of the following is true about differentiation theory?
According to the theory, babies actively seek out invariant relationships.
__________________ seems to make crawlers and walkers more aware of the consequences of their movements.
Experience in trying to keep their balance on various surfaces
According to the cognitive perspective of perceptual development, babies
impose meaning on what they perceive.
At 16 months, Brynn is in Piaget's ___________ stage of cognitive development.
sensorimotor
Piaget believed that infants and toddlers
"think" with their eyes, ears, and hands.
According to Piaget, specific psychological structures called _________ are organized ways of making sense of
experience.
schemes
According to Piaget, first schemes
are sensorimotor action patterns.
__________ involves building schemes through direct interaction with the environment.
Adaptation
During __________, children use their current schemes to interpret the external world, whereas in __________, children
create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that their current ways of thinking do not capture the environment
completely.
assimilation; accommodation
According to Piaget, the balance between assimilation and accommodation
varies over time.
Two-year-old Laura dropped a block into her toy box. She then dropped a cup, a car, and a doll into the box, throwing
some objects gently, while using more force with others. Laura's modification of her dropping scheme is an example of
accommodation.
In Piaget's theory, when children are in a state of cognitive equilibrium,
they assimilate more than they accommodate.
In Piaget's theory, when children are in a state of disequilibrium,
cognitive change is rapid.
Apart from direct contact with the environment, schemes also change
through organization.
In Piaget's theory, each time the back-and-forth movement between equilibrium and disequilibrium occurs,
more effective schemes are produced.
Baby Kate now relates dropping and throwing to her developing understanding of nearness and farness. In Piaget's
theory, this achievement is an example of
organization.
According to Piaget, a ___________ is a means of building schemes in which infants try to repeat chance motor
behaviors again and again.
circular reaction
The circular reaction initially centers on
the infant's own body.
In Piaget's theory, _________ are the building blocks of sensorimotor intelligence.
newborn reflexes
During the second substage of the sensorimotor period, babies
start to gain voluntary control over their actions through the primary circular reaction.
Baby Alan started opening his mouth differently for a nipple than for a spoon. Baby Alan is probably in Stage ___ of
Piaget's sensorimotor stages.
2
According to Piaget's theory, when baby Sasha sucks her thumb, she is demonstrating a __________ circular reaction.
primary
In Piaget's theory, through the _________ circular reaction, babies try to repeat interesting events in the surrounding
environment that are caused by their own actions.
secondary
In Piaget's theory, 8- to 12-month-olds can use ____________ to solve simple problems.
goal-directed behavior
Baby Luigi retrieves his pacifier, which his mother has hidden behind a pillow. Baby Luigi has begun to master
object permanence.
Compared to schemes in Substage 3 of the sensorimotor period, schemes in Substage 4
are coordinated deliberately to solve simple problems.
Baby Hannah is shown a stuffed sheep, and then it is hidden under a blanket. Which of the following is true?
Hannah must coordinate two schemes to retrieve the object: "pushing" aside the blanket and "grasping" the stuffed
sheep.
Infants in Substage 4 of the sensorimotor period, who can better anticipate events, sometimes use __________ to try to
change those events.
their capacity for intentional behavior
Sixteen-month-old Maecy is able to repeat behaviors with variation. Maecy is demonstrating the __________ circular
reaction.
tertiary
Our most powerful mental representations include ________ and _________.
images; concepts
In Substage 6 of the sensorimotor period, the ability to create mental representations enables toddlers to __________ and
__________.
engage in deferred imitation; use make-believe play
In the violation-of-expectation method, __________ suggests that the infant is surprised by a deviation from physical
reality.
heightened attention to an unexpected event
Some critics of the violation-of-expectation method
believe that it reveals only babies' perceptual preference for novelty, not their understanding of experience.
Violation-of-expectation studies provide evidence that infants have some knowledge of object permanence by
__________, whereas Piaget argued that this ability emerges __________.
2 ½ to 3 ½ months; between 8 and 12 months
Consistent with Piaget's theory, searching for hidden objects is a true cognitive advance because
infants solve some object-hiding tasks before others.
Follow-up research on infant cognitive development suggests that mastery of object permanence
is a gradual achievement.
Follow-up research on cognitive development indicates that ________ is present as early as 6 weeks.
deferred imitation
Unlike Piaget, who thought young babies constructed all mental representations out of sensorimotor activity, most
researchers now believe that
infants have some built-in cognitive equipment for making sense of experience.
Professor Rellinger believes that babies are born with a set of innate knowledge systems. Professor Rellinger's beliefs are
consistent with the _________ perspective.
core knowledge
According to the core knowledge perspective, each of an infant's ____________ permits a ready grasp of new, related
information.
core domains of thought
Core knowledge theorists assume that
infants start out life with a set of prewired understandings.
According to the core knowledge perspective, babies can
perform simple addition and subtraction problems.
Current research on infant cognition yields broad agreement on which of the following?
Many cognitive changes of infancy are gradual and continuous.
Information-processing researchers focus on
many aspects of thinking, from attention, memory, and categorization skills to complex problem solving.
In the information-processing system, information first enters
the sensory register.
In working memory, children actively apply ________ as they "work" on a limited amount of information.
mental strategies
According to information-processing approach, __________ expands working memory by permitting children to focus on
other information simultaneously.
automatic processing
In the information-processing system, a special part of working memory, called the ____________, directs the flow of
information.
central executive
According to the information-processing approach, the longer a person holds information in working memory, the
more likely it will transfer to the permanent knowledge base.
According to the information-processing framework, __________ make more complex forms of thinking possible with
age.
the capacity of the mental system and increases in the speed with which information can be processed
By ____ months, babies' attention becomes flexible due to development of structures in the cerebral cortex controlling
eye movements.
4
With the transition to toddlerhood, attraction to __________ declines and __________ improves.
novelty; sustained attention
_____________ and ___________ provide windows into early memory by showing that retention of visual events
increases dramatically over infancy and toddlerhood.
Operant conditioning; habituation
Recall is more challenging than recognition because it
involves remembering a stimulus that is not present.
_______________ helps infants reduce the enormous amount of new information they encounter every day so they can
learn and remember.
Categorization
By 6 months of age, babies can categorize on the basis of
two correlated features.
Infants' earliest categories are
perceptual.
Which of the following is true about infantile amnesia?
Most older children and adults cannot retrieve events that happened before age 3.
Research on infantile amnesia suggests that adults typically cannot remember events that happened during the first few
years of life because
adults cannot translate early preverbal memories into language.
Three-year-old Benny is presented with a toy called the Magic Shrinking Machine. An object is inserted in an opening on
top of the machine, and with the turn of a crank, Benny can retrieve a smaller, identical object from behind a door on the
front of the machine. Which of the following is most likely to be true?
Benny will not be able to translate his nonverbal memory for the game into language six months to one year later.
Studies of infantile amnesia suggest that __________ contributes to the end of infantile amnesia.
a clear self-image
Information-processing research indicates that by 3 months, infants can remember events for as long as 3 months and
categorize stimuli. These findings challenge Piaget's assumption that
infants are unable to mentally represent experiences.
One of the greatest drawbacks of the information-processing approach is its difficulty with
integrating information into a broad, comprehensive theory.
Vygotsky believed that complex mental activities have their origin in
social interaction.
According to Vygotsky, children master activities through
joint activities with more mature members of their society.
According to Vygotsky, ______________ is a range of tasks that a child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help
of more skilled partners.
the zone of proximal development
In the form of teaching known as scaffolding, as a child's competence increases, the adult
steps back, permitting the child to take more responsibility for the task.
When Sarah was 18 months old, her mother stood behind her, helping her throw a bean bag into a hole. As Sarah's skill
improved, her mother stepped back, letting her try on her own. This example best illustrates the concept of
the zone of proximal development.
Compared with cognitive theories, mental tests
focus on the products of cognitive development rather than on the process of development.
Vygotsky's theory challenges Piaget's conclusion that
toddlers discover make-believe play independently, once they are capable of representational schemes.
Research demonstrates that early make-believe play is
the combined result of children's readiness to engage in it and social experiences that promote it.
Which of the following is true about make-believe play?
Make-believe is a major means through which children extend their cognitive skills and learn about important
activities in their culture.
The goal of mental testing is to
measure behaviors that reflect development and to arrive at scores that predict future performance.
The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development
include a cognitive scale, a language scale, and a motor scale.
An intelligence quotient (IQ)
indicates the extent to which the raw score deviates from the typical performance of same-age individuals.
Dr. Ewing measured individual differences in a large sample of individuals using intelligence testing. If performances at
each age level formed a normal distribution, the results were probably ______-shaped.
bell
Knowing Niraj's IQ score helps his dad
know whether Niraj is ahead, behind, or on time in mental development compared with his agemates.
Katie has an IQ of 100. She performed as well or better than _____ percent of her agemates.
50
Brian has an IQ of 130. This means that he performed as well or better than ______ percent of his same-age peers.
98
Intelligence test scores of infants and toddlers often do not reflect their true abilities because
they easily become distracted, fatigued, or bored during testing.
Because infant scores do not tap the same dimensions of intelligence measured at older ages, they are conservatively
labeled _________________ rather than IQs.
developmental quotients (DQs)
Today, infant mental tests are largely used for
screening to help identify babies who are likely to have developmental problems.
Research using the HOME checklist reveals that the extent to which parents __________ is especially important in
facilitating toddlers' intelligence test performance.
talk to their infants and toddlers
____________ is a much better indicator than an early mental test score of how children will do later.
Warm, responsive parenting
In the United States today, more than ______ percent of mothers with a child under age 2 are employed.
60
Good quality child care
can reduce the negative impact of a stressed, poverty-stricken home life.
Research on child care in the United States shows that
only 20 to 25 percent of child-care settings in the United States provide a level of care sufficient to promote healthy
psychological development.
In contrast to the United States, most European countries
nationally regulate child care to ensure its quality.
Child care in the United States is
affected by a macrosystem of individualistic values and weak government regulation and funding.
Home-based early intervention for at-risk infants and toddlers
teaches parents how to stimulate young children's development.
Which of the following is true about early intervention?
The strongest effects of early intervention occur at sites that offer a mix of center- and home-based services.
Research showed that by age 3, children in Early Head Start
demonstrated gains in cognitive and language development.
Professor Zettler regards language development as entirely due to environmental influences. Professor Zettler's belief is
consistent with the ___________ perspective.
behaviorist
Dr. Hahn believes that children are "prewired" to master the intricate rules of their language. Dr. Hahn endorses the
________ perspective of language development.
nativist
According to B. F. Skinner, language is acquired as the baby babbles and parents reinforce those sounds that are most like
words. This is an example of
operant conditioning.
According to some behaviorists, children rely on _________ to rapidly acquire complex utterances.
imitation
Reinforcement and imitation are best viewed as _________ language development.
supporting, rather than fully explaining,
Nativist Noam Chomsky believed that
the rules of sentence organization are too complex to be directly taught to or discovered by even a cognitively adept
young child.
Chomsky's "LAD" is a
device that enables children to understand and speak in a rule-oriented fashion as soon as they pick up enough
words.
Efforts to teach language to nonhuman primates
support Chomsky's assumption that the capacity for elaborate grammar is unique to humans.
Research on language acquisition indicates that
childhood is a sensitive period for language acquisition.
Recent ideas about language development emphasize
interactions between inner capacities and environmental influences.
Social-interactionsts emphasize that
children's social skills and language experiences are centrally involved in language development.
Around 2 months, babies begin to make vowel-like noises called
cooing.
Baby Greer says "babababababa." This is an example of
babbling.
Babies everywhere start babbling at about the same age, but for babbling to develop further,
babies must be able to hear human speech.
Which of the following is supported by research on babbling?
A deaf infant not exposed to sign language will stop babbling entirely.
Infants and toddlers who often experience __________ sustain attention longer, comprehend more language, and produce
meaningful gestures and words earlier.
joint attention
Infants' play maturity and _________________ predict advanced language progress in the second year.
vocalizations during games
The earlier toddlers _____________________, the sooner they produce two-word utterances at the end of the second
year.
form word-gesture combinations
Which of the following is true about first spoken words?
They usually refer to important people, animals, or actions.
When toddlers first learn words, they often apply them too narrowly, an error called
underextension.
Alice calls untying her shoelaces "opening" her shoes. This is an example of
overextension.
Which of the following is an example of an underextension?
Bonita only uses the word "kitty" to refer to her family's cat.
Which of the following is true about overextension?
Children often overextend deliberately because they have difficulty recalling or have not acquired a suitable word.
At all ages, __________ develops ahead of __________.
comprehension; production
Young toddlers add to their spoken vocabularies at a rate of
one to three words per week.
Once toddlers produce about _____ words, they start to combine two words.
200
Miranda says "more apple." This two-word utterance is an example of
telegraphic speech.
Which of the following is true about telegraphic speech?
It emerges once the child has learned a dozen or so words.
Compared with referential children, toddlers who use an expressive style
produce many more social formulas and pronouns.
Object words are particularly common in the vocabularies of __________ toddlers
English-speaking
In which of the following cases should the parents be concerned about their child's language development?
A 16-month-old has not yet begun to babble.
________________ is a form of communication made up of short sentences with high-pitched, exaggerated expression,
clear pronunciation, distinct pauses between speech segments, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts.
Child-directed speech
Which of the following parent-child activities strongly predicts academic success during the school years?
reading and talking about picture books
Child-directed speech and parent-child conversation
create a zone of proximal development in which children's language skills expand.
Research on deaf children shows that
deaf children of deaf parents are on a par with hearing children in language and play maturity.
The quality of interaction between deaf children and deaf parents is
similar to that of hearing children and hearing parents.
Chang is profoundly deaf, whereas his parents are hearing. What advice can you offer Chang's parents based on research
in your text?
Chang needs access to language models—deaf adults and peers—to experience natural language learning.
Which of the following is true about the role of psychoanalytic theory in modern human development research?
One of the lasting contributions of psychoanalytic theory is its ability to capture the essence of personality during
each period of development.
In Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of basic trust versus mistrust is resolved on the positive side when
the balance of care is sympathetic and loving.
According to Erikson's theory, a mistrustful baby
protects herself by withdrawing from people and things around her.
In Erikson's theory, the conflict of toddlerhood, _______________, is resolved favorably when parents provide suitable
guidance and reasonable choices.
autonomy versus shame and doubt
According to Erikson, a mother who __________ is likely to promote autonomy in toddlerhood.
gives a child an extra five minutes to finish playing before they leave the park
Adults who __________ may not have fully mastered the tasks of trust and autonomy during infancy and childhood.
are overly dependent on a loved one
Emotions
energize development.
__________ offer the most reliable cues regarding which emotions infants are experiencing.
Facial expressions
Basic emotions are
universal in humans.
Some basic emotions are happiness, fear, sadness, and
disgust.
Which of the following is true about basic emotions?
Babies' earliest emotional life consists of attraction to pleasant stimuli and withdrawal from unpleasant stimuli.
During the first few weeks of life, newborns are most likely to smile
when they are full.
The social smile first appears between __________ of age.
6 and 10 weeks
Laughter reflects
faster processing of information than smiling.
Laughter first appears around
3 to 4 months.
As infants understand more about their world, they laugh
at events with subtler elements of surprise.
Around the middle of the first year, infants smile and laugh more
when interacting with familiar people.
When 10-month-old Delia's mother greets her, Delia is likely to display a ____________ smile.
broad, "cheek-raised"
Newborn babies respond with generalized distress
to changes in body temperature
Expressions of _______ are less frequent than _________.
sadness; anger
Which of the following is supported by research on infant anger?
The rise in anger among older infants is adaptive because new motor abilities enable them to defend themselves or
overcome obstacles.
Which of the following is supported by research on infant fear?
The most frequent expression of fear is stranger anxiety.
Stranger anxiety is
less common in cultures where babies are frequently passed from one adult to another.
The rise in fear after 6 months is adaptive because it
keeps newly mobile babies' enthusiasm for exploration in check.
Once wariness of strangers develops after 6 months,
babies use the familiar caregiver as a secure base from which to explore.
Monica experienced depression that emerged or strengthened after she gave birth to her son but failed to subside as
Monica adjusted to hormonal changes in her body and the demands of motherhood. As a result, Monica's son probably
sleeps poorly.
About _______ percent of new fathers report symptoms of depression after the birth of a child.
3 to 5
Research on maternal depression shows that
depressed mothers view their infants more negatively than independent observers do.
Which of the following is true about paternal depression?
Paternal depression is linked to frequent father-child conflict as children grow older.
Some researchers claim that infants respond in kind to others' emotions through a fairly automatic process of
emotional contagion.
Around 3 to 4 months of age,
when infants gaze, smile, or vocalize, they expect their social partner to respond in kind.
Infants use __________ by actively seeking emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation.
social referencing
Orson's parents smile and say "Yummy!" when he tries new vegetables. His parents are using _________ to try to
influence Orson's food preferences.
social referencing
Eighteen-month-old Joey is asked to share spinach or graham crackers with his mom in a social referencing experiment.
Even though Joey prefers graham crackers, he might offer the spinach to his mom if she
uses her voice and facial expressions to convey a preference for the spinach.
Which of the following is true about social referencing?
An adult's voice is more effective than a facial expression in guiding a baby's behavior.
Humans are capable of a higher-order set of feelings beyond basic emotions called __________ emotions.
self-conscious
Twenty-month-old Steffy is firmly aware of herself as a separate, unique individual. Which of the following emotions is
Steffy likely to display?
embarrassment
Self-conscious emotions typically appear
between 18 to 24 months.
Besides self-awareness, self-conscious emotions require
adult instruction in when to feel proud, ashamed, or guilty.
Sayuri, who lives in a collectivist culture, wins a game. Her parents will probably encourage Sayuri to feel
embarrassed by the individual attention.
Maks, who lives in an individualistic culture, gets an "A" on his test. His parents will probably encourage Maks to feel
pride in his personal achievement.
Emotional self-regulation refers to
the strategies children use to adjust their emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity.
Emotional self-regulation requires
effortful management of emotions.
Joan decides not to see a scary horror film. Joan is using
emotional self-regulation.
Effortful control is
considered a major dimension of temperament.
Infants whose parents ___________ tend to be less fussy.
"read" and respond contingently and sympathetically to their emotional cues
_______ have a harder time regulating ________ emotion.
Boys; negative
Which of the following is true regarding emotional self-regulation?
By the end of the first year, Chinese and Japanese infants smile and cry less than American infants.
Thomas became angry after a playmate took his truck away. How can Thomas's father help him to regulate his emotion?
Label Thomas's feelings, encourage him to describe his internal state, and offer a comforting hug.
____________ is early-appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation.
Temperament
Reactivity refers to the
quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity.
Thomas and Chess's New York Longitudinal Study demonstrated that
temperament can protect a child from the negative effects of a highly stressful home life.
Josh is irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely. In
Thomas and Chess's research, Josh would be classified as a(n) _________ child.
difficult
Bindi quickly establishes regular routines, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences. In Thomas and
Chess's research, Bindi would be classified as a(n) ________ child.
easy
In Thomas and Chess's New York Longitudinal Study, _____ percent of the children did not fit any category and showed
unique blends of temperamental characteristics.
35
Most children classified by Thomas and Chess fell into the ________ category.
easy
According to Thomas and Chess's research, __________ children are at high risk for anxious withdrawal and aggressive
behavior in early and middle childhood.
difficult
Which dimension of temperament was identified by Mary Rothbart?
irritable distress
A key concept in Rothbart's model of infant temperament is
effortful control.
Temperament is assessed through
parental reports, observations, and physiological measures.
Biologically based reactivity
differentiates children with inhibited and uninhibited temperaments.
Which of the following is true about Jerome Kagan's research on the development of shyness and sociability?
Most children's dispositions became less extreme over time.
Four-month-old Max is easily upset by new sights and sounds. According to Kagan's research, Max probably has
__________ than a social baby when faced with novelty.
a higher heart rate and a higher cortisol level
Heritability research indicates that genes ______________ to shyness and sociability.
contribute only modestly
To acquire effective social skills, inhibited children need
parenting tailored to their temperaments.
Overall stability of temperament is
only low to moderate.
Long-term prediction of temperament can best be achieved after age 3 because
temperament itself develops with age.
Research on temperament indicates that
the ease with which children manage their reactivity in early childhood depends on the type and strength of the
reactive emotion involved.
On average, ________ of individual differences in temperament and personality have been attributed to differences in
genetic makeup.
half
Research on temperament indicates that
consistent ethnic and sex differences in early temperament exist.
Persistent nutritional and emotional deprivation ___________ temperament.
profoundly alters
Which of the following is true about the influence of the environment on temperament?
Temperament and personality can be understood only in terms of complex interdependencies between genetic and
environmental factors.
____________ involves creating child-rearing environments that recognize each child's temperament while encouraging
more adaptive functioning.
Goodness of fit
Research on temperament shows that
cultural values affect the fit between parenting and child temperament.
Professor Hardwick is interested in the strong affectionate tie children have with special people in their lives that leads
them to be comforted by their nearness in times of stress. Professor Hardwick studies
attachment.
An important criticism of the psychoanalytic theory of attachment is that it
overemphasizes the importance of feeding in attachment.
Toddlers who sleep alone and experience frequent daytime separations from their parents
sometimes develop strong emotional ties to comfort objects, such as blankets and stuffed animals.
The __________ theory of attachment recognizes the infant's emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that
promotes survival.
ethological
Which theory of attachment is the most widely accepted view?
ethological
John Bowlby believed that
attachment can best be understood in an evolutionary context in which survival of the species is of utmost
importance.
In Bowlby's theory, babies in the preattachment phase
are not yet attached to their caregiver.
According to Bowlby, during the attachment-in-the-making phase, babies
begin to develop a sense of trust with their caregiver.
Chris smiles and laughs when interacting with his mother, but he does not protest when separated from her. Chris is most
likely in Bowlby's ____________ phase.
attachment-in-the-making
In Bowlby's "clear-cut" attachment phase, babies display
separation anxiety.
One-year-old Noah follows his mother and climbs on her in preference to others. He becomes upset when his mother
leaves the room. Noah is most likely in Bowlby's _________ phase.
"clear-cut" attachment
According to Bowlby, the _____________ becomes a vital part of personality, serving as a guide for all future close
relationships.
internal working model
Three-year-old Carlisle knows that his mother will pick him up from preschool after snack and seeks her comfort
whenever he is in an unfamiliar or stressful situation. These examples show that Carlisle has developed
an internal working model.
Professor Novak is interested in assessing the quality of attachment between 1 and 2 years of age. Which of the following
laboratory procedures should Professor Novak use?
the Strange Situation
During the Strange Situation, a baby who displays a secure attachment
demonstrates that the parent is more comforting than the stranger.
In the Strange Situation, Sara approaches her parent during reunion with flat, depressed emotion. Sara looks away while
her parent is holding her and displays a dazed facial expression. Sara is demonstrating characteristics of __________
attachment.
disorganized/disoriented
In the Strange Situation, Philip seeks closeness to his mother and fails to explore. When his mother leaves, Philip is
distressed, and on her return he hits her. Philip is displaying characteristics of __________ attachment.
resistant
In the Strange Situation, Bernadette uses her mother as a secure base. When separated, Bernadette does not cry, but when
her mother returns, Bernadette crawls to her. Bernadette is demonstrating __________ attachment.
resistant
In the Strange Situation, Bernadette uses her mother as a secure base. When separated, Bernadette does not cry, but when
her mother returns, Bernadette crawls to her. Bernadette is demonstrating __________ attachment.
secure
An alternative method to the Strange Situation is the ________________, which is suitable for children between 1 and 4
years and depends on home observation.
Attachment Q-Sort
Which of the following is true about the Attachment Q-Sort?
It does not indicate patterns of insecurity.
Which of the following is supported by research on the stability of attachment patterns between 1 and 2 years of age?
Securely attached babies more often maintain their attachment status than insecure babies.
Cross-cultural evidence indicates that
attachment patterns may have to be interpreted differently in certain cultures.
In all societies studied, the most common attachment pattern is the ________ pattern.
secure
Spitz's study of institutionalized infants found that the babies experienced emotional difficulties because they were
prevented from forming a bond with one or a few adults.
Carmen adopted her son just after his second birthday. What can you tell Carmen about the opportunity for attachment?
The first attachment bond can develop as late as 4 to 6 years of age.
__________ is moderately related to attachment security in diverse cultures and SES groups.
Sensitive caregiving
A special form of communication called _____________________ separates the experiences of secure and insecure
babies.
interactional synchrony
Interactional synchrony is
best described as a sensitively tuned "emotional dance."
Compared with securely attached infants, avoidant babies tend to receive ___________ care.
overstimulating, intrusive
Heritability of attachment is
virtually nil.
Infant characteristics do not show strong relationships with attachment quality because
many child attributes can lead to secure attachment as long as the caregiver behaves sensitively.
Parents who discuss their childhoods with objectivity and balance, regardless of whether their experiences were positive
or negative, tend to have __________ infants.
securely attached
Babies develop attachments to
a variety of familiar people.
Generally, fathers ___________ than mothers do.
interact and play differently with babies
Recent surveys indicate that in dual-earner families, U.S. fathers devote _____ percent as much time as mothers do to
children.
85
Research on multiple attachments demonstrates that
mothers in dual-earner families tend to engage in more playful stimulation of their babies than mothers who are at
home full-time.
Research on child care in infancy suggests that
infants placed in full-time child care before 12 months of age are more likely than infants who remain at home to
display insecure attachment.
Research on child care in infancy has found that
the relationship between child care and emotional well-being depends on both family and child-care experiences.
Which of the following is supported by research on child care in infancy?
Mother-child interaction is more favorable when children attend higher-quality care and spend fewer hours in child
care.
Research in diverse cultures demonstrates that fathers'
sustained affectionate involvement protects children against a wide range of childhood emotional and behavioral
problems.
Despite declines in family size, _____ percent of Western babies grow up with at least one sibling.
80
Research on the long-term consequences of attachment security suggests that
continuity of caregiving determines whether attachment security is linked to later development.
Which of the following is supported by research on attachment and later development?
The effects of early attachment security are conditional.
Newborn's remarkable capacity for _______________ supports the beginnings of self-awareness.
intermodal perception
Which of the following is supported by research on self-awareness?
Newborns display a stronger rooting reflex in response to external stimulation than to self-stimulation.
Four-month-old Stewart is shown a video image of himself and a video image of another baby. He will probably
look longer at the video of the other baby.
A researcher places a red dot on two-year-old Raven's nose. When she looks into a mirror, she tries to rub the dot off of
her nose rather than off of the mirror. This behavior indicates that she has developed
self-recognition.
Which of the following is supported by research on early self-development?
Babies whose parents respond sensitively to their signals and encourage exploration tend to be advanced in selfdevelopment.
Veronica has the ability to understand her friends' emotional state and respond emotionally in a similar way. Veronica is
displaying
empathy.
Two-year-old Annmarie tells her mom, "I a good girl." This statement demonstrates that Annmarie is beginning to
develop
a categorical self.
Researchers often study the early emergence of self-control by giving children tasks that require
delay of gratification.
In early childhood, on average, children add ____ inches in height and _____ pounds in weight each year.
2 to 3; 5
X-rays of epiphyses enable doctors to estimate children's
skeletal age.
Which child is most likely to get his or her permanent teeth first?
Brooke, an obese girl
An estimated 30 percent of U.S. preschoolers have ____________, a figure that rises to 60 percent by age 18.
tooth decay
Between ages 2 and 6, the brain increases from ______ percent of its adult weight to _____ percent.
70; 90
EEG and fMRI measures of neural activity in various cortical regions reveal
especially rapid growth from early to middle childhood in the frontal lobe.
For most children, the left cerebral hemisphere
is especially active between 3 and 6 years and then levels off.
In contrast to activity in the left hemisphere, activity in the right cerebral hemisphere
increases steadily throughout early and middle childhood.
_______ skills increase at an astonishing pace in early childhood. In contrast, ______ skills develop gradually over
childhood and adolescence.
Language; spatial
Which of the following is supported by research on brain lateralization and handedness?
A strong hand preference reflects the individual's dominant cerebral hemisphere.
_______ may profoundly affect handedness.
Prenatal events
Which of the following is true regarding handedness?
Left-handedness occurs more frequently among severely retarded and mentally ill people than in the general
population.
Research on handedness demonstrates that
most left-handers have no developmental problems.
The _____________ aids in balance and control of body movement.
cerebellum
Fibers linking the __________ to the __________ grow and myelinate from birth through the preschool years,
contributing to dramatic gains in motor coordination.
cerebellum; cerebral cortex
Casey suffered damage to his cerebellum. Casey will most likely display both _______ and __________ deficits.
motor; cognitive
Myelinization of the __________ throughout childhood and into adolescence contributes to improvements in sustained,
controlled attention.
reticular formation
An inner-brain structure called the ____________ plays a vital role in memory and spatial awareness.
hippocampus
The ___________, located at the base of the brain, plays a critical role by releasing two hormones that induce growth.
pituitary gland
____________ is necessary for development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and the genitals.
Growth hormone
Thyroid-stimulating hormone prompts the thyroid gland in the neck to release __________, which is necessary for brain
development and for growth hormone to have its full impact on body size.
thyroxine
Juan, who suffers from extreme emotional deprivation, is very short in stature, and has decreased GH secretion, an
immature skeletal age, and serious adjustment problems. He most likely has
psychosocial dwarfism.
When young children with psychosocial dwarfism ______________, their GH levels quickly return to normal, and they
grow rapidly.
are removed from their emotionally inadequate environments
Which of the following is true about lead exposure?
High lead exposure causes brain swelling and hemorrhaging.
Longitudinal research on the developmental consequences of lead indicates that
lead impairs learning and contributes to behavior problems.
With the transition to early childhood, many children
become unpredictable, picky eaters.
Which of the following is supported by research on nutrition?
Preschoolers compensate for a meal in which they eat little by eating more at a later meal.
Four-year-old Erin is a picky eater. How can Erin's parents encourage her to eat a new food?
Repeatedly expose her to the new food without any direct pressure to eat it.
Vitamin C is important to a child's diet because it
facilitates iron absorption and wound healing.
Which of the following statements is true about childhood diseases?
Childhood diseases occur earlier in developing nations than in industrialized countries.
Worldwide, _____ percent of deaths of children under age 5 are due to infectious diseases.
70
__________, often caused by unsafe water and contaminated foods, leads to nearly two million childhood deaths each
year.
Diarrhea
Bullous lives in a shantytown. His parents can decrease the risks of persistent diarrhea by
administering oral rehydration therapy when he is sick and giving him a regular zinc supplement.
Oral rehydration therapy
saves the lives of millions of children every year.
Developmental impairments and deaths due to diarrhea can be prevented with oral rehydration therapy, which consists of
a solution of glucose, salt, and water.
In industrialized nations, childhood diseases have declined dramatically during the past half century, largely as the result
of
widespread immunization of infants and young children.
About _____ percent of U.S. preschoolers lack essential immunizations.
23
Which of the following is one reason the United States lags behind Denmark, Norway, Great Britain, Sweden, the
Netherlands, and Canada in immunizations?
Many American children do not have access to the health care they need.
__________ are the leading cause of childhood death in industrialized countries.
Unintentional injuries
In the United States, nearly ______ percent of childhood deaths and ______ percent of adolescent deaths result from
injuries.
35; 50
In the United States, __________ are the leading cause of death among children more than 1 year old.
motor vehicle collisions
Boys are _____ times more likely to be injured than girls.
1.5
_______________ are strongly associated with childhood injury.
Poverty, single parenthood, and low parental education
Which of the following is supported by research on childhood injuries?
North American children from advantaged families are at a greater risk for injury than are children in European
nations.
About ____ percent of U.S. parents fail to place their preschoolers in car safety seats.
40
As children's bodies become more streamlined and less top-heavy,
balance improves greatly.
Most children can tie their shoes by age _____ years.
5 to 6
Children first represent objects and events on paper by
making gestures that leave marks.
When ___________, preschoolers' pictures become more comprehensible and detailed.
adults draw with children and point out the resemblances between drawings and objects
By age 4, most children can
use scissors.
By age 3, most children can
jump and hop.
Research conducted on adolescents in the Jimi Valley of Papua New Guinea indicates that
nonrepresentational scribbles and shapes are a universal beginning stage in drawing.
Preschoolers' first attempts to print often involve writing
their own name.
Which of the following is true about sex differences in motor skills in early childhood?
Girls are ahead of boys in fine-motor skills.
Which of the following is supported by research on individual differences in motor skills?
Parents tend to foster sex-stereotypic physical activities in their children.
According to Piaget, the most obvious change as children move from the sensorimotor to the preoperational stage is an
increase in
representational, or symbolic, activity.
Piaget acknowledged that ________ is a child's most flexible means of mental representation.
language
In early pretending, toddlers use
only realistic objects.
Which of the following is true about the development of make-believe play?
Older preoperational children are aware that make-believe play is a representational activity.
Researchers today believe that make-believe play
not only reflects, but also contributes to, children's cognitive and social skills.
Preschoolers who _____________ are seen as more socially competent by their teachers.
spend more time in sociodramatic play
While playing house, 3-year-old Lindsay uses a straw as a "bottle" to feed her doll. Lindsay has begun to grasp
dual representation.
Experiences with ___________ help preschoolers appreciate that one object can stand for another.
diverse symbols
According to Piaget, the most fundamental deficiency of preoperational thinking is
egocentrism
The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions, is called
animistic thinking.
According to Piaget, magical thinking is common during the preschool years because
young children egocentrically assign human purposes to physical events.
Five-year-old Chaim is participating in Piaget's three-mountains problem. When Chaim is asked to pick the picture that
shows what the display looks like from the doll's perspective, he will most likely select
the picture that shows his own point of view.
Three-year-old Will brings all of his action figures to preschool for show-and-tell because he does not want any of them
to feel bad if they are left behind at home. Will is demonstrating
animistic thinking.
______________ refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of object remain the same, even when their
outward appearance changes.
Conservation
Four-year-old Jasmine is shown two identical tall glasses of water and agrees that they contain the same amount of liquid.
When the liquid is poured into a short, wide container, she says that there is more water in the shorter container because it
is "all spread out." Jasmine is demonstrating
conservation.
Piaget's conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates that preoperational children's thinking is characterized by __________
in that they focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features.
centration
In Piaget's conservation-of-liquid problem, preoperational children are easily distracted by the ________ of objects and
ignore the ___________ between events.
perceptual appearance; dynamic transformation
The most important illogical feature of preoperational thought is its
irreversibility.
Preoperational children have difficulty with ________________, which involves the organization of objects into groups
based on similarities and differences.
hierarchical classification
One reason Piagetian problems do not always elicit responses reflecting preschoolers' true cognitive abilities is that they
contain
unfamiliar elements or too many pieces of information.
Follow-up research on preoperational thought indicates that
Most 3- and 4-year-olds believe in the supernatural powers of fairies, goblins, and other enchanted creatures.
_________ and _________ play a role in the decline of magical beliefs.
Religion; culture
Follow-up research indicates that even though preschoolers have difficulty with Piagetian class inclusion tasks, they
organize their everyday knowledge into nested categories at an early age.
Follow-up research on appearance versus reality problems suggests that young children
have trouble with the language of appearance-reality tasks.
After putting on a Halloween mask and looking at her reflection in a mirror, 3-year-old Maggi is frightened. This is
probably because Maggi
has a fragile understanding of the appearance-reality distinction.
Follow-up research on the preoperational stage indicates that when given simplified tasks based on familiar experiences,
preschoolers
show the beginnings of logical thinking.
Evidence that preschoolers ____________ supports the idea that operational thought is not absent at one point in time and
present at another.
can be trained to perform well on Piagetian problems
Over time, children rely on increasingly effective ___________ to solve problems.
mental approaches
Using _________, children in a Piagetian classroom are encouraged to spontaneously interact with the environment.
discovery learning
In Jody's preschool classroom, teachers introduce activities that build on children's current thinking but do not try to
hasten development by imposing new skills before children indicate interest. This preschool emphasizes the Piagetian
principle of
sensitivity to children's readiness to learn.
In Paul's preschool classroom, children are encouraged to choose activities from a rich variety of materials designed to
promote exploration. This preschool emphasizes the Piagetian principle of
discovery learning.
Which of the following educational principles derived from Piaget's theory continues to have a major impact on
classroom practices?
acceptance of individual differences
Piaget called children's self-directed utterances _________ speech, reflecting his belief that young children have
difficulty taking the perspectives of others.
egocentric
According to Vygotsky, private speech during the preschool years
helps young children guide their behavior during challenging tasks.
Research shows that children more often use private speech when
tasks are appropriately challenging and they are confused about how to proceed.
According to Vygotksy, learning takes place
within the zone of proximal development.
According to Vygotsky, a parent engages in _______ when he adjusts the support offered to the child during a teaching
session to fit the child's current level of performance.
scaffolding
In Jean's preschool classroom, teachers guide children's learning, tailoring their interventions to each child's zone of
proximal development. This classroom emphasizes the Vygotskian principle of
assisted discovery.
In a Vygotskian classroom, assisted discovery is aided by ____________ as children of varying abilities work in groups,
teaching and helping one another.
peer collaboration
Vygotsky viewed __________ play as the ideal social context for fostering cognitive development in early childhood.
make-believe
In Western societies, the role of equipping children with the skills they need to become competent workers is assigned to
schools.
In village and tribal cultures, parents have little need to rely on conversation and play to teach children because
children spend their day in contact with adult work and start to assume mature responsibilities in early childhood.
Compared to their Western agemates, Yucatec Mayan preschoolers
seldom ask others for something interesting to do.
Itzel, a Yucatec Mayan preschooler, is hungry. She is most likely to
decide for herself when and how much to eat.
_____________ refers to shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifying the
precise features of communication.
Guided participation
Information processing focuses on ___________that children use to transform stimuli flowing into their mental systems.
mental strategies
Compared with school-age children, preschoolers
spend shorter times involved in tasks and are easily distracted.
A major reason that sustained attention improves in the preschool years is
a steady gain in children's ability to inhibit impulses and keep their mind on a competing goal.
Which of the following is true about preschoolers' ability to generate and follow a plan?
When parents encourage planning in everyday activities, they help children plan more effectively.
Recognition memory is
the ability to tell whether a stimulus is the same as or similar to one they have seen before.
Even preschoolers with good language skills recall poorly because
they are not skilled at using memory strategies.
General descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation are known as
scripts.
Over spring vacation, Gerald goes to Disney World with his family. When he returns to school, Gerald excitedly tells his
teacher about the trip. Gerald's representation of this personally meaningful, one-time event is known as
an autobiographical memory.
With regard to questions used to elicit children's autobiographical narratives, preschoolers who experience the ________
style recall _________ information about past events.
elaborative; more
Metacognition involves
thinking about thought.
Understanding of __________ is associated with early reading ability.
false beliefs
Children who spontaneously use, or who are trained to use, complex sentences with mental-state words are especially
likely to pass __________ tasks.
false-belief
Compared with typically developing children, children with autism more often
use words to echo what others say and to get things they want, not to exchange ideas.
Children with autism
have narrow and overly intense interests.
Growing evidence reveals that children with autism have
a deficient theory of mind.
Children's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences are called
emergent literacy.
_____________ is a strong predictor of emergent literacy.
Phonological awareness
Three-year-old J.T. understands that 3 is more than 2, and 2 is more than 1. J.T. is demonstrating a grasp of
ordinality.
Mastery of _________ increases the efficiency of children's counting.
cardinality
In child-centered preschool programs, teachers
provide a variety of activities from which children select.
Pramada attends a child-care program that stresses formal academic training. As a result, Pramada is more likely to
_____________ than peers who attend a child-centered program.
display a decrease in motivation and emotional well-being
A central component of the Head Start philosophy is
parental involvement.
One reason that gains in IQ and achievement test scores from attending Head Start quickly dissolve is that many of the
children
enter low-quality public schools.
Which of the following is supported by research on child care?
Good child care enhances cognitive, language, and social development.
Watching educational television programming like Sesame Street is associated with
getting higher grades, reading more books, and placing more value on achievement in high school.
Which of the following is true about computer use in early childhood?
Word-processing programs can support emergent literacy, enabling preschoolers to experiment with letters and
words without having to struggle with handwriting.
By age 6, children have a spoken vocabulary of around ________ words.
10,000
Research shows that children can connect new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounter, a
process called
fast-mapping.
Which of the following statements is true about strategies for early word learning?
Young children take advantage of the rich social information that adults frequently provide when they introduce
new words.
Two-year-old Aidan says, "We saw two deers." Aidan is demonstrating
overregularization.
The practical, social side of language is called
pragmatics.
During a conversation, 4-year-old Maleeka will
adjust her speech to fit the age, sex, and social status of her listener.
Adults often provide indirect feedback about grammar by using _________, which restructures inaccurate speech into
correct form.
a recast
Research on language development in early childhood shows that recasts and expansions
model grammatical alternatives and encourage children to experiment with them.
Erikson described early childhood as
a period of "vigorous unfolding."
According to Erikson, once preschoolers have a sense of autonomy, they become less _______ than they were as
toddlers.
contrary
According to Erikson, one of the major functions of play is to allow children to
try out new skills with little risk of criticism or failure.
For Erikson, the negative outcome of early childhood is an overly strict ________ that causes children to feel too much
_________ because they have been threatened, criticized, and punished excessively by adults.
superego; guilt
Although Freud's ideas are no longer accepted as satisfactory explanations of conscience development, Erikson's image
of _______ captures the diverse changes in young children's emotional and social lives.
initiative
As self-awareness strengthens, preschoolers begin to develop a
self-concept.
Preschoolers' self-concepts
are very concrete.
If you ask 3-year-old Winnie to tell you about herself, she will probably describe herself in terms of
observable characteristics.
The stronger children's self-definition is, the more ________ they tend to be.
possessive
When trying to promote friendly peer interaction in her preschool classroom, Miss Dodge should
encourage compromise rather than insisting on sharing.
___________ are a major means through which caregivers imbue the young child's self-concept with cultural values.
Self-evaluative narratives
Research on cultural variations in personal storytelling reveals that
there are striking cultural differences in parents' selection and interpretation of events told in narratives.
Research examining cultural variations in personal storytelling shows that
Chinese parents use storytelling to guide children toward socially responsible behavior.
Four-year-old Hobie is asked to rate his competence in ice skating. He will probably
rate his own ability as extremely high and underestimate the difficulty of skating.
During the preschool years, high self-esteem
greatly contributes to children's initiative during a period in which they must master many new skills.
Adults can avoid promoting self-defeating reactions in children by
adjusting their expectations to children's capacities.
Emotional competence
is vital for successful peer relationships and overall mental health.
Research on emotional understanding shows that preschoolers
focus on the most obvious aspect of an emotional situation to the neglect of other relevant information.
Studies on emotional understanding indicate that 4-year-old Casey will have difficulty
making sense of situations with conflicting cues about how a person is feeling.
Which of the following is supported by research on emotional understanding?
Preschoolers who are securely attached to their mothers better understand emotion than preschoolers who are
insecurely attached.
______________ contributes to preschoolers' improved emotional self-regulation.
Language
Research on emotional self-regulation demonstrates that
preschoolers know they can blunt emotions by restricting sensory input.
Inhibiting impulses and shifting attention through _____________ are vital in managing emotion during early childhood.
effortful control
Four-year-old Tristan experiences negative emotion intensely. He is more likely than other children to
react with anger or aggression when he is frustrated.
Preschoolers' self-conscious emotions are
clearly linked to self-evaluation.
When 4-year-old Katherine throws a beanbag, her dad comments, "You stood still as you were throwing. Now try taking
a step toward me as you throw." Assuming Katherine's dad regularly gives this sort of feedback, which of the following
is most likely true?
Katherine is likely to show moderate levels of shame and pride and greater persistence on difficult tasks.
Among Western children, when guilt occurs in appropriate circumstances and is not accompanied by shame, it is
related to
good adjustment.
An important motivator of prosocial behavior is
empathy.
Empathy
can escalate self-focused personal distress in some children.
Children who are sociable and assertive are
more likely to help, share, and comfort others in distress.
Two-year-old D'Arcy has parents who encourage emotional expressiveness and show empathetic concern for her
feelings. When another child is unhappy, D'Arcy is likely to respond with
sympathetic concern.
When parents have an angry and punitive style, their children
are often less equipped to show sympathy for others.
According to Mildred Parten, two forms of true social interaction are ________ and __________ play.
associative; cooperative
Follow-up research on peer sociability indicates that
all types of play coexist in early childhood.
Max plays with a funnel at one end of the sand table, while Madison makes a pie at the other end. The children talk and
pass tools back and forth. They are engaging in __________ play.
associative
Candace and Christina sit side by side playing with their dolls. They do not talk or try to influence each other. They are
engaging in _______ play.
parallel
Although nonsocial activity declines with age, it accounts for a ________ of kindergarteners' free-play time.
third
Research on peer sociability demonstrates that
preschoolers move from one type of play to another and back again.
Larissa, age 3, often plays alone. Her parents should be concerned if she
engages in functional play involving repetitive motor action.
Which of the following is true about peer sociability in collectivist versus individualistic societies?
Children in collectivist societies are more willing to include a quiet, reserved child in play than children in
individualistic cultures.
Four- to 7-year-olds regard friendship as
pleasurable play and sharing of toys.
Frank, a kindergartener, says that Pat is his best friend on days they get along. But when a dispute arises, he reverses
himself: "Pat is not my friend!" Frank's parents should
not be concerned because friendships in early childhood do not have a long-term, enduring quality based on mutual
trust.
Research on friendships shows that
the ease with which kindergarteners make new friends predicts behaviors linked to gains in achievement.
Which of the following is an example of a direct parental influence on children's peer sociability?
Maxine arranges for her 4-year-old to play with his friend at the park.
Research on parental influences on children's peer sociability shows that
secure attachment to parents is linked to larger peer networks during the preschool years.
Most theories of moral development agree that at first, a child's morality is
externally controlled by adults.
Truly moral individuals
have developed compassionate concerns and principles of good conduct.
Psychoanalytic theory stresses
the emotional side of conscience development.
According to Freud, children
act morally to avoid punitive feelings of guilt from their superego.
Research reveals that inductive discipline
helps children notice others' feelings and points out the effects of children's misbehavior on others.
Which of the following statements is an example of induction?
"Your sister is crying because you won't give back her truck."
Although good discipline is crucial, ___________ is also influential in conscience development.
a child's temperament
Maureen and Chris, the parents of an impulsive preschooler, can foster conscience development by
combining firm correction with induction.
Current research indicates that Freud was correct that
guilt is an important motivator of moral action.
Empathy-based guilt reactions
can predict future prosocial behavior.
According to social learning theorists, children learn to behave morally
by observing and imitating people who demonstrate appropriate behavior.
Warmth and responsiveness, competence and power, and consistency between assertions and behavior are all
characteristics
that increase a child's willingness to imitate a model's behavior.
Frequent punishment
promotes immediate compliance, but not lasting changes in behavior.
Which of the following is true about the effects of harsh punishment?
A punitive adult is likely to punish with greater frequency over time.
Research on the consequences of corporal punishment reveals that in African-American families,
the more mothers discipline physically in childhood, the less their teenagers display angry, acting out behavior.
Research on corporal punishment shows that spanking is
associated with a rise in problem behaviors if parents are cold and rejecting but not if they are warm and supportive.
Mia bit her brother, so her father would not let her watch TV. This technique, known as withdrawal of privileges,
allows Mia's father to avoid harsh techniques that could easily intensify into violence.
Studies suggest that time out is useful as a disciplinary technique
when a child is out of control.
Martha and Thomas can increase the effectiveness of their parental discipline by
offering reasons for mild punishment.
One strategy of positive discipline is
reducing opportunities for misbehavior.
In contrast to the psychoanalytic and behaviorist approaches to morality, the cognitive-developmental perspective
regards children as active thinkers about social rules.
Preschoolers distinguish ___________, which protect people's rights and welfare, from ___________, which do not
violate rights and are up to the individual.
moral imperatives; matters of personal choice
Four-year-old Ellie is shown two pictures: one depicting a child stealing an apple, and the other showing a child eating
ice cream with her fingers. Ellie is most likely to view
the stealing as worse than the bad table manners.
According to cognitive-developmental theorists, preschoolers
actively make sense of their experiences.
Shelby tells her classmates not to play with Sophia because "she lies." This is an example of __________ aggression.
relational
Marlena teases Jessica by calling her a "do-do head." This is an example of ________ aggression.
verbal
_________ aggression in verbal and ________ forms tends to rise over early and middle childhood.
Reactive; relational
Which of the following is supported by research on sex differences in aggression?
Although girls have a reputation for being both more verbally and relationally aggressive than boys, the sex
difference is small.
Compared with siblings in typical families, preschool siblings who have critical, punitive parents are more
verbally and physically aggressive toward one another.
Highly aggressive children tend to
seek out deviant peer groups.
Reviewers of thousands of studies have concluded that TV violence
increases the likelihood of hostile thoughts and aggressive behaviors in viewers.
Which of the following statements is supported by research on television programming and aggression?
Cartoons are the most violent TV programs.
Which of the following statements is supported by research on viewing television violence?
Aggressive children have a greater appetite for violent TV programming than nonaggressive children.
Heavy viewers of television violence
believe that there is much more violence in society than actually exists.
In the United States, __________ has hampered efforts to regulate TV content.
the First Amendment right to free speech
The V-Chip (or Violence-Chip)
allows parents to block undesired TV programming.
Which of the following is a strategy parents can use to protect their children from undesirable computer use?
Model good computer practices and avoid excessive computer use.
Coaching in __________ is an effective treatment for aggressive children.
emotional competence
In Michaela's preschool classroom, the girls spend more time in the housekeeping and art centers, while the boys play
with blocks and Legos. This is an example of
gender typing.
During early childhood, children's gender-stereotyped beliefs
strengthen so much that many children apply them as blanket rules that should not be violated.
Which of the following preschoolers is most likely to be shunned by agemates?
a boy who wears nail polish
Research on gender typing reveals that
the presence of male sex hormones leads to a rough, noisy play style in boys.
Which of the following is supported by research on gender typing?
By age 6, children spend 11 times as much time with same-sex as with other-sex playmates.
Research on environmental influences on gender typing suggests that parents
have different expectations for sons than for daughters.
The case of David Reimer, the boy who was raised as a girl after a circumcision accident, demonstrates
the impact of genetic sex and prenatal hormones on a person's sense of self as male or female.
David Reimer's gender reassignment failed because his
male biology overwhelmingly demanded a consistent sexual identity.
Research on environmental influences on gender typing shows that teachers
give girls more encouragement than boys to participate in adult-structured activities.
The more preschoolers play with same-sex playmates, the
more their behavior becomes gender typed.
Research on environmental influences on gender typing shows that
boys who frequently engage in "gender-inappropriate" activities are likely to be ignored by other boys even when
they engage in "masculine" activities.
Maria more positively evaluates girls than boys. This is an example of
in-group favoritism.
Mark rates his personality as ambitious, competitive, affectionate, cheerful, and soft-spoken. Mark's responses indicate
a(n)
androgynous gender identity.
Research on gender identity demonstrates that
"masculine" and androgynous children have a higher self-esteem than those with a "feminine" identity.
According to social learning theory, __________ come(s) before __________ in the development of gender identity.
behavior; self-perceptions
According to cognitive-developmental theory, __________ come(s) before __________ in the development of gender
identity.
self-perceptions; behavior
Six-year-old Charlie realizes that his sister remains a girl even when she operates a bulldozer. Charlie has acquired the
concept of gender
constancy
Children younger than age 6 who watch an adult dress a doll in "other-gender" clothing typically
insist that the doll's sex has also changed.
Research on gender constancy demonstrates that
attainment of gender constancy is strongly related to the ability to pass Piagetian conservation and verbal
appearance-reality tasks.
Gender schema theory
explains how environmental pressures and children's cognitions work together to shape gender-role development.
Molly says, "Only girls can be nurses." Molly
is a gender-schematic child.
Nathan is shown a picture of a male nurse. Later, when asked to describe the occupation of the person in the picture,
Nathan remembers him as a doctor. Nathan
is a gender-schematic child.
Douglas does not like volleyball. Douglas concludes that only girls like volleyball. Douglas
is a gender-schematic child.
By middle childhood, children who hold flexible beliefs about what boys and girls can do
are more likely to notice instances of gender discrimination.
The ____________ child-rearing style is the most successful approach.
authoritative
Authoritarian parents
rarely listen to the child's point of view.
Permissive parents
are warm but overindulgent.
Tanner's parents are withdrawn. They make no demands of Tanner and are indifferent to his point of view. Tanner's
parents have a(n) ____________ style of child rearing.
uninvolved
Which of the following is true about the authoritative child-rearing style?
Authoritative parents insist on mature behavior, give reasons for their expectations, and use "teaching moments" to
promote the child's self-regulation.
Bobby is anxious, unhappy, and has low self-esteem. When frustrated, Bobby tends to react with hostility. His parents are
most likely to fit which of the following child-rearing styles?
authoritarian
Which of the following is true about the permissive child-rearing style?
Instead of gradually granting autonomy, permissive parents allow children to make many of their own decisions at
an age when they are not yet capable of doing so.
Uninvolved parenting
is, at its extreme, a form of child maltreatment called neglect.
Research on cultural variations in child-rearing styles shows that
compared with Western parents, Chinese parents describe their parenting as more controlling.
__________ commit the vast majority of child abuse incidents.
Parents
Mothers engage in _________ more often than fathers, whereas fathers engage in __________ more often than mothers.
neglect; sexual abuse
_________ and __________ are at the greatest risk for physical, emotional, and sexual abuse.
Preschool; school-age children
Which of the following children is the most likely to become a target of child abuse?
Cole, a premature baby
Maltreating parents
suffer from biased thinking about their child.
Research on child maltreatment shows that
maltreating parents lack "lifelines" to others and have no one to turn to in stressful times.
Which of the following is supported by research on child maltreatment?
Every industrialized country except the United States and Canada prohibits corporal punishment in school.
At school, maltreated children
present serious discipline problems.
Priscilla was abused by her mother. She does not want to repeat the cycle with her own children. Which of the following
interventions is the most likely to help Priscilla?
developing a trusting relationship with another person
In an evaluation of its effectiveness, Healthy Families home visitation alone reduced only neglect, not abuse. But adding
__________ dramatically increased its impact.
a cognitive component