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ZOOL 2200 FINAL
Terms in this set (98)
Your kidney an example of a(n) _________ in the human body.
________ tissue is specialized for communication.
Bone would be considered to be ___________ tissue.
Which of the following tissue types is found in the heart?
All of the above
Protection is the main function of the __________ system.
Is extracellular fluid found outside of the circulatory system
Which of the following is an example of negative feedback?
All of the above
Which of the following statements is true?
Nuclei contain our genetic code or DNA
_______ synthesizes proteins while _______ synthesizes lipids
Rough endoplasmic reticulum : smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Which of the following types of RNA brings amino acids to the ribosomes?
Triglycerides are stored in the _______________.
Endocrine cells that make peptide hormones, like beta cells in your pancreas that make insulin, have a high abundance of ________ to fold and package their hormones.
_________ have hydrolytic enzymes to break down large macromolecules and act as the digestive system of your cells.
Cells with a lot of mitochondria produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a byproduct of cellular respiration. These cells could contain _______ with the enzyme _______ to convert the H2O2 into H20 and O2.
peroxisomes : catalase
Sperm cells have flagella that need a lot of ATP to produce the whip like motions to move through the female reproductive tract. You would therefore expect sperm to have a lot of ____________ to produce that ATP.
________ are the smallest cytoskeletal elements and composed of actin.
_______are permanent cytoskeletal elements that anchor organelles and help give cells their shape.
_________ are communicating cell junctions that allow small water soluble substances to move from cell to cell.
______ groups are nitrogen containing functional groups found on proteins.
The breaking down of sucrose in the small intestine into glucose and fructose is an example of __________, where _______ is used and _______ is released.
hydrolysis : water : energy
We have enzymes in our small intestine to break down _________ but not _________.
starch : cellulose
________ have a glycerol esterified to three fatty acids and are used for energy storage.
_______ are amphipathic lipids found in the plasma membrane.
Twenty different ________are used to make all of our proteins.
Which of the following is a type of protein?
All of the above
When a protein denatures:
weak non-covalent interactions like hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces are disrupted.
All of the above
Which of the following is made of nucleotides and serves as our genetic code?
________ is a series of enzymatic reactions that occur in the cytosol and convert glucose into two pyruvates.
If oxygen is not available ________ will be converted to ________, to regenerate NAD for glycolysis to continue.
pyruvate : lactate
________ is a series of enzymatic reactions that occur in the mitochondrial matrix and convert acetyl CoA into two carbon dioxides.
NAD and FAD are considered to be co-factors for a number of enzymatic reactions in glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle. They:
carry the high energy electrons and hydrogen released during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to the electron transport chain.
________is a series of proton pumps that use the energy from electrons to pump hydrogen ions from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space.
Electron transport chain
________ is found on the inner mitochondrial membrane and allows protons to move from the intermembrane space to the matrix, which provides the energy to synthesize ATP.
When oxygen accepts electrons and protons from the electron transport chain it becomes:
__________is the making of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors.
Which of the following is a correct pairing of a molecule found in or on the plasma membrane and its role?
Proteins : act as transporters for water soluble substances.
The plasma membrane is selectively permeable and only allows small nonpolar substances to cross unaided. This means that polar, charged and hydrophilic substances cannot freely pass and therefore can be regulated so that there are different concentrations in the intracellular fluid versus extracellular fluid. Which of the following polar molecules is regulated to be in higher concentration in intracellular fluid?
Which of following substances can cross unaided through the plasma membrane?
Which of the following is a type of protein found in or associated with the plasma membrane?
All of the above
All of the above
The resting membrane potential of most of our cells is _______ because there are more _______ than _______ in intracellular fluid.
-70mV : anions : cations
Which of the following would decrease the diffusion rate of oxygen into the blood from the alveoli in your lungs?
both (b) and (c).
When the osmolarity of plasma increases, water _______ red blood cells by osmosis and red blood cells _______. This may occur due to ________.
leaves : shrink : dehydration
If gated ion channels for sodium open on a cell's plasma membrane, sodium will:
diffuse into the cell.
When insulin is released into the bloodstream, cells that have receptors for insulin, like hepatocytes in your liver, put glucose transporters on their plasma membranes. Glucose will use these transporters to enter cells down its concentration gradient. This is a form of:
The sodium potassium pump or sodium potassium ATPase:
All of the above
The sodium dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1), found on the apical membrane of enterocytes, brings in one molecule of glucose into the cell up its concentration gradient by allowing one molecule of sodium into to the cell down its electrochemical gradient. SGLT1 is an example of:
secondary active transport.
Vesicular transport is the process by which cells bring in or release large amounts of solutes or large particles. Which of the following is the vesicular transport method that a beta cell in the pancreas would use to release insulin?
Which of the following statements about skeletal muscle is true?
Many muscles work in antagonistic pairs.
The ________ in skeletal muscle is an intracellular storage site for calcium.
When sarcomeres shorten the _________ shortens.
both (b) and (c)
Which of the following processes in skeletal muscle fibers requires ATP?
all of the above require ATP
Calcium regulates muscle contraction by binding to _________, which moves _______ off the binding sites for myosin on actin.
troponin : tropomyosin
Put the following steps of excitation contraction coupling in the proper order. 1 - action potential is propagated into the T-tubules 2 - calcium binds to troponin, which moves tropomyosin of the binding site for myosin on actin 3 - acetylcholine binds to nicotinic cholinergic receptors on the motor end plate 4 - acetylcholine is released from the motor neuron 5 - cross bridge cycling occurs 6 - calcium channels open on the sarcoplasmic reticulum
When you are throwing a ball your biceps and triceps are undergoing _______ contractions, where they are generating force and causing movement.
Which of the following would increase the strength of a muscle's contraction?
Increase the frequency of action potentials on the motor neuron innervating the muscle.
If your motor neuron fires such high frequency action potentials that your muscle fiber doesn't have a chance to reabsorb calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum before the next action potential, the resulting contraction is called:
_______ is the fastest way muscles have to regenerate ATP but it quickly runs out, while ________ is the most efficient way muscles have to regenerate ATP but it requires oxygen.
Creatine phosphate : aerobic respiration
The white meat you consume when eating chicken breasts is composed of _____________ muscle fibers that are large in diameter, have little mitochondria and low amounts of myoglobin.
fast twitch glycolytic
Plasma is 90% _______, which serves as the transport medium and help carries heat from internal organs to the periphery.
__________ is a plasma protein that circulates in the blood in an inactive form, but gets activated during the last step of the clotting cascade.
Erythrocytes or red blood cells:
are shaped as biconcave discs in order to increase the surface area for diffusion of oxygen
The _________ increases the production of red blood cells in response to the _________ releasing the hormone __________.
bone marrow : kidney : erythropoietin
both (a) and (c).
all of the above.
There is a genetic condition where people don't produce intrinsic factor, which is required for vitamin B12 absorption. Someone with this condition won't be able to produce enough red blood cells and will suffer from:
defend the body against foreign invasion.
________ are agrunular leukocytes that have a single large nucleus. They provide defense against targets for which they are specifically programed.
________ are the most abundant leukocyte in the bloodstream and are the first defenders on scene of a bacterial invasion.
Which of the following statements concerning platelets is CORRECT?
Platelets form a plug when they adhere to the von Willebrand factor bound to the exposed collagen of a damaged vessel.
The clotting cascade:
is a series of reactions that culminates with fibrinogen being converted to fibrin and forming the mesh network that blood cells get trapped on.
The myocardium is thicker in the _________ than the ________, since it pumps blood to the systemic circuit that requires higher pressure than the pulmonary circuit.
left ventricle : right ventricle
Opening of the semilunar valves occurs when:
pressure inside the ventricle is greater than pressure inside the arteries.
Which of the following statements is true of the autorhythmic or pacemaker cells in the heart that spontaneously fire action potentials?
All of the above are true of autorhythmic cells.
The autorhythmic cells in the ___________ have the fastest intrinsic rhythm and therefore serve as the hearts pacemaker.
Cardiac muscle is like ____________ because it has lots of mitochondria and myoglobin and is therefore ________ to fatigue.
slow twitch oxidative : slow
One of the major differences between skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle is that cardiac muscle cannot undergo summation or tetanus. This is because:
L-type calcium channels open at the peak of depolarization causing a plateau phase.
Which of the following components of an ECG encompasses ventricular systole?
During which phase of the cardiac cycle do the atria contract?
During which phase of the cardiac cycle is atrial pressure less than ventricular pressure and ventricular pressure is greater than arterial pressure?
The softer lubb you hear when auscultating heart sounds is due to the __________ closing at the end of ________________, while the louder dub is due to the ____________ closing at the end of _____________.
atrioventricular valves : ventricular filling : semilunar valves : ventricular ejection
Which of the following would increase cardiac output?
Increasing heart rate from 60bpm to 120bpm.
The sympathetic nervous system innervates the SA node. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons release _______ that binds to ____________ receptors and causes:
norepinephrine : adrenergic : enhanced T-type calcium channel opening.
The parasympathetic nervous system also innervates the SA node. When the parasympathetic postganglionic neurons fire action potentials:
all of the above occur.
If you keep pressure the same but triple the radius of a blood vessel:
flow rate would be 81 times faster.
Blood flow rate is highest in the _______ because they are under the highest ______ while blood flow rate is lowest in the ________ because they have the most _________.
arteries : pressure : capillaries : resistance
are large in diameter.
Which of the following factors would cause vasoconstriction of arterioles supplying a tissue?
all of the above would cause vasconstriction.
During exercise, arterioles suppling _______ would _______ due to localized increases in ________.
skeletal muscle : vasodilate : carbon dioxide
The most common type of capillaries are ________capillaries that have small pores between the endothelial cells, while _______ capillaries have large pores between the endothelial cells and are found in the _________.
continuous : fenestrated : liver
Oxygen leaves the blood stream via:
passive diffusion across the capillary endothelial cells down its concentration gradient.
At the beginning of a capillary bed the ____________ of the blood ________fluid and solutes _________ the capillaries, while at the end of the capillary bed the __________ of the blood _______ fluid and solutes _________ the capillaries.
hydrostatic pressure : pushes : out of : colloid osmotic pressure : pulls : into
Which of the following would cause edema?
all of the above would cause edema.
At any given time ________ have the largest proportion of blood in them due to their ________.
veins : compliance
Veins are under ______ pressure so they have ______ to prevent the backflow of blood.
low : one way valves
When measuring blood pressure the pressure reading on the sphygmomanometer the 1st time you hear a sound is the ______ pressure while the pressure reading on the sphygmomanometer when you no longer hear any sounds is the ______ pressure.
systolic : diastolic
If baroreceptors in your carotid sinuses detect a INCREASE in blood pressure and increase the frequency of action potentials to the cardiovascular control center in your medulla oblongata, your cardiovascular control center will do which of the following in order to DECREASE your blood pressure?
Via the parasympathetic nervous system decrease heart rate.
During which phase of the cardiac cycle are the ventricles in systole and ventricular pressure is greater than atrial pressure but less than arterial pressure?
isovolumetric ventricular contraction
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