143 terms

Psych 1

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Geons and "impossible figures"
Visual input is matched against structural representations of objects in the brain
Impossible figures
Impossible Figures
Visual inputs that are not physically possible to create
prototype theory of meaning
(familiar or typical example) we decide whether an object belongs to a category by determining how well it resembles the these category by forming concepts (example: soda-coke)
spreading activation
method for searching associative networks, neural networks, or semantic networks
stroop effect
a demonstration of interference in the reaction time of a task (example: when the word red it written in a blue.
automatization
a process in which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence routine, so that it no longer requires conscious thought
mental rotation
the ability to rotate 2d and 3d images in your head
map image-scanning studies
people give realistic times to picture actions in their head (example: rotation of a 3d image will be rotated about as quickly as it could be in reality)
change blindness
the tendency to fail to detect changes in any part of a scene to which we are not focusing our attention
attentional blink
a brief period after perceiving a stimulus, during which it is difficult to attend to another stimulus
nature of expertise
developing expertise expands axons and dendrites of neurons relevant to skill
more organized schemas, more time organizing than solving: repetition
practice of skill improves performance on that task only
algorithms
mechanical, repetitive procedure for solving a problem or testing every hypothesis, mechanical procedure for solving a problem
heuristics
strategy to simplify problem and generate a satisfactory guess, mental shortcuts (SAT class, which is older-->taller)
representativeness heuristics
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information
base-rate information
information about the relative frequency of events or of members of different categories in the population
availability heuristics
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
framing bias and "spin"
tendency to answer a question differently when it is framed differently
Changing the context in which our attitudes and feelings are solicited can change those attitudes and feelings. Spinning the truth.
natural selection
Variability -there must be variability in genes and traits among t in population so there can be differences in structure behavior Selection pressuresTraits that work well w/ your environment enable you to survive. must be pressure for one kind of trait to be beneficial. Inheritance mechanismPassed down through heredity over the yearsMust give positive trait to children. Lamarckism(Darwin believed) creatures will grow to be more complex over time. Lamarckism (use-inheritance)- Darwin and considered Genetics laterEvolution by natural selection is random with no internal momentum; creates organisms suited only to current environment, not "more perfect" creatures
vestigial structures and importance to Darwin
organisms that are no longer necessary yet we still have (example: appendix) and it proves natural selection because it is a slow process over time (not perfect/ trial and error process)
neoteny
have more child like features as adults and results in slower psychological development
personal vs. inclusive fitness
personal - ability to take care of one's self
inclusive - ability to take care the those around you (example: parents with kids)
kin selection
helping kin with survival/reproduction at the price of your own health/reproduction (example: bees and siblings)
vervet monkeys and calls
have different alarms for different predators, including snakes, leopards and eagles; the calls attract attention to itself and increase chance of personal attack, while increasing the chances of survival for the others; altruistic behavior
taxis
innate response toward or away from a stimulus
fixed action patterns and releasing stimuli
subroutines in a program - a behavior sequence that is coded. A stereotype ritualized behavior that once started will go all the way to the end. FAPs are triggered by releasers, more flexible than once thought, and are now oftentimes called modal action patterns Ex- mother bird scoops egg all the way to nest and doesnt notice when it is gone. humans yawning
imprinting and critical (sensitive) periods
narrow window of time that is opened up around birth and you latch on to the first thing you see (mama). Most developed in birds. have a limited window to learn things when you are born Critical period- first few weeks/months; learning that occurs and you become what you will be
corvid intelligence
corvid birds (crows, jays, ravens, etc) have a brain-to-body weight ratio equal to great apes and only slightly less than humans, show self-recognition in mirror, demonstrate cognitive abilities equal to great apes; ex: make and use tools, use cues to store and retrieve food.
Tryon behavior-genetics study
rat maze experiement. Those who did well in the maze were interbred. After a few generations, the two groups (those that did well and those that didn't) were very divided traits we magnified. Even within a few generations, a complex behavior can be bred for or against and magnified. Can be applied to human intelligence debate BUT it is debatable if this exp. tests intelligence. Maze bright rats tend to be a lot more anxious and cautious and neurosis more likely to be alcoholics. People who are artists and creative people are more likely to have substance abuse and mental disorders. royalty interbreeding: people had hemophelia and mental retardation.
evidence on human infant imprinting
humans do not imprint but at a young age they learn a lot of culture and habits
types of mating systems
Monogamy- pair-bonding Polygamy- one animal has many mates Polyandry- one female w/ many males Polygyny (harem)- one male w/ many females Promiscuity- no bonding arrangement; every male and female for himself Jealousy and violence and female sexual mutilation (in males too)
rationale for sexual reproduction
pass on a combination of genetic material to offspring, resulting in increased genetic diversity. Results in a scramble of genes in the population which aids in evolution and protection against disease.
advantage of sexual reproduction
increased genetic variation in offspring which increases the likelihood of at least one offspring surviving and passing on your genes-if we had asexual reproduction there would be no genetic variety. -protection against pathogens (red queen hypothesis) shuffleing the genome, every new offspring might have a chance to be fit against certain diseases. -no current reason for humans to have sex. (phylogenic intertia)
sexual dimorphism
females are much bigger than males animals exception is in species with proportionally large brains In these species, males compete for females with displays of strength and prowess and tend to be bigger and behavioral displays. Female chose mates based in part on these displays Overt female choice- "I pick you and not you" Cryptic female choice- the ova looks for certain sperm and will not take random one
evolutionary explanations of altruism
-Genetic self interest; if you help a kin to survive and reproduce then you are helping them pass on your genes as well -People want to act altruistically because they want a reputation for being fair and helpful.
evolutionary explanation of sex roles
Male is stronger and more in control to take care of female when she is pregnant or taking care of offspring. male wants to spread seed so wants more sexual variety. sex that makes the larger parental investment per gamete. more choosey
sexual selection
natural selection in which members on one sex compete for reproductive access to members of the other sex Means of competition can be structural or behavioral and often lead to sexual dimorphism. different ways of acting advantagous for the opposite sex. Female selection of males- height, muscular, angular appearance (esp. during ovulation); predictability; gifts; caring during illness; intelligence; sense of humor Male selection of females- youth, youthful features, symmetry
male displays resulting from sexual selection
Males advertise and females are more choosy. Male behavioral displays rams fight, kangaroos box, birds compete with song. Shows good health and musculature and good genes = mate worthy. Male structural displays big useless structures that do not serve many purposes. (big claw for crabs, colors for peacocks) is more dangerous and handicapping than helpful, but shows that they can survive and be strong despite handicap. Female see he has good genes.
incitement and "female choice" in mating
Overt (I chose you and not you) and cryptic (ova looks for sperm) Testing of prospective mates (predominance of female choice)
cryptic female choice
the ability of a female in receipt of sperm from more than one male to choose whose sperm get to fertilize her eggs, such as in sea turtles
aspects of human mating system
•Incest w/costs: genetic cost of incest usually overstated; odds of birth defect: 3% if unrelated, 4% if parents are cousins and 10% if parents are siblings
•out-breeding drive and MHC findings: we seek to mate with people "out" of our kin; seek partners who are optimal for reproduction; mating with unrelated partners maximize different allele mixing and creating new allele combinations
•Cryptic ovulation w/rationales: you cant tell by looking at female humans whether they are ovulating or not.
•Mate guarding: a behavior displayed by an individual that reduces the opportunity for that individual's mate to interact with potential mates.
•Mating criteria:
•Incitement & flirting: incitement is an act of urging on or spurring on or rousing to action or instigating.
kinsey survey
first important survey of human sexuality; involved a large, nonrandom sample and the self-reporting made it unreliable; noted a great variation in human sexual behavior; used a scale of 1 to 6 to determine levels of homosexuality, with 0 being heterosexual, 3 being bisexual and 6 being homosexual
Helen Fisher's phases of love and related neurochemicals
1.LUST- looking around, driven by hormones
2.ATTRACTION-loss of sleep/appetite, driven by dopamine, norepenephrin and epinephrin. "falling in love"
3.ATTACHMENT- develop a bond, less attraction, feeling of belonging, driven by oxycotin (released during orgasm/by body thru milk) & higher levels of vasopressin in monogamous species
sexual orientation and possible determinants
Heterosexuality: >90% population Gay males = four percent Gay females: 2 percent Bisexual: ambiguous definitions: unmeasurable amount of people. Present in human and nonhuman species (natural because it occurs in nature) Determinants- Females- exposed to higher than usual levels of prenatal androgens Males- may be an x-linked trait that promotes fertility in females; each older biological brother raises chance of being gay by 33%; may have greater prenatal androgen exposure (more partners, larger genitalia, more masculine auditory) Discredited: Family relations (Freudian theory)- rejecting or weak father and Early experience- sexual segregation or behavior (imprinting; abuse or play)
"correlated variations" with sexual orientation (finger length etc.)
Exposure to higher-than-usual levels of prenatal androgens may contribute to homosexual orientation
Otoacoustic emissions differ with sexual orientation
In women with a homosexual orientation, right-hand 2D:4D finger lengths are lower (more like those of men)
"gaydar" and sexual-orientation stereotypes
thinking someone can determine the sexual orientation of another male by just looking at him and basing his behavior and actions off of stereotypes (way they walk, dress, talk, and stand) (complete bs)
organizing effects of androgens and estrogens
occur mostly at the sensitive stage of development. determine whether the brain and body will develop female or male characteristics (drugs interfere with this), androgens: male hormones (including testosterone) that activate the genes responsible for growth of facial hair in men
estrogens: female hormones (including estradiol) that activate the genes responsible for breast development in women
organizing effects: the organizing of sex hormones occur mostly at a sensitive stage of development-shortly before and after birth in rats and well before birth in humans; they determine whether the brain and body will develop female or male characteristics
sensitive period in sexual differentiation
When hormones determine whether an embryo develops a male or female anatomy. A high level of testosterone causes the external genitals to develop the male pattern, and a low level leads to the female pattern. Estradiol produces important effects on the internal organs, but it has little effect on the external genitalia
sexual dimorphic nucleus
located in MPOA, 2-3X larger in men.
male sexual activy is related to its size
size depends on prenatal exposure to testosterone
Activating Effects of sex hormones on
human sexual function, motivation,
attraction, parenting
temporary, activate sexual behavior, testosterone makes guy more motivated than girls, and more parent-like, more attraction and sexual interest.
What partners seek in mates
men and women prefer a healthy, intelligent, honest, physically attractive mate; each sex is attracted to faces most like their own
women want a good provider and are more likely to reject a man because of his smell (less attracted to a man with odor odor too similar to her own) height, muscular, angular appearance, predictability, girls, caring during illness, intelligence & sense of humor
men prefer younger mates (young women remain fertile longer); youthful features; symmetry, hourglass figure
Sex differences in jealousy
women report more distress when thinking about their partner in love with someone else, men report more distress when thinking about their parter having sexual relations with someone else
Gender identity
perception of one's gender and the behavior that is associated with that gender
Hermaphroditism
A condition in which an individual has both female and male gonads and functions as both a male and female in sexual reproduction by producing both sperm and eggs.
Common types of intersexes
1) "Congenital adrenal hyperplasia" is an overdevelopment of the adrenal glands from birth. Extra testosterone is secreted which causes a masculinization of the external genital in females
2) "Androgen insensitivity/testicular feminization" is a condition in which a genetic male has a gene that prevents testosterone from binding to its receptors leading to an appearance that partly or completely resembles a female
How should intersexed people be reared?
1. Be completely honest
2. Identify as male or female using external appearance
3. Rear child as consistently as possible but know that they may be sexually oriented toward males, females, both or neither
4. Do NOT get surgery
Genetic and evolutionary hypotheses about
sexual orientation
EARLY HYPOTHESIS: Family relations (Freudian theory).
Rejecting, punitive father.
Felt he could never live up to father, so became feminine.
Weak father, domineering mother: evidence suggests reversal of cause-and-effect.
Wanted to be like dominating figure.
Early experience:Sexual segregation.
When dad finds out you're gay and leaves psychologically so you become gay.
Early sexual behavior ("imprinting").
Seduction / abuse by older male.
Early same-sex play .
Molestaion at a young age or abuse is discredited. (first thought to cause being gay).
MODERN HYPOTHESIS:Females: Exposure to higher-than-usual levels of prenatal androgens may contribute to homosexual orientation ( higher chance of being lesbian).
Otoacoustic emissions differ with sexual orientation (Show a masculinized profile compared to the actual female.)
In women with a homosexual orientation, right-hand 2D:4D finger lengths are lower (more like those of men).
Males:
May be an X-linked trait (region Xq28) that promotes fertility in females; no comparable gene isolated for females.
Each older biological (not step-) brother raises the probability of homosexual orientation by 33%.
But men with a homosexual orientation may have received greater prenatal androgen exposure:(more "masculine" auditory evoked potentials)
larger genitalia
more sexual partners than heterosexual men or women of either orientation.
mixed results on right-hand 2D:4D finger lengths
James-Lange Theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Schachter-Singer Theory
cognitive theory of emotion; similar to James-Lange theory, emotions are the product of physiological reactions, but interpretation of the physiological arousal is determined by the cognition we attach to a situation, leading to emotion
Nature of polygraph w/rationale
"Lie-detector test"
Records sympathetic nervous system arousal, as measured by blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, and electrical conduction of the skin. The assumption is that when people lie, they feel nervous and therefore increase their sympathetic nervous system arousal. Often, the accused person will confess because they think they will be given away, however, it is generally regarded as too uncertain for important decisions
Influences on happiness
Age and gender are relatively unimportant
Money only increases happiness among the poor
People are happier in countries where individual rights and economic opportunities are available
Social relationships are an important source of happiness
•Married people are happier than unmarried people
•Contact with friends is associated with more life satisfaction
Epigenetic landscape (Conrad Waddington)
outgoingness can be changed but height is very hard to change from birth to maturity, once you are born that's it for height you get more proportional as you age so you change, there are humps that you can get over based on the plasticity of the situation and change like outgoingness
"Nature-nurture" problem
the debate in psychology about the relative influences of genetics (nature) and environment (nurture) in determining behavior
Epigenetic inheritance
modification during one cell's life (either the sperm or egg) that permanently alters the expression of genes; changes expression, but not genes themselves, so may or may not affect future generations
Identical vs. fraternal twins
Identical = monozygotic (literally "one egg" twins; twins who develop from the same fertilized egg; sometimes mirror images or gene can be suppressed in one but not the other (not necessarily identical); if monozygotic twins resemble each other strongly then the heritability is high; monozygotic twins resemble each other on average more strongly with regard to hobbies, vocational interests, answers on personality tests, political beliefs, job/life satisfaction, probability of mental illness, consumption of coffee/fruit juices, and preference for sleep/wake times
Effects of drinking and smoking during
pregnancy
decreases brain activity and releases neurons' self-destruct program; with alcohol there's: stunted growth, malfunctions of face, heart and ears, nervous system damage including seizures, hyperactivity, learning disability and mental retardation. Alcohol's moderate deficits include language, memory and coordination. Smoking leads to health problems early in life or they may develop conduct disorder (discipline problems both at school and home)
Capabilities of newborns
Vision/hearing- Newborns stare at some patterns longer than others; habituate to a repeated sound but dishabituate to a slightly different sound, indicating that they hear a difference Memory- Increase or alter their rate of sucking if a particular pattern of sucking turns on a specific recorded voice and suck more vigorously to turn on a recording of their own mother's voice than some other woman's voice indicating that they recognize the sound of their mothers voice; infants just 2 months old learn to kick and move a mobile and can do it several days later Useful responses are eye and mouth movements; recognize pictures/see differences; habituation/dishabituation; hear differences between 2 sounds; change responses based on previous experience
Cross-sectional vs. longitudinal studies
Cross-sectional study- study of groups of individuals of different ages all at the same time weakness- difficult obtaining equal samples at different ages (20 yr olds vs. 60 yr olds) Longitudinal study- study of a single group of individuals over time; weakness- people drop out as they get older and difficult to separate effects of age from effects of changing society
Cohort effects
Group of people born at a particular time (compared to people born at different times); many differences between young and old people not due to age but to time of birth (a group of people in a particular era is called a cohort and can differ from other cohorts in important ways) Era in which you grow up is one of the most important influences on behavior
Schemas (Piaget)
an organized way of interacting with objects
grasping and sucking schemas in infants, adapt old schemas as we grow older,
Assimilation
Fit practice to theory application of an established schema to new objects or problems (apply old to new) Ex- a child who observes that animals move on their own may believe that the sun and moon are alive because they seem to move on their own
Accommodation
Fit theory to practice. modification of an established schema to fit a new object or problem Ex- a child may learn that "only living things move on their own" is a rule with exceptions and the sun and the moon are not alive
Object permanence and how it's measured
Concept that objects continue to exist even when one does not see, hear, or otherwise sense them Piaget argues that infants in first few months lack object permanence
Conservation of number, volume, mass
the ability to understand that objects conserve different sizes, masses, they are unable to understand that something is the same if it looks different EX pour a glass of water into a longer and thinner vase one might think that there is a lot more water in that glass compared to the original sized one
Erikson's social development model
8 periods/stages
we each have specific tasks to master, each has its own social and emotional conflict
failure to master a task at a particular stage carries consequences over to later stages
Key issues in adolescence, midlife and old
age
adolescence: identity, finding oneself, figuring out the future
midlife: generativity vs. stagnation, producing something important vs. not, reassessing life
old age: feeling satisfied with the way life turned out depends on choices made long ago
Temperament
People's tendency to be either active or inactive, outgoing or reserved, and to respond vigorously or quietly to new stimuli Depends partly on genetics. These tendencies are magnified by the environment that we choose to be in. stays consistent throughout life.Monozygotic twins resemble each other in temperament more than dizygotic Usually consistent over age
Relational and physical aggression
• Relational: form of indirect aggression, prevalent in girls. Ex: spreading rumors, gossiping and nonverbal putdowns for social manipulation.
• Physical aggression: type of hostile aggression that harms others through physical injury. Ex: pushing, hitting, destroying another's property, etc
Continuous vs. stage theories
Continuous: people develop continually Stage: when people develop they take quantum leaps (timing is preprogrammed) and things that are learned are influenced by culture EX we all start to walk around the same stage of life
Effects of cloth vs. wire "mothers" and
determinants of attachment
• Good attachment (cloth): sense of security & safety, can explore the world and return when scared, high-quality romantic attachments later and form close friendships and don't fear rejection.
• Bad/little attachment (wire): trouble forming close relationships later on.
Stockholm syndrome
A phenomenon in which a hostage begins to identify and grow sympathetic to his or her captor
Effects of abuse on attachment and
resilience
-a person who is abused often returns to the abuser, accepts the abuse, defends the abuser
-monkeys who were abused as babies could interact in social environment normally until their was a stressor presented
-they couldn't handle the stress/trauma as well
-if a snake or other threat was allowed in the cage with the monkeys, the abused monkeys would curl up in a ball and cling to each other while the others would try to escape
-less resilient
Effects of divorce on children
-Increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems (e.g., low self-esteem, substance abuse, poor school performance).
-Effects worst for boys.
-Effects most pronounced first year.
-Effects may be due more to impaired functioning of parents rather than divorce per se.
-In high conflict families, children likely to be better off if parents divorce.
Primacy effects on social impressions
the first information that we learn about somebody influences our impressions that we have on people more than later information that we learn does EX if a professor makes a good impression on the first day vs if he was dull will change your view on him if he does something that makes you mad
Methods of assessing prejudice
Implicit Association Tests- measures your reactions to combinations of 2 categories (ex- flower and pleasant) and if you respond quickly, then you probably see two categories as related Bona fide pipeline: people look at faces black and white and read words that need to classify as pleasant or unpleasant. These tests show more when people are asked to pay attention race.
Results of Implicit Association Test
(IAT) procedure that measures how fast someone responds to a category that combines a topic with pleasant words or with unpleasant words
ex: pick a black person's face or a positive word such as peace or a white person's face or an unpleasant word like cancer

results:
most white college students responded faster to the combination black/unpleasant and while/pleasant, even though they claimed to have no racial prejudice; on average, older white show a stronger bias than younger whites do; on average, blacks indicated little or no prejudice; women show a strong implicit preference for women over men; men show an almost equal preference for men and women; results of this test are important for showing that even well-meaning people have prejudices that they do not recognize
Internal vs. external attributions
internal: explanations bases on someone's individual characteristics, such as attitudes, personality traits or abilities
external: explanations based on the situation including events that presumably would influence almost anyone
"Fundamental attribution error" and culture
tendency to make internal attributions for people's behavior, even when an observer sees evidence for an external influence
Actor-observer effects
People are more likely to make internal attributions for other people's behavior and more likely to make external attributions for their own
Self-serving attributional bias
Attributions we adopt to maximize our credit for our success and minimize our blame for our failure (ex- cause for good grade is intelligence and bad grade is unfair test)
Self-handicapping strategies
Intentionally putting themselves at a disadvantage to provide an excuse for possible failure (ex- party before test and blame bad grade on lack of sleep)
Factors affecting persuasiveness of messages
Intelligence- easier to persuade less intelligent people of a poorly supported idea but more intelligent people to understand complicated evidence Interest- even if intelligent, won't devote effort to an issue that is unimportant to you; will change emphasis of an ad to something more likely to interest you Forewarning effect- informing people that they're about to hear a persuasive speech activates their resistance Inoculation effect- people first hear a weak argument and then a stronger argument supporting same conclusion, but if rejected the first will reject the next
Salesmanship techniques:
"Foot in the door"- to start w/ a modest request, which the person accepts and then follow it with a larger request (ex- sign petition then donate money) "Door in the face"- someone follows an outrageous initial request with a more reasonable second one "Bait and switch"- first offers an extremely favorable deal, gets the other person to commit to the deal and then makes additional demands "That's not all"- someone makes an offer and then improves the offer before you have a chance to reply (ex- infomercials)
Cognitive dissonance
A state of unpleasant tension that people experience when their behavior is inconsistent with their attitudes, especially if they are distressed about the inconsistency Can either: -change behavior to match attitude, -change attitude to match behavior, or -find an explanation to justify/rationalize behavior under certain circumstances
Factors promoting friendship
proximity (closeness) Mere exposure effect- more often we come into contact with someone or something the more we tend to like the object or person. People generally chose friends and romantic partners who live near them and resemble them Physical attractiveness Close friends usually resemble each other in physical attraciveness. The equity principle. (exchange) Social relationships are transactions in which partners exchange goods and services. Relationships are easiest and best when partners are about equal and contribute equally. feel as if both partners are getting a good deal
Biology and physical attractiveness
In humans good looking means normal - we like normal because it implies healthy. Indicates no genetic mutation. Studies show that facially attractive people are not more likely to be healthier, just to have children earlier. Comparison to birds: healthy and vigorous males could make bright colors of feathers, that's why women like the bright ones.
Characteristics of successful marriages
The partners have much in common and find ways to satisfy each other's needs Have similar attitudes and personalities, have sex a lot and arguments not a lot, adequate income, husband has good enough job to maintain respect, wife not pregnant before marriage, couple's parents had successful marriages. People that date for a long time estimate things about each other and as time goes on, they become more confident, not more accurate.
Equity theories
-theories maintaining that social relationships are transactions in which partners exchange goods and services
like marriage
Asch's conformity studies
Compare different sizes of lines and say which ones were the same in size in a group setting Result- people before said wrong answer and so you would say that too People conformed to an obviously wrong majority
Diffusion of responsibility
-We tend to feel less responsibility to act when other people are equally able to act -the presense of other people doing nothing provides information and influences us to not act.
Social loafing
The tendency to "loaf" (or work less hard) when sharing work with other people Exception- people wiill work hard in groups if others are watching performance,;if you think that others will notice your effort, if you think you can contribute something that others in the group can't, or if giving your full effort will benefit the group more than it costs you.
Group polarization
If nearly all the people who compose a group lean in the same direction on a particular issue, then a group discussion will move the group as a whole even further in that direction Why? Because people agreeing with you makes you more certain/confident
Groupthink
Occurs when the members of a group suppress their doubts about a group's decision for fear of making a bad impression or disrupting group harmony Causes- overconfidence by leadership, underestimation of problems, and pressure to conform
Ways to reduce prejudice
1. Time, effort, attention
o Cant expect prejudices to disappear overnight
o Not excuse for continued prejudice
o Have to understand difficulty involved and work to correct them
2. Avoid biases by becoming informed
3. Learn about and appreciate cultural differences
o Eurocentric society
o Little knowledge of cultural diversity
4. Imagine positive interactions
o Increases positive outgroup attitudes
o Increases positive projections to outgroup
o Reduces anxiety
o Reduces stereotype threat
Basic setup of Prisoner's Dilemma and use
used to see how people work togetherA situation where people chose between a cooperative act and a competitive act that benefits themselves but hurts others 2 people arrested and jail sentence based on if you both confess; if you confess and your partner doesn't, if neither of you confess, or if your partner confesses and you don't don't know what will benefit you more because don't know what partner did most likely to cooperate if both stay in constant communication (ex- US and Soviet Union w/ nuclear weapons)
Milgram obedience study & results
hypoth: when authority figure tells you to do something that might hurt another person, some will obey. The teacher should shock the learner when he made a mistake Participant acted as the "teacher" and was commanded by the experimenter to shock the "learner" 20 out of 40 participants went all the way to 450 volts normal people followed orders from an experimenter they just met, even though they thought they might hurt or even kill someone according to psychiatrists, the number of people who would comply fully in the Milgram experiment was 1-3% "Teacher-learner" study shows that authority can make normal people conform in ways that violate law and morality
Stanford Prison Experiment - basic results
everybody went crazyhad to be stopped after 6 days
Factors promoting obedience
1) experimenter was taking responsibility for subjects harm, 2) started with a small request (15 volts) and progress gradually. 4) more obedient to experimenter to stayed in the room with them than those who left. 5) obeyed if there were more than one teachers (others were fakes),
Kohlberg's view of moral development
moral reasoning is not a set of arbitrary, learned rules, instead, is a process that naturally matures through a series of stages. (6 stages)Moral reasoning shouldn't be evaluated according to someone's decision but according to the reasons behind it
Problems with Kohlberg's view
Moral reasoning not centered on justice: assumed that most judgments of right and wrong depend on justice. Not always justice (natural sense of duty towards others). We sometimes rely on a caring orientation (what would help or hurt others). EX soldiers ordered to kill innocent people. Soldier refuses because of justice, others kill them anyways. In terms of caring would have been more moral to hide them away. Moral reasoning and moral behavior Stating the right thing is not the same thing as doing it. People are moderately similar in answers to hypothetical moral situations and less about real life decisions and elss about actual behavior. people's answers to Kohlberg's dilemmas correlate only weakly with their actual behavior
Psychodynamic personality theories
theory of personality that shares the assumption that personality is shaped by and behavior is motivated by inner forces. Freud's theory of personality boldly attempts to explain the origins and course of personality development, the nature of mind, aspects of abnormal personality, and the way personality can be changed by therapy. The psychodynamic nature of this approach comes from its emphasis on these inner wellsprings of behavior, as well as the clashes among these internal forces. For Freud, all behavior was motivated in some way. Every human action has a cause and a purpose that can be discovered through analysis of thought associations, dreams, errors, and other behavioral clues to inner passions.
Psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
Catharsis
a release of emotional tension
The Unconscious
According to Freud, the unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but nonetheless exert great influence on behavior.
Oedipus complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Stages of psychosexual development
The sequence of four developmental stages from infancy through the attainment of adult sexuality that is considered universal in psychoanalytic theory: the oral stage, the anal stage, the phallic stage, and the genital stage.
Components of personality (Ego, Id,
Superego)
ego: rational, decision-making aspect of personality
id: sexual and other biological drives that demand instant gratification
superego: contains memories and rules we learn form others/parents
Defense Mechanisms (know types)
certain specific means by which the ego unconsciously protects itself against unpleasant impulses or circumstances

1. Neurotic anxiety is the unconscious worry that we will lose control of the id's urges, resulting in punishment for inappropriate behavior

2. Reality anxiety is fear of real-world events. The cause of this anxiety is usually easily identified. For example, a person might fear receiving a dog bite when they are near a menacing dog. The most common way of reducing this anxiety is to avoid the threatening object.

3. Moral anxiety involved a fear of violating our own moral principles
Overall evidence on validity
-much of life is unconscious
-conflicting motives influence our behavior- some of these conflicts trace back to unresolved problems in early childhood
-our relationships with other people can resemble the relationships we had with others in the past, such as our parents (transference)
-people develop through stages of pscyhosexual interest and relationships with the social world
Jung's collective unconscious and archetypes
collective unconscious: the cumulative experience of preceding generations
archetypes: vague images that have always been part of the human experience; Jung pointed out similarities in the art of cultures throughout the world as well as similarities in their myths and folklore
Adler and "social interest"
Freuds early associate. Disagreed because he thought that freud emphasized sex drive. Thought that women were jealous of status and power not penis. People's needs for one another require a social interest, a sense of solidarity, and identification with other people, not an interest in socialization. interest in the welfare of society.
Self-actualization
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
MMPI
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (2), revised in 1980s; objective tests; most widely used object of personality test; originally developed as an aid in diagnosing psychiatric disorders; two versions-adult and adolescent
Empirical method of MMPI development
the MMPI was devised based on evidence rather than theory; wrote hundreds of questions they thought might relate to personality and asked these questions to people with various psychological disorders and to a group of hospital visitors, who were assumed to be psychologically normal; the researchers assumed that if your answers resemble those of people with depression, for example that you as well are depressed
MMPI's detection of deception
There are certain questions such as "I like every person I have ever met" which are meant to detect people who lie to either appear mentally stable or unstable when they are not. When a certain number of questions are "lied" about, psychologists know not to trust the answers on the test
Type A behavior pattern
A behavior pattern marked by a sense of time urgency, impatience, excessive competitiveness, hostility, and anger; considered a risk factor in coronary heart disease.
Cattell's personality research method and
"16 PF"
...
Eysenck's factors
Psychometric Evidence
Heritability
Must make sense from a theoretical point of view
Must possess social relevance
Trait theories of personality
theories of personality that are based on the idea that people can be described and differentiated in terms of hypothetical underlying personality dimensions, called traits, which can be measured by questionnaires or other quantitative means
Barnum effect
tendency for people to accept very general or vague characterizations of themselves and take them to be accurate.
Nature of the "Big Five"
CANOE): Conscioutness (self aware/ self discipline); Agreeableness (compassionate); Neurotacism (focus on bad stuff); Openess to experience; Extraversion (Outgoingness)
Narcissism over time
narcissism correlates with being indifferent to the welfare of others and sometimes aggressive towards others; if we measure self-esteem without the narcissistic tendencies, it correlates with kinder and less aggressive behaviors towards others; in the 1940's, few people answered "true" to the question "I am important" because they believed that important means famous; now, people are more likely to answer true to the question
Projective testing w/rationale
Testing designed to encourage people to project their personality characteristics on ambiguous stimuli
For example, a psychologist might give a child puppets to act out a story about a family
Rorschach inkblot procedure
a projective technique based on people's interpretations of ten ambiguous ink blots, say whatever comes to your mind when shown a random inkblot
TAT
a projective test in which subjects look at and tell a story about ambiguous pictures
Personality and criminal profiling (general
concept)
-fairly unimpressive
-statements are generally vague
-police provided with some incorrect and some correct info
-hard to infer crime and get lots of useful info about criminal
Heredity and personality
-personality does depend on genes, is hereditary
-monozygotic twins more similar in personality traits
-variation due to environment, age, culture, era
Kinsey's basic survey findings (also in
Natural Selection section)
- women are much less homosexual than men
Kinsey and Klein Scales w/differences
kinsey- scale from 0 to 5, 0 being heterosexual, 3 being bisexual and 6 being homosexual; based on a person's present state
klein- scale from 1 to 7, 1 represents the opposite sex only and 7 is the same sex only; considers the past (life up to 12 months ago), present (most 12 months), and ideal (vision of future)
Nature of "minimal group paradigm"
...
Effectiveness of mere contact on
discrimination
merely being exposed to, and forced to interact with, a group about which you have prejudices will reduce the prejudice. However, merely having two groups interact has mixed results. In order for the mere contact hypothesis to work, the interaction between the groups must be structured in a specific way to foster a positive outcome.
Ways of reducing prejudice
Persuasive Communication, Education, Intergroup Contact, Simulation and Experiential Exercises, Therapy