NSCI 300 Test 2

Final exam
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Terms in this set (...)

Fluyt
Holland 16th Century Ship.

Dutch sailing vessel that allowed them to control the Baltic trade. designed to facilitate transoceanic delivery with max space and crew efficiency.

inexpensive and carried cannons, part of golden age of Netherlands.
Quinine
In the bark of the cinchona plant.

First discovered in 1630 by Europeans when Jesuit priests has come across it in Peru, for the treatment of malaria that was ravaging the armies and administrators of British India in middle of 19th century.

Kew botanists desperately tried to obtain cinchona seeds for cultivation in India
Electricity
Is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge.

Electricity gives a wide variety of well-known effects, such as lightning, static electricity, electromagnetic induction and electrical current.

In addition, electricity permits the creation and reception of electromagnetic radiation such as radio waves
Artificial Dyes
William Perkin made an accidental discovery in 1856.

He was trying to convert an artificial base into natural alkaloid quinine, but instead of getting a colorless quinine, he got a reddish powder.

He tried a different base and got black. When he washed and treated the black product, it became mauve, the first artificial aniline dye.

The dye went on sale in 1857. Oxidation of aniline was investigated and elaborated by chemists and a flood of new colors appeared.
Lloyds of Londons
Was a coffee shop where people gathered and news of ships and voyages were read.

Ratings were given to ships before voyages for insurance purposes for investors.

Ship's hulls were classified according to their soundness by the letters A E I O and U, the equipment was described as either G (good), M (middling), or B (bad).

The best rating was therefor AG, and the worst UB.
Solar Energy
Is radiant light and heat from the sun harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, solar photo voltaic, solar thermal energy, solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis.

This is used on a day to day basis in our own backyard on campus using the solar panels to generate power.
Refrigeration/Air conditioning
arose from Gorrie's air conditioner (cure for malaria) due to the British starving because it exported most of its meat.

1880 first frozen cargo was shipped to England. Also, germans were using refrigeration for beer fermentation which was developed by Von Linde and used ammonia as the refrigerant
Limelight
Is a gas-powered spotlight in which a jet of oxygen and hydrogen was ignited with small bits of lime.

Drummond attempts to have limelight used in lighthouses - gas leaks. Popular in theaters - brighter than gas.
Photovoltaic Cells
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect.

It is a form of photoelectric cell, defined as a device whose electrical characteristics, such as current, voltage, or resistance, vary when exposed to light.

Solar cells are the building blocks of photovoltaic modules, also known as solar panels.
Coal tar
was a waste from coal gas.

Which made naphtha, a light fraction consisting of gasoline (hydrocarbons) when mixed with rubber is makes the Macintosh rain coat.

Was eventually used for the 1st artificial dye!
Naphtha/ town gas
The byproduct of using coal as a fuel.

A Scotsman that was looking for this to clean his dyeing machines thought he could find it cheap, because it was getting thrown away.

When he acquired it, he discovered that it will dissolve rubber.

This led to waterproofing clothing
Celluloid
a transparent flammable plastic made in sheets from camphor and nitrocellulose.

Formerly used for cinematographic film.
Bottled/Canned foods
Developed by Appert.

Appert was trying to keep fruits fresh and his discovery help Napoleon feed his troops.

Appert put food in champaign bottles and sealed them with cork and wire cages. He boiled the bottles (not long enough to kill all bacteria though).

The bottled foods led to feeding the navy so they did not have to rely on ports. A man named Duran received a patent from a foreigner that promoted the use of tin in the preservation of food.

Duran sold to Donkin and Hall when Duran realized the tin market in France was no good, but it was in England. Donkin sent a sample to the queen and she approved sparking a monopoly.
Transistor
is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power invented by Bardeen (to which he was given his first nobel prize for).

This invention sparked the electronic revolution (this answer can be found in the video about bardeen)
Light Bulb
designed by Edison, used the sprengel pump for his Vacuum.

His carbonized cardboard filament stayed lit for 170 hours.

It was the final piece of the jigsaw puzzle along with the billiard ball, the zoopraxiscope, and his phonograph. These led to movies.

Some of the things that Edison used to help solve the problem of the vacuums was using metal filaments such as platinum.

In the end of all his trilas with the filaments edison returned to carbon. All of this with the help of the new vacuum by Hermann Sprengel from Germany.
Hardwhick Hall
Still standing today in the English county of Derbyshire. It was built between 1591 and 1597 by Bess of Hardwick.

It was known for its extraordinary use of the material, as 'Hardwick Hall, more glass than wall.' It's glass structure was something England had not seen before.

Glass was usually used for cathedrals and palaces.
Super Conductivity
as mentioned in the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) video amplified magnets used at temperatures colder than outer space to produce superconductivity that bends protons to increase their energy and mass.

In efforts to simulate the big bang theory when the protons collide at rates faster than the speed of light.
Motion Pictures
A series of inventions take place that Thomas Edison puts together to create Motion Pictures.

Light source (Edison uses carbonized paper in evacuated glass to invent the lightbulb).

Gun Cotton - new explosive nitrocellulose. Billiard ball celluloid = film (Kodak).

Zoopraxiscope - First used pictures of horses taken in rapid succession create the impression of movement.

Phonograph (Morse code receiver) Edison's phonograph was the first to be able to reproduce the recorded sound. His phonograph originally recorded sound onto a tinfoil sheet phonograph cylinder, and could both record and reproduce sounds. Edison puts it together to make motion pictures
Zoopraxiscope
An early device for displaying motion pictures. Invented by Eadweard Muybridge in 1879.

It projected images from rotating glass disks in rapid succession to give the impression of motion.

It may be considered the first movie projector. (Kinda like those things in the animation studio at California Adventure)
Chimney
It provided an updraft.

It held support for a building, which would add more rooms to the building, and would create a separation in social classes.

Chimneys also lead to more activity during the winter such as writing, reading and privacy.
Buttons and Knitting
the both occurred by the 14th century.

It made clothing a bit more comfortable and warmer.

The first buttons were seen on the Adamspforte in Bamberg cathedral and on a relief at Bassenheim, both in Germany, near Hamburg (around 1235). The first example of knitting came when the Virgin Mary was shown knitting clothes for baby Jesus.

Both knitting and buttons contributed to more form fitting clothes that were much better at retaining heat. Due to the large change to their lifestyle more children were expected to survive because they could keep warm, which then changed the wills and accommodations for the children were made more often. Life became more refined.
Star Shaped Forts
they were designed because forts with a round tower had a triangular blind spot. there was a clear vision of every inch of the wall eliminating blind spots.

The triangles were built along a line that was a continuation of the angle of vision available to the gun positions on the walls on either side of the triangle.
Pike Square
It was a square formation that could be up to 6000 men.

Each carried an 18-foot ash pole with a 4-foot steel spike at the end. The men moved shoulder to shoulder. They could run and switch directions quickly. They could lower the pikes in any of the four directions.

It was easy to train men to do this vs archery. It was a cheaper method as well. these were replaced by the arquebus
Steam Engine
Is an engine in which steam condenses to create a vacuum, since gas is less dense than liquid.
Bayonet
changed the shape of war in the mid-1700s.

The inventor however is unknown but it was named after the french town, Bayonne, which had a flourishing cutlery-making factory.

In the beginning it took the shape of a broad blade mounted on a short shaft which plugged into the muzzle, which then meant that the musket could not be fired while the bayonet was in use.

Then in 1690 the ring bayonet was created. It was a mounted on a ring that fitted around the end of the muzzle, which allowed shooting the musket and using the bayonet to happen at the same time. It meant that the musketeer would be protected when he was trying to reload the musket.
Rate of Musket fire
According to the connections video, Burke states the rate of fire was 10 minutes per round.

A formation was set in place where the front line would fire, move to the back of the line....meanwhile the second shooter was actively ready.
Wade's Road
Major-General George Wade suggested that garrisons should be stationed permanently in the area for the purpose of keeping an eye on Scottish clans, and that a system of roads should be built to connect these garrisons so that they could be moved quickly in aid of each other when the occasion demanded.

Work on the roads began the following year, beginning with the stretch between Fort William and fort Augustus.

Roads had underground culverts to drain away water in bad weather. The roads surface was made of a mixture of gravel and tar resting on a bed of stones and boulders over 250 miles in 1731.
Plastics
most plastics fall under 6 categories

(Big 6):
low density polyethylene (LDP),
high density polyethylene (HDP), polypropylene (PP),
polystyrene (PS),
polyvinyl chloride (PVC),
polyethylene terephthalate (PET)

Plastics and polymers are made almost exclusively from limited petroleum/fossil fuel reserves
Polymers
are long chain molecules made primarily of carbon atoms strung together like beads

Synthetic polymers can be rigid (like plastic auto bumpers), fluid (plastic bag), strong pvc pipe) or soft (polyester)

Polymers are sometimes called macromolecules (large molecules)

man-made polymers can be called plastics

Polymers are made of repeating units of monomers
Fuel Cells
Allow for the use of Hydrogen energy and minimize heat transfer.

Expensive to produce and unlikely to ever completely replace fossil fuels because we do not have the raw material necessary to accomplish such a task.

The hydrogen needed for fuel cells comes from water, and the water is derived from burning fossil fuels, so even though the energy output from hydrogen is significantly greater than that of fossil fuels, they are still necessary for fuel cell functioning.
Electric Vehicles
are not as eco friendly in the long run.

Pollution is just switched to the electric rather than gas, you still have to dispose of the car at the end of its electrical life.
Large Hadron Collider
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator.

It first started up on 10 September 2008, and remains the latest addition to CERN's accelerator complex.

The LHC consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way.
Thomas Edison
Six rules of inventions:

define the need for innovation
set clear goals and stick to them
analyze the major stages through which an invention passes before it is complete
ensure each member of the team has a clearly defined activity
make data available on progress of project to all involved.
record everything for later examination

Inventions:
Incandescent light bulb
Phonograph with cylinder
Carbon Microphone
Movie camera
William Perkins
In 1856 made accidental discovery at age 18 in search of an artificial form of quinine, using some of the molecular combinations available in coal tar naphtha... black sludge turned out to be the first aniline dye.... mauve dye;

went on sale in 1875; at age 19, he became a millionaire.

Retired at age 36 to devote himself to pure science. (Coal tar, the major source of his raw material, was an abundant by-product of the process for making coal gas and coke.)
Nikola Tesla
Siberian Inventor, electrical engineer, and mechanical engineer best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

Other key inventions include the rotating magnetic field, tesla coil, and the radio.

Involved in the "electric current wars" with Edison. Ac eventually won out because it could transmit power much farther distances. All work done for the transistor and radio were based on the work done previously by Tesla. He designed and implemented the hydro-electric dam on Niagara Falls.
John Gorrie
He came up with how to keep from getting yellow fever and Malaria.

He said to drain the swamps and if you could not drain the swamp to put netting up around your bed. Also to blow up explosives in the air.

What exactly was causing Malaria and yellow fever was the mosquito's. They were getting rid of the mosquito's and had no idea.

a doctor whose ideas led to the invention of air conditioners and refrigerators.
Carl Von Linde
used ammonia refrigerators instead of air.

He didn't invent refrigeration system, but he was the first to make it work.

Modern fridges basically use the same systems that he made
Albert Einstein
Born in 1879 in Germany. Was a theoretical physicist and philosopher of science.

While working in the swiss patents office, he was working on the behavior of light. He discovered the speed of light and concluded nothing was faster. With this epiphany, he challenged Newtons ideas of gravity because Newton stated that gravity enacted instantaneously and Einstein knew this was impossible as nothing is faster than the speed of light.

So came Einstein's theory of relativity which states space is in fact a space-time fabric and masses cause indents in this fabric and followed the curvature around the mass. He then stated that if the sun was destroyed the earth would not spin out of its orbit instantaneously but would take the same time as the speed of light.

This change in gravity (if sun was destroyed) would emanate outward from where the sun had been in waves similar to those waves made in water if a pebble were thrown in.
Nicholas Appert
laid the groundwork for the modern world's most useful invention, to preserve food.

Through the process of placing the food in bottles, then sealing with corks and wire cages as they were placed in baths of boiling water for varying lengths of time according to the material to be preserved, Appert learned how to sterilize food.
James Dewar
Scottish Chemist, best known for inventing the Dewar Flask in 1892.

The flask, also known as the vacuum flask, is essentially the invention known as the Thermos.

It was very efficient at maintaining things at a certain temperature. He also worked on the liquefaction of gases, building a machine in 1891 that made liquid oxygen
John Bardeen
worked on developing the quantum mechanical theory of solids throughout his entire physics career.

He was among the handful of American physicists who first applied this theory to real (rather than ideal) materials.

He was the first person ever to win two Nobel Prizes in the same field—the first, in 1956 with Walter Brattain and William Shockley for the invention of the transistor; the second, in 1972 with Leon Cooper and J. Robert Schrieffer for the theory of superconductivity.
Fritz Harbor
is a process used to make ammonia and was originally intended as a way to make fertilizer to enrich German soil to produce more crops and contend with the food shortages caused by the export of German bread.

The process was created by Fritz Haber who made a small proto-type version of a machine to distill ammonia.

The process uses Methane gas, converted through a steam process into hydrogen, and nitrogen, then passing the gases over beds of catalysts and condensing them at high pressure into liquid ammonia which has a chemical formula of NH3.

Ultimately the process was not used for the production of fertilizer as Haber had intended (Bosch upscaled Haber's process for industrial production) but rather, the ammonia was used to make nitric acid, a component in munitions.
Wilhelm Maybach
German engineer and partner of Gottlieb Daimler.

He invented the earliest form of a carburetor in 1892. Similar to Venturi's scent spray mechanism (it's not clear whether he took the idea from Venturi or made it on his own),

he designed his own version of the mechanism to jettison out petroleum in precise amounts.

This new carburetor worked perfectly as an ignition system for what would become the first modern automobile.
Wallace Carothers (Dupont)
an American chemist, inventor and the leader of organic chemistry at DuPont, credited with the invention of nylon.

DuPont wanted to develop a synthetic fiber that could replace it. Carothers and his team tackled this.

In 1934 they pulled their first long, strong, flexible strands of a synthetic polymer fiber out of a test tube. The corporation patented it as "nylon" the following year.

In the course of this discovery, Carothers published 31 papers, establishing general theories about polymers and regularizing the terminology of the field.

He had brought the world not just nylon, but knowledge of natural polymers and how they are formed.
Henry VIII
Devised a plan to dissolve of the all monasteries after having a disagreement with the Pope about his desire to divorce his first wife Katherine of Aragon.

By seizing the monasteries and confiscating their land and wealth he raised a large sum of money to fortify the southern England border and fund the wars with Scotland and France.

Henry was so deliberate with his plan he sent in spies to gather information on all the sinful activities going on in the monasteries.

Whether real or fabricated he used this information as the basis for his condemnation of the church, his actions were often described as a reign of terror.
Gottlieb Daimler
was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist He was a pioneer of internal-combustion engines and automobile development.

He invented the high-speed petrol engine.

Daimler and his lifelong business partner Wilhelm Maybach were two inventors whose goal was to create small, high-speed engines to be mounted in any kind of locomotion device.
Westinghouse
American entrepreneur who funded Nikola Tesla during the current wars.

He rivaled Thomas Edison and thanks to him, AC prevailed over DC. born and died (1846 - 1914).

received teh AIEE's Edison Medal for his contribution to helping alternating current get its foothold in America.
Edwin Drake
He was an ex-railroad conductor and bogus colonel.

He was sent to Oil Creek, Pennsylvania in 1859. He was sent by some Bostonian financiers by a salt miner, for whom this black sludge was merely a pollutant.

He is credited with finding petroleum. With this discovery, it killed the whaling industry.
Thomas Drummound
Created Limelight, Scottish survey, used gas (hydrogen and oxygen) gas directed at a column of lime to make it glow put in a box with lense to direct light.

Spotlights.
Joseph Priestley
Was a scientist by heart. His first interest was that of Theology. He was a great experimentalist, but his explanations were usually wrong.

He investigated fixed air (CO2), which made soda water.

He learned that by heat and other means, he could discover many gases like (HCl, NO, N2O, NO2, NH3, N2, CO, SO2, SiF4, and O2).

He heated HgO to make O2, and he recommended its use in medicine.
Jared Diamond
is professor of geography at the University of California, Los Angeles. And wrote Guns, Germs, and Steel in 1997: The Fates of Human Societies, which won him a Pulitzer Prize as well as Britain's 1998 Rhone-Poulenc Science Book Prize.

Diamond is the recipient of a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship (Genius Award); research prizes and grants from the American Physiological Society, National Geographic Society, and Zoological Society of San Diego.

Diamond's field experience includes 22 expeditions to New Guinea and neighboring islands to study ecology and evolution of birds;his real passion.

Believes that the reason why certain groups of people have more cargo than others is "geographical luck".
Thomas Newcomen
created the first practical steam engine for pumping water; the Newcomen steam engine.

it was expensive + required a lot of coal. could raise as much water in one day as 2500 people could. used Darby's new cast iron
James Watt
was a Scottish engineer who created the steam engine that worked faster and more efficiently than earlier engines.

he redesigned Newcomen's engine to improve efficiency by adding a second cylinder.

it was the power source for the Industrial Revolution
General George Wade
He suggested that garrisons should be stationed permanently in the area for the purpose of keeping an eye on the clans ,

and that a system of roads should be built to connect these garrisons, so that they could be moved quickly in aid of each other when the occasion demanded.
Wade's Road II
The surface was a mixture of gravel and tar resting on a bed of stones and boulders.

Either side of the road was a raised kerb, with a drainage ditch outside it. Where the road ran along the side of a hill, shallow drains were cut diagonally across its surface and floored in stone.

Wade's roads were of exceptional quality, and would have been perfectly suited to the automobile had they not been virtually destroyed by the coaches and horses that were next to use them.

At the time the saying went: "If you had seen these roads before they were made, you would throw up your hands and bless General Wade."
Parts of an Atom
The atom consists of a central nucleus. Electrons, protons, and neutrons.

The electrons have a negative charge (they allow bonding), the protons have a positive charge, and the neutrons have no charge.

You can always tell how many protons and electrons are in an element by looking at its position on the periodic table.

For example: hydrogen is number 1 on the table, that means it has one proton and one electron. Bromine is number 35, meaning it has 35 protons and electrons.
Guns, Germs, and Steel and Geographic Advantage
Geographic advantage was everything when it came to ancient civilizations.

The civilization with the best geographic position would be the most productive/efficient and there for have an advantage over all the rest.

This advantages came in the form of high yielding, easy to grow food plants. This would give them an edge over civilizations who would struggle just to survive.

For example in the fertile crecent in the middle east they had access to wheat and barley which was enough to support a large population and allow for people to work on things other than food production.

In the opposite side is a place like New Guinea who only had bananas and tara roots which spoiled quickly, were low in protein, were hard to plant and and had a low food yield places like this had use every human being for food production and no one was able to specialize in anything other than food production, setting them up for faliure when they came in contact with other civilizations, because they would inevitably be colonized by their more technologically advanced rivals.
Domesticated animals
Most domesticated animals that are used for farming purposes area all plant eating animals most of which originated from the fertile crescent which Diamond explain where agriculture originated from. There is only 14 known animal species that has been recorded to be successfully domesticated.
Internal Combustion
the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.

In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine.

The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy.

The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859. Internal combustion played an integral part in the transportation business and helped catapult the business revolution.
Fuel Cells 2
The concept of a fuel cell had effectively been demonstrated in the early nineteenth century by Humphry Davy.

This was followed by pioneering work on what were to become fuel cells by the scientist Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838.

William Grove, a chemist, physicist and lawyer, is generally credited with inventing the fuel cell in 1839.

Grove conducted a series of experiments with what he termed a gas voltaic battery,

which ultimately proved that electric current could be produced from an electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen over a platinum catalyst.

The term fuel cell was first used in 1889 by Charles Langer and Ludwig Mond, who researched fuel cells using coal gas as a fuel.
Electric Levels
1828, Hungarian, Ányos Jedlik invented a small-scale model car powered by an electric motor that he designed.

Between 1832 and 1839 (the exact year is uncertain), Robert Anderson of Scotland invented a crude electric-powered carriage.

In 1835, another small-scale electric car was designed by Professor Stratingh of Groningen, Holland, and built by his assistant Christopher Becker Vermont , built a small-scale electric car.

In 1835, Thomas Davenport, a blacksmith from Brandon, Davenport was also the inventor of the first of the first American-built DC electric motor.
E=mc2
E = mc^2: The formula used to calculate how much energy is released during nuclear fission and fusion reactions.

Explains why such a small amount of mass can be converted to such a large amount of energy

and why fission and fusi on rxns produce far more energy per gram than other types of chemical reactions., an equation by Albert Einstein.

Energy equals( M )units of mass times the speed of light squared( C2)
The mass "lost" is converted into energy according to Einstein's equation, E=mc2
Because the c2 term is so large (9.0 x 1016), even a small amount of mass conversion, produces a very large amount of energy
Nuclear Energy
The potential energy stored in the nucleus of an atom
AC vs DC current
AC (alternative current) is power that can be increased or decreased with a device called a transformer.

The flow of alternate currents change periodically and as a result the voltage also reverses along with the current.

DC (Direct Current) on the other hand provides constant voltage or current
Electromagnetic Spectrum
light is a form of electromagnetic radiation;

the spectrum consists of

gamma rays (highest in energy and smallest wavelength),
x rays,
ultraviolet rays,
visible light,
infrared,
microwaves, and
radiowaves (lowest energy and longests wavelength)
Greenhouse Effect
its a natural process,

84%of solar energy re-radiated by the earth and is captured by atmospheric gases,

without it life would not be possible, "balancing act" is essential for keeping the Earth at a comfortable temp.,

most important and well known greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide (CO2),

other gases include; methane, water vapor, nitrous oxide ozone and CFC's.
Climate Change
the earth goes through a period of global warming about every 100,00 years

human activity is not the sole or even major cause of the current warming trend but we are probably accelerating and adding to the natural cycle

the rate of greenhouse gases are accumulating in the atmosphere due to human activities is causing Earth to warm at a rate likely to be very detrimental to human and non-human ecosystems alike.
Visible light vs other wavelengths
Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation,

energy that travels through space like a wave and is characterized by its wavelength.

Visible light is the only part of the spectrum seen by human eyes.

Visible light is "white light" but when broken down by a prism it makes the colors of the rainbow. ROY.G.B`IV (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet).

The longer the wavelength, the lower is the energy. The other wavelengths in the Electromagnetic Spectrum, are not visible to human eyes.

There are other insects such a the bee, who can see ultraviolet waves, which would be the next wave on the EMS after visible light.
Thermosets
Thermoset plastics contain polymers that cross-link together during the curing process to form an irreversible chemical bond. The cross-linking process eliminates the risk of the product remelting when heat is applied, making thermosets ideal for high-heat applications such as electronics and appliances. Thermoset plastics significantly improve the material's mechanical properties, providing enhances chemical resistance, heat resistance and structural integrity. Thermoset plastics are often used for sealed products due to their resistance to deformation.
Thermoplastic
Thermoplastics pellets soften when heated and become more fluid as additional heat is applied. The curing process is completely reversible as no chemical bonding takes place. This characteristic allows thermoplastics to be remolded and recycled without negatively affecting the material's physical properties.There are multiple thermoplastic resins that offer various performance benefits, but most materials commonly offer high strength, shrink-resistance and easy bendability. Depending on the resin, thermoplastics can serve low-stress applications such as plastic bags or high-stress mechanical parts.
Fossil Fuels
Coal, oil, natural gas, and other fuels that are ancient remains of plants and animals., A hydrocarbon deposit, such as petroleum, coal, or natural gas, derived from living matter of a previous geologic time and used for fuel., a nonrenewable energy resource that forms in the Earth's crust for millions of years
Gravity: Einstein vs Newton (Video summary)
Newton discovered the velocity of Gravity without ever explaining/understanding what gravity really is.
Einstein discovered an explanation for gravity "General Theory of Relativity" as he was researching light and discovering that nothing is faster than the speed of light.
Higg's Boston Particle
The Higgs boson, sometimes referred to as the 'god particle,' much to the chagrin of scientists who prefer the official name, is a tiny particle that researchers long suspected existed. Its discovery lends strong support to the Standard Model of particle physics, or the known rules of particle physics that scientists believe govern the basic building blocks of matter. The Higgs boson particle is so important to the Standard Model because it signals the existence of the Higgs field, an invisible energy field present throughout the universe that imbues other particles with mass. Since its discovery two years ago, the particle has been making waves in the physics community.
Now that scientists measured the particle's mass last year, they can make many other calculations, including one that seems to spell out the end of the universe.